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University of California. 



Received, ^August, 1898. 
I Accession No.. *fS.Ay^> Class No. 1^ 




y Google 

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Major-Gen. H. T. ROGERS, R.E. 

^ PARv 
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All rightt reserved 

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" It has been the unique destiny of the Greek language to have 
had, from prehistoric times down to our own, an unbroken life. 
Not one link is wanting in this chain which binds the New Greece 
to the Old." — Modern Greece, by Professor Jebb. 

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The object of this book is to give the English student a 
knowledge of pure modern Greek, as it is now written and 
spoken by educated people, and also to make him ac- 
quainted with the more or less corrupt forms of the language 
which have prevailed at different times and in different parts 
of Greece, and which still linger in secluded localities where 
the peasantry have not been in a position to take advantage 
of the gratuitous education now provided by the State. The 
subject of the purification of the Greek language from the 
barbarisms which at one time disfigured it, is well explained 
in a letter of the celebrated scholar Philippos Johannou which 
forms the opening chapter. 

Modern Greek, like many other European languages, has 
only in comparatively recent times assumed the form of a 
single fixed and definite language understood by the whole 
nation, and in this form it differs so little from ancient Greek 
that were a foreigner to address a Greek in the language of 
Lucian, he would be readily understood ; in fact many of my 
pupils, reading with me a passage from a good modern author, 
have asked me whether it was ancient or modern Greek, and 
were not a little astonished when they were told that they 
might regard it as either. It is not too much to say that any 
one who has a competent knowledge of ancient Greek can 
learn to speak the modern language in a month, though of 
course fluency can only be acquired by constant practice. 

The pronunciation of Greek presents no difficulty, being 
perhaps easier to acquire than that of any other language, 
and since the accent of every word is marked, it is impossible 

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to pronounce a word with the accent on the wrong syllable. 
Unfortunately Englishmen pronounce ancient Greek like 
English and totally disregard the accents, so that when they 
take up the modern language, they have before them the 
disheartening task of unlearning what they have been taught. 

Although the book has been written for the use of English- 
men, it is hoped that Greeks will derive advantage from it in 
the study of English. The translation has been very carefully 
made as literal as possible with due regard to the difference 
of idiom in the two languages. 

I have to express my thanks for the assistance rendered 
by H.E. Mons. J. Gennadius, who very kindly perused the 
proof sheets and suggested emendations which were of great 


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A letter of Philippos Johannou upon the modern Greek language . 1 

Arrangements for a journey from London to Athens .17 


At Victoria railway station— From Victoria to Dover— From 

Dover to Calais ....... 20 


From Calais to Paris — A letter of Corals about the French Revolu- 
tion . ... . . . . .24 


At Paris — Dinner — Notre -Dame — The Emperor Julian about 
Lutetia— The Bois de Boulogne— An extract from Hamlet with 
modern Greek translation by Demetrius Bikelas . . 34 


Departure from Paris — Chambery — The vitality of the Greek lan- 
guage; its decline — The ancient and modern versions of the 
Greek Bible compared — A passage of Corals upon the great 
length of time required to form or to change a language — A 

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remark of Gibbon upon the Greek language — An extract from 
the Lausaicon of Palladius, 408 A.D., describing the generosity 
of Father Ammonius — An extract from the Great Idmonarium, 
490 a.d., relating how three robbers attacked the hermit 
Theodore— An extract from the works of Johannes Moschus, 
614 A.D., describing how a sinner, through the intercession of a 
saint, obtained relief by standing on a bishop's head when im- 
mersed in a river of fire in hell — An extract from the Chronicon 
Paschale, 610 a. d., relating how Bonosus was killed — A passage 
from Leo Grammaticus, 1013 a.d., narrating how King Leo was 
assaulted at the church of St. Mocius . . . .51 


Extracts from the preface of S. Zampelius to the Songs of the People, 
containing examples of the vulgar Greek language — Sth Century, 
the emperor Copronymus and the nun — 9th Century, a trick 
played by the emperor Michael the Stammerer on Gazarinus 
the governor of Saniana — The greeting of the people at the 
horse-race to the emperor Theophilus — The empress Theodora 
and her sacred images — The execution of Nicephorus, chief of 
the eunuchs, by order of the emperor Theophilus — Caesar Bardas 
and Basileius — Cross-examination of the patriarch Photius — 
10th Century, a passage from the Tactics of the emperor Con- 
stantino Porphyrogenitus — Extracts from the preface of Cora'is 
to the second volume of his Miscellanies giving specimens of the 
vulgar Greek of the 11th Century — "Words of advice of Alexius 
Comnenus to his nephew Spaneas" — The patriarch Michael 
Cerularius and the emperor Isaacius Comnenus — Extract from 
the first volume of the Miscellanies of Corais, vulgar Greek of 
the 12th Century, a passage from the poems of Ptochoprodromus 
describing his poverty as a scholar — Extract from Ellissen's 
edition of the Chronicles of the Morea, 13th Century, containing 
a description of the conquest of Peloponnesus by the Franks — 
lith Century, a passage from the poem about Bertrand the 
Roman and the beautiful Chrysantza — Arrival at Turin 


From Turin to Genoa — Italy the refuge of Greek literature in the 
14th and 15th centuries — Study of Greek in Italy : Boccaccio ; 

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Petrarch — Revival of Greek literature in Italy due to Greeks 
from Byzantium and Greece : Manuel Chrysoloras ; extract of 
a letter from Coluccio Salutati to Demetrius Cydonius, the com- 
panion of Chrysoloras ; extract from a work by Leonardo Bruni 
of Arezzo, relating how he became a pupil of Chrysoloras — The 
family of the Medici : Cosimo and Lorenzo de Medici ; great 
assistance given by them to the study of Greek — Nicolo Nicolio 
of Florence to whom Boccaccio bequeathed his library — Arrival 
at Genoa ........ 81 


A short account of the life of Dante— Extract from the Inferno with 
Constantine Musurus' Greek translation and Dr. Carlyle's 
English translation — Two extracts from the Purgatorio with 
Musnrus' Greek translation and Mrs. Oliphant's English transla- 
tion—The metres of modern Greek poetry — The Political metre 
—A passage from Rangabes' modern Greek translation of the 
Odyssey, with the original and an English version by S. H. 
Butcher and A. Lang . . . . . .94 


A Greek clergyman from Constantinople — Rule regarding marriage 
among the Greek clergy — Greek monks and nuns — Clerical 
titles — Special title of the archbishop of Cyprus — Decline of 
the Byzantine empire from the 11th century ; attacks made 
upon it by the Seljouks, the Wallachians, and the Normans — 
Salonica captured by the Normans (1185) — Peter the Hermit — 
The emperor Alexius Comnenus — The Crusades — A passage 
from the Greek History of Constantine Paparregopoulos about 
the origin of the Crusades — Passage from The Church and the 
Eastern Empire, by the Rev. H. F. Tozer, describing the 
character of the fourth Crusade — Events preceding the Council 
of Florence — The Palaeologi — Departure of the emperor John 
Palaeologus from Constantinople (1437) ; his magnificent re- 
ception at Venice as described by Sylvester Syropulus ; his 
arrival at Ferrara ; his reception by the Pope — The Council of 
Florence ; its decree — Arrival at Florence . . 116 

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Florence — A letter of Bessarion regarding the education of the 
children of Thomas Palaeologus, 1465 — An inscription on a 
tomb at Landulph in Cornwall in memory of a certain Theodore 
Palaeologus, 1636 — Plethon, Gazes, and George of Trebizond, 
teachers of Greek in Italy — Thereianos on Lascaris and Aldo 
Manuzio ; on Marcus Musurus ; on Vlastos, Callierges and the 
Cretan printers at Venice — A stanza by Zalocostas describing 
the dawn — Some verses on Italy and Rome from The Wanderer 
by Alexander Soutsos — Arrival at Rome . . .140 


Departure from Rome — A passage from Athenaeus about Rome — 
A passage from Plutarch about the disputed derivation of the 
name of Rome — Three extracts from the Physiologos of D. Stu- 
dites (1568), about the spider, the weever-fish, and the dolphin 
— Extract from a translation into vernacular Greek of the Battle 
of the Frogs and Mice, by Demetrius Zenos, 16th century — 
Glossary to the translation — An extract from a poem by Joseph 
Bartselis of Zante, 16th century — Arrival at Naples . . 170 


Departure from Naples — Father Gregorio Rocco ; how he convicted 
hypocritical penitents ; his reasons for there being no Spaniards 
in paradise — The destruction of Pompeii and Herculaneum — 
Dion Cassius' account of it — An extract from the Pastor Fido 
of Guarini with the Greek translation of Michael Summakes of 
Zante made about the end of the 16th century — Extract 
from the Rhetoric of Francisco Scouphos, published in 1681, 
describing the calming of a storm by St. Nicholas — A verse by 
Zalocostas in praise of the month of April — An extract from 
the Tiri-Liri of Theodore Orphanides explaining how the word 
coccyx became couccos — Extracts from two sermons of Elias 
Meniates, 17th century: "Behold, thou shalt conceive"; 
"A little drop of honey " — Arrival at Metapontum 

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Departure from Metapontum— Two passages from the Eliaca of 
Pausanias describing the offerings from Metapontum in the 
sacred treasury at Olympia — Metapontum, in common with 
many other Greek cities in Magna Graecia, destroyed — Sybaris 
destroyed by the Crotonians — A description of the luxurious 
habits of the Sybarites— A Sybarite's visit to Sparta— Taranto 
—A poem on the violet by G. Staurides — A description of 
Taranto — Archytas of Tarentum, the great philosopher and 
statesman — The three dialects now spoken in Taranto — The 
Greek-speaking inhabitants of Italy — Some stanzas of a Greek 
song of Calabria from the collection of Professor Domenico 
Comparetti, with an Italian transliteration showing the pro- 
nunciation — Three Greek songs of Southern Italy ; a short tale 
in prose ; some Greek proverbs of Calabria ; with English 
translations by the Rev. H. F. Tozer — Some modern Greek 
proverbs — Some ancient Greek riddles from Athenaeus — Some 
modern Greek riddles — Arrival at Brindisi . . . 225 


Departure from Brindisi — Animated character of the conversation 
of the people of Southern Europe — The Italian Navy — The 
battle of Lepanto — The Austrian Navy — Lines on the sea from 
The Wanderer of A. Soutsos — Modern Greek poets': Alexander 
Soutsos and his brother Panagiotes ; Count Dionyshis Solomos, 
author of the Ode to Liberty — Specimens of the Cretan dialect 
of the 17th century : extracts from the Erotocritps, a 
poem by Vincenzo Cornaro ; extract from the Erophile of 
George Khortatzi ; extracts from the Boscopoula, a pastoral 
poem by Nicolas Drimyticos — An extract from a treatise by 
S. C. Oeconomos (1843) upon the constant care given by the 
Greeks to the education of the young — A sketch of the life of 
Alexander Maurocordatus and that of his son Nicolas — Greek 
of the 18th century — The barbarous style of the Capuchin 
Thomas of Paris ; extracts from his introduction to the 
Thesauro8 of Alexius Sommevoir — The modern Greek of 
Meletius, archbishop of Athens ; an extract from his Geography 
—An explanation of the first of the Aphorisms of Hippocrates 
in popular Greek by Marcus of Cyprus — The Greek spoken by 

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Levantines — Levantine interpreters — Importance of a correct 
pronunciation of Greek — Extract from the Tiri-Liri of 
Orphan ides, ridiculing the pronunciation of Greek employed by 
foreigners — Three modern Greek Love-songs from the Voyage 
LUUraire de la Grece, par M. Guys (1750) : Franjeskesa, an 
acrostic ; The Tree of Love ; The Sea of Troubles 


A boating-party of Greek students — Intellectual progress of the 
Greek nation in the 17th and 18th centuries — A sketch 
of the life of Eugenius Bulgaris : specimens of his modern 
Greek ; an extract from his letter to the deposed patri- 
arch Cyrillus; an extract from one of his sermons (18th 
century) — A sketch of the life of Nicephorus Theotokes : two 
extracts from his Sunday Commentaries (18th century) — 
A sketch of the life of Lam pros Photiades ; his portrait presented 
by himself to the celebrated Greek patriot George Gennadius, 
now in the possession of the latter's son H.E. Mons. J. Gen- 
nadius, the Greek envoy in London— Adamantius Corals : D. 
Thereianos on his character and work ; some notes on his life ; 
a passage from his preface to Plutarch's Parallel Lives ; a 
passage about Equality from his introduction to the second 
edition of Beccaria ; a passage about the rhetorical ability of 
Socrates, from his introduction to Xenophon's Memorabilia; 
some remarks of his upon wealth and education ; on the educa- 
tion of women ; on music ; his description of the village priest 
of Bolissos, Papa Trechas ; his Pattern of a Lexicon (19th 
century) — Arrival at Corfu ..... 


Departure from Corfu — Passengers on board the steamer from 
Epirus and upper Albania — Solomos' Ode to Liberty with 
English translation by Miss M'Pherson — A sketch of the life of 
Solomos — Poets and scholars of the Ionian islands : Andreas 
Mustoxydes of Corfu ; his letter to Constantino Simonides, the 
notorious literary forger — Corfu the lovely Scheria of Homer — 
Homer's description of the gardens of Alcinoiis, with English 
translation by S. H. Butcher and A. Lang — A passage from 

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Xenophon's Hellenica describing the ravaging of Corfu by the 
Lacedaemonian admiral Mnasippus — The palace of the Empress 
of Austria in Corfu, called the " Achilleion " ; the statue of the 
poet Heine in its gardens. — The river Thyamis — Leukimme 
where the Corcyreans erected their trophy after the sea-fight 
between them and the Corinthians — the Sybota, where the Corin- 
thians erected their trophy on the same occasion — The moun- 
tains of Epirus the refuge of the Greek warriors who refused to 
submit to the Turks — The Armatoles and Klephts — Klephtic 
songs : the song of Sterghio ; the young Klephtic warrior and 
his mother, with translation into ancient Greek by Philippos 
Johannou, and English translation by Edward H. Noel ; the 
song of Nannos ; the last commands of Demos — The Suliots : 
the mountain stronghold of Suli ; the frequent and unsuccessful 
attempts of the Turks to capture it ; attempt of Ali Pasha to bribe 
the Suliot chieftain Tsima Zerva, and the latter's noble reply ; 
the fall of Suli through treachery ; the brave monk Samuel ; re- 
treat of the Suliots with the women and children ; attack upon 
them by an irresistible force of the enemy ; their desperate posi- 
tion ; heroic death of the women ; escape of a small remnant of 
the Suliots to Parga — A sketch of the history of Parga : its sale 
by the English to Ali Pasha ; a song about the sale of Parga and 
its evacuation by the Greeks — Some lines on the moon by 
Panagiotes Soutsos from his Agnostos — The blind singer — The 
song of Liacos — The death of Athanasios Diacos, with English 
translation by Miss MTherson — Lord Byron : extract from 
the Giaour, with modern Greek translation by Catherine C. 
Dodos — "The Isles of Greece," with Greek translation by a 
Scotch philhellene ; Byron's journey to Mesolonghi as related 
in the Hellenic Chronicles ; the freedom of the city of Meso- 
longhi conferred upon Lord Byron — The three sieges of Meso- 
longhi by the Turks : the two first unsuccessful ; its fall — The 
funeral oration of A. R. Rangabes upon the Greek patriot George 
Gennadius : the poem of The Tears by Zalocostas on the death 
of George Gennadius, with English translation by Mrs. Ed- 
monds ; two epitaphs on the tomb of Gennadius — Arrival at 
Patras— Departure for Athens ; the olive -grove of Athens — 
Colonos ; lines upon it from the Oedipus Coloneus, with Eng- 
lish translation by Lewis Campbell — Arrival at Athens . 364 

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"The Recognition," a poem believed to belong to the 10th century 438 



Specimens of the dialect of the Cypriot peasants : The Song of the 
Stag ; The Song of the Cledon ; St. George and the Dragon ; 
The Story of the Ghoul . . . . . .442 


Answers to Riddles, pages 252 to 258 .... 470 

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Dear Mr. Marinos P. Vretos, 

During the eighty years which 
have now passed since the Greek 
nation began to awake from that 
long intellectual torpor into which 
the terrible winter of subjection 
had plunged it, and, as if on the 
advent of a new spring-time, to 
feel a new intellectual life run- 
ning through its various members, 
the question of a common Greek 
language was often raised by the 
learned of our nation, and it was 
natural that it should be raised : 
for how important this question 
is, and how great an influence 
this or that solution of it has 
upon the intellectual develop- 
ment of our nation, any one 
readily understands who reflects 
that language is not only an 
instrument for the communica- 

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tion of our thoughts to each other, 
but also the principal means for 
developing our intellect and in- 
creasing and analysing our know- 
ledge. By means of words, not 
only that which would otherwise 
be undefined becomes defined, 
and the elements of our percep- 
tions which would be otherwise 
unstable are fixed, but also the 
comparison in various ways of 
our ideas with each other is im- 
mensely facilitated, and conse- 
quently the elucidation of their 
various relations with each other. 
Thus the horizon of our percep- 
tions is widened, their systematic 
arrangement is effected, and they 
are brought under one head. 
Words are of service for the 
intellectual work of the mind, 
just as the Arabic figures are for 
arithmetical work, for by means 
of these the comparing and con- 
necting of numbers and the dis- 
covery of the complex relations 
they bear to each other are 
marvellously facilitated. Conse- 
quently, scientific development 
without a suitable language is 
impossible. Language represents 
the degree and the character of 
the scientific training of nations 
and individuals. From what I 
have said it is evident how 
necessary it is to give the utmost 
attention to a language in pre- 
paring it as an instrument which 
is indispensable before any 
scientific study can be pursued, 
and consequently how important 

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r tavn^ ij XPW IS dirairciTai vol 

is the question of the common 
language which is to be accepted 
for our nation. 

Complying with your desire, 
I here set forth as briefly as 
possible a rough statement of 
my view of the question, a view 
which, so expressed, is certainly 
in many respects susceptible of 
development and emendation, 
but which appears to me suffi- 
ciently firm on its foundation, 
resting, as it does, upon the rock 
of reason. 

I think it superfluous to give 
here an historical exposition of 
the different opinions which have 
been advanced by different people 
for the solution of the question 
up to the present day : it is 
sufficient for me to say that 
three principal opinions, each of 
which admits of certain more 
minute differentiations, now di- 
vide the learned men of our 
nation. One section holds that 
the common language of the 
Greek race is already defined, 
specifically at least, by the Greek 
people themselves, that is to say, 
that it is the actual vulgar tongue 
which, spontaneously formed, is 
spoken by the Greek people. 
Another section, despising this 
language as poor and utterly bar- 
barous, think on the contrary that 
ancient Greek should be laid 
down as the common language 
of the Greeks : in this case its 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 


CKTaOy /3adfjLr]Sbv /cat Karcurryj 
yevucrj. 01 5«, Kplvovres rrjv 
fi€v xySaiav yXakro-av dv€7rm/- 
Sctov €ts tj)v €7naTrf/jLoviKrjv tov 
ykvovs dvcwrru^tv Std tc rty 
irTtoyjEiav Trjs vXrjs /cat to 
d/cavovtcrrov /cat dootorov tov 
/3ap/3api£ovTos ctSovs, Tr)v 8e 
dvda-raa-LV Trjs dpxaias e EX- 
XrjviKTJs /cat ttjv €l<ray(j)yrjv 
avrrjs els Tots 8ia<f>6povs tov 
KowioviKov /3tov crx€o~€is dSvv- 
a.T0Vy do~7rdfovTat pka*r\v Ttva 
T(0)v prjdeur&v Svo yv<op,r)v, 
diro<l>aLv6fi€voi ort a7ratT€tTat 
va 8i<nrk<w0rj Koivrj tls tov 
ykvovs yXakrcra, p,r) pjOLKpvvopJkvr] 
p,ryr€ KaO* vkrjv p.-qT€ /caT ctiSos 
<X7TO Trjs x^ 01 "*? ^"l TOCTOVTOV 
<S<rT€ v dTTofiaivrj €ts tov Xaov 
a/caTaA?y7rTOS, SiopOovfikvr) &€ 
/cat pv$fAi£ofi,€V7], ocrov cvSc^Tat, 
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ir\0VTl£0fl€V7]. *A§ €^€TOO-0)/X€V 

e H irpwrrj Twv prjOeur&v yva>- 
/iwv cfvat /ca#' i^/^S dirapd- 


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/cat avnyv Tiyv SvvaT^v /cat 

€U/CoXoV 7T0OS TOV d/>X a *°' / TV7T0V 

t^s yXaxroT/s irpoo-kyyuriv, ko.6- 
upovo~a Trdvra Tvyaiov fiap- 
fiapurfibv €7rt /*ov<p t<£ Xoyy 

OTt €VpixTK.*TCU rj&T) €tS TOt OTO- 

fiaTa tov Xaov kirap\ias Ttvos 
^ vrjo~ov 'EXXr/vt/oJs. 

employment would have to be 
extended by degrees, and ulti- 
mately become general* The 
third section, considering that 
the vulgar tongue is unfit for the 
scientific development of the na- 
tion, on account both of the pov- 
erty of the material and the want 
of regularity and precision in its 
ungrammatical style, but that the 
restoration of ancient Greek and 
its adaptation to the various re- 
lations of every-day life is im- 
possible, embrace an opinion mid- 
way between the two which have 
been mentioned, declaring that 
some common language must be 
formed for the nation which does 
not depart either in substance 
or form from the vulgar tongue 
to such an extent as to be un- 
intelligible to the people, but 
corrected and harmonised, as 
far as it allows of this, on the 
model of the ancient Greek and 
enriched by its wealth. Now 
let us examine each of these 
opinions separately. 

The first of the above-men- 
tioned opinions, according to my 
judgment, is inadmissible : 

1st. Because it would hinder 
the actually practicable and 
simple process of approximating 
the language to its ancient type, 
for it sanctions every casual bar- 
barism for the sole reason that 
it happens to be found at the 
present day in the mouth of 
the people of some Greek pro- 
vince or island. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 


jft') A tore rjOtkev ififldkct 
r)pas cis XapvpwOovSvo-egiTrjTOV 
TroiKikttirdrtov x v ^ a ^ (av Tvmav 
Kal els dSiakvrovs tpiSas. 'Eav 
&v irpeiry va £iri)(€iprj<r(aficv rb 
aovvarov, rr)v avaoTao~iv 8rjkov- 
ori rrjs vtto rd ipeuma rov 
apyaiov koo'/xov rrpb cua>va>v 
Td<^€«n/s ir/ooyovi/ciys r)fi<ov 
yXw-crrjs, Start va dfiekrjo-iafjLev 
Kal avrov rov Svvarov Kal €Vko- 
Aov, rrjs €<f>LKT7Js Srjkovori 
buopdwretos rrjs xvSatas yAaxr- 
o~qs Kal rrjs evKaropdwrov 
StarvTrakrecos avrrjs irpbs rr)v 
dpyaiav ypap.pjariKr\v ; Atari 
va Ka6i€p(acro)fjL€v 7rap€<f>$ap- 
pJevovs rivds Kal fiappdpovs 
rxnrovSy olrives €vko\<os SvopO- 
ovvrai Kal evKoktos eurdyovrai 

&l<DpO<i>fJL€VOL €IS TO. OTO/XaTa TOV 

Xaody a>s p.r) 8ia<f>€povr€S wokv 
twv o-wrjOtav, r) a»s evKokws vw 
avrov ewoov/xevoL ; Aiari ir, \, 
va Xkybifxev Kal ypd<fxafi€V r) 

ypy*> v ypv a * — v ™<H rrjs 

vokrjs — 6 KOpaKas 9 rov /co/oa/ca 
—6 fiaxriXtas, rov fiaxrikia — 
cicetos, €K€iov — 7ras, ira/icv, ware, 
vav — Acs, Actc, Ac/xcv, kkv — 
cAcyoftovv, lAcyoVovv, lAcyo- 
tow, ckeyofiao-foy lAcydVcurtfc, 
tXcyovrow — /cat aAAa ^roAAa 
TOtavra fidpfiapa Kal irapa- 
K€KOfifi*va, r) Kal en /3apj3ap(a- 
T€pay €v<j> 8vvd/jL€$a dvr avrwv 
va Aryco/icv Kal va ypdffxo/xev 
6p6oT€pO) els o€ rov kabv kirixrqs 
fcaTaAiprra, r)y palatal ypaiai — 
rj xoAts, rrjs iroketas — 6 Kopa£, 
tov leo/aa/cos— 6 fiaenktvs, rov 

2d. Because it would involve 
us in an inextricable labyrinth 
of all sorts of vulgar forms and 
in endless disagreement If we 
are not to undertake the impos- 
sible, that is to say, the restora- 
tion of our ancestral language, 
buried ages ago under the ruins 
of the ancient world, why should 
we neglect what is practicable 
and simple, namely, the readily 
effected correction of the vulgar 
tongue and the easy process of 
making it conform to the ancient 
grammar ? Why should we sanc- 
tion certain corrupt and barbar- 
ous forms which could be easily 
corrected and easily introduced, 
so corrected, into the vernacular 
of the people, as they differ 
but little from those now in 
use and would be readily under- 
stood by them? Why, for ex- 
ample, should we say and write 
r) ypyd, r) ypyais — r) rrokr], rrjs 
irok-qs — 6 KopaKas, rov KopaKa 
— 6 Pao-ikias, rov /3axrikia — 

€K€tOS, €K€iOV 7TOS, ITCtftCV, 

irare, rrav — Acs, Aerc, Ac/xcv, 
k£v — ikeyofiovv, cAcyoo-ovv, 
ikeyorovv, kkeyopiaxrde, iAcyo- 
crcurflc, kkeyovrovv — and many 
other such barbarous and mutil- 
ated expressions, and some even 
yet more barbarous than these, 
when we can, in their stead, speak 
and write forms more correct 
and equally well understood by 
the people, r) y/ooua, al ypouat — 

r) 7r6*AfcS, T^S TTOACCDS 6 KOpa£ y 

rov KopaKOS — 6 jScuriAeus, rov 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 


/Sao-iX&w — €K€ivos, l/cctvov — 
viraycts, vwdyo/jLCV, vrrdytTe, 
irrrdyova-LV — Aeycts, Acyoftcv, 
AcycTc, Acyowtv — cAcyo/x^v, 
kXkyecro, cAcycTO, eAcyo/xc^a, 
cAeyco-flc, lAcyovro ; Kat av 8c 
Tt? wjro<f>axri(TQ cvavTtov rov 
opOov Aoyov va BvcnaxrQ t6<tov$ 
tvttovs rrjs a/>X a * as y/oa/*/*aTi/c^s, 
6Wa/*€Vovs €v/coAo)S /cat cv/cara- 
A^tttws va cto-ax^wcriv €ts t»)v 
/cotv>)v rov e EAA^vt/cou ykvovs 
yAakrcrav, va KaOiepwry 8k tovs 
<rvvrjd€is PapPapuorfJLOVS) pkvti 
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€ta>v /cat a^taAvrawe/otoW cy/cvov 
(rJTq/xa. 'EircioS} 17 x v ^ a * a 
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Ofiopfos, dAAa SiaipeiTai cts 
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otov t?)v IIcAowovv^o'ta/c^v, ttjv 

e E7TTaV^(Tta/C7)v, T»)v 'H^t/MD- 

Tt/c^v, tt)v OccrcraAt/cifv, ttjv 
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wm optxrrkov ttjv /cotvrjv to>v 
'EAAiJvwv yAakrcrav/ II/oos to 
ipiarrj/xa tovto Tpets 8id<f>opoi 
dwoK pure ts ctvat 6WaTat, at 

a) Avvdfxcda va KaOuptxno- 


yAoKrcrav /uav Ttva tg>v 8ta- 

<f>6p(i>V T07TLK(OV 8iaX.€KTU)V, 

diro8oKip,d(ovT€s rds konrds. 


irpoTip,r)T€ov ; Ilcas #cAowt 
<rvfi<f>b>vrj<r€i €ts ttjv €/cAoyr)v 
avrrjs ol 8ta<j>6povs StaAc/cTOvs 
AaAouvrcs 'EAAiyvt/cot Aaot; 
tj 8ta Ttvos vopLO0€<rias Ocket 
<mjpL)(0rj r) €/cAoyi}; €7rt tt}s 

fiacnXeoiS — €/c€tvos, €/cctvov — 
waycts, v7rayo/*€V, foraycTc, 
virdyova-iv — Acycts, Acyo/xcv, 
Acy€T€, Acyovcrtv — eXeyojxrjVy 
cAcyccro, lAiycTO, cAcyo/zctfa, 
IA€y«r0€, cAcyovro ? And if 
any one, in defiance of common 
sense, should decide to sacrifice 
so many forms of the ancient 
grammar which could be easily 
and intelligibly introduced into 
the common language of the 
Greek nation, and should sanc- 
tion the ordinary barbarisms, 
there still remains the following 
question which teems with diffi- 
culties and with disagreements 
impossible to settle. Since the 
vulgar tongue is not one uni- 
form language, but is divided in- 
to many local dialects, such as 
that of the Peloponnesus, of the 
Ionian islands, of Epirus, of 
Theesaly, of Chios, of Cyprus, 
etc., how are we to define the 
common language of the Greeks ? 
To this question the following 
three different answers are pos- 

1st. We can sanction as the com- 
mon language of the Greeks some 
one of the different local dialects, 
rejecting the others. But then 
to which of them are we to give 
the preference ? How will the 
Greeks speaking different dialects 
agree to the choice? Or by 
means of what legislation will 
the choice be confirmed ? By 
a majority of votes? Nothing 
could be more absurd than this. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 


T\.€iovo\fn(]<f>[as ; ovSkv tovtov 

aTO7T(OT€p0V. *H KpUTtS 7T€pl 
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rijs €7rumfjfj,rfs dpydvov, oVotov 

thai r) ykQcro-a, cts pjovov dwJK« 

tov vovv • vovs o/iojs /cat dp lO fibs 

ctvat Trdvrrj £cva Trpbs dkkrjka 

Kal aXXoV/Dta. 'E7rt rrjs /x€- 

yakeurcpas Trpbs rovs rwrovs 

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(fHovuis ; dXXa tot€ Start va 

fir) SiaTvinodrj r) kolvy) t<3v 

'EXXiJvwv ykQaxra ert <tv\l- 

<jxovoT€pa irpbs rrjv dp\aiav, 

aTT€K8vofi€vq ocrov irkuovas 

Papfiapvcr/JLovs Svvarai v' dirtK- 

8v0rj \<tipls va KarcurTYJ 71700s 

rbv kabv £*vrj /cat dKardkryirros ; 

I?) Avvarbv vol SoOy Kvpos 

urov €ts irdxras Tas roiriKas 

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ikevdepa r) eKkoyr) ttJs SvakiKTOv 

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'AXXtt TOT€ to 'EXXr/vt/cdv 

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yevos, ov&juav Bkku €%€i 

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ovocatav dekei €\ €L ykwoxrav 

i/cavws 7rXoixrtav /cat irpoarqKov- 

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cts Trkrjprj irapd(jT<wiv tov 
p-eydkov /cat /ca0* r)p£pav 
av£avouevov dpiO/iov twv t€\- 
vikw, €Trun"qfjLOViKiav /c.t.X. 
cvvotwv, cts StaKpuriv twv 
A*7rroTaTa)v avra)v 8ia<f>op<ii>v /cat 
airo)(p<o(r€a>v 7rpds aXXiJXas, €ts 
tXyJ/mj /cat aKpiftrj jjL€Td<f>pao-w 
TttV €/cXc/cto>v 7rOLrjfldT0)V, T(OV 
prjropLKtov, <f>ikocro<t>iK(ov, IcrTOpi- 
KG>v, eirurrrjfwviKiov dpurrovp- 

The decision regarding the most 
suitable instrument for the mind 
and for scientific knowledge, 
which language really is, is 
the province of the intellect 
alone ; but intellect and numer- 
ical superiority have nothing 
whatever to do with each other. 
By its closer agreement with the 
forms of the ancient grammar ? 
But in that case why should not 
the common Greek vernacular 
be brought more into accord- 
ance with the ancient language, 
throwing off as many barbarisms 
as it can get rid o£ without 
becoming strange and unin- 
telligible to the people ? 

2d. It is possible for equal 
authority to be given to all the 
local dialects, and a free choice 
permitted to every one of the 
dialect in which he shall speak 
and write. But in that case 
the Greek nation, and the Greek 
nation alone, will have no com- 
mon language, and consequently 
will have no language sufficiently 
rich and properly formed, capable 
of expressing fully the ideas of 
the great and daily increasing 
number of arts, sciences, etc., of 
distinguishing the minute and 
subtle shades of difference be- 
tween them, and of supplying a 
complete and accurate translation 
of select poems and of the best 
oratorical, philosophical, histor- 
ical, or scientific works of 
civilised nations. The forma- 
tion of such a language is a 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 


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idvtov. C H Stair \acr is yAcixr- 
<nys Toiavrrfs cTvai fj&ya Kal 
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ofiov StaAc/cTwv lav pAXurra 


a>s to rjfi€T€poVj Kal ol cro<f>ol 
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pkviav irdvTtov hriorrjs opO&v Kal 
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twv 7T€7roAtTto'/x€va)V iOv&v at 
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Tt/cryv, 7T€pt€XOVo-av tous /cavovas 
7iy>ds ovs 0</>€tA6t va pvOpt^qrai 
iras 6 deXayv va XaXjj Kal va 

great and most difficult task, 
demanding for a very long time 
the combined labour of all the 
learned and able men of the 
nation, and it becomes an impos- 
sible one, when its intellectual 
forces do not co-operate to one 
and the same end, but are 
divided and subdivided, in the 
effort to form several dialects 
at the same time ; especially 
when the nation is so small as 
ours is, and its learned men but 

3d. It is possible for the pro- 
miscuous use of the different dia- 
lectic forms to be permitted, all 
being regarded as equally accurate 
and serviceable ; but in that case 
every sentence oral or written 
will be a ridiculous mixture of 
incongruous forms, a confused 
and disagreeable medley of 
sounds. On account of the 
immense variety of vulgar 
forms, each of which is con- 
sidered to have equal rights in 
the democracy of the language, 
the construction of a Greek 
grammar, and the regulation of 
the Greek language by rules, 
would be impossible. And yet 
there is every necessity for the 
Greek language to possess, like 
all the languages of civilised 
nations, some common grammar 
comprising rules to which every 
one must conform, whether 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



ypd<fyg 6p$<as rrjv ykwro-av, eiTe 
ofioyevris, eVre dkkoyevrjs. 

'E/c twv pr)devr<av <rvvdy€Tai 
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va xprj<rifi£v<raxrw els ftr/mra 
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pvdovs Kal SirjyrjfiaTCL, wpurfieva 
irpbs SiSacrKakiav Kal Tep\f/tv 
tov oxkov, ov\l o/JLO)s Kal els 
oirovSaiav Kal vxprjkrjv irolrp-iv, 
els eTTurrqfwviKa <rvyypdftfJLaTa, 
els vopjodecrtaV) ^iK'qyopiav /c.t.A. 
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rur/ievtov ttJs l&vp<aTrqs eOvwv 
at ykcxrcrai e\ov(riv> tas Kal rj 
rj/JLerepa, 8ui(f>6povs dSiairkdcr- 
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hrapyia, virb tov 6\kov kakov- 
fievas, &v ylverai \prjo-is els 
poyiara &qfWTiKa, KO)fi(p8 las 
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(rwrdxrcrovrai els ttjv k6ivt)v 
tov eOvovs Kal ypafi/iariK<as 
K€KavovurfJL€VYjV ykwro'av. 

'EpxpfJLeOarj&ri els Trjve£eTOo m w 
ttjs Sevrepas tg>v p-qdewtov yvw- 
pA>v,Ka$'fjv fj Koivff tov fiptTepov 
yevovs ykwraa irpeirei va opurOrj 
17 dp\aCa 'J&kkrjviKrj, 'Eotv fj 
apxaiorrfs eKkrj<f>0y evravSa 

Greek or foreigner, who wishes 
to speak and write the language 

From what has been said it 
may be gathered that the various 
local dialects, into which the 
vulgar language of the Greeks 
is divided, may be useful for 
popular songs, comedies, fables 
and tales, matters confined to 
the instruction and entertain- 
ment of the common people, but 
not for serious and lofty poetry, 
scientific works, legislation, 
advocacy, etc All the languages 
of the great and enlightened 
nations of Europe have, as 
ours has, various crude dialects, 
different in different provinces, 
spoken by the common people, 
of which use is made for popular 
songs, comedies, etc : but no one 
employs any one of those dialects 
in the composition of a serious 
poem or of a scientific work, or 
one intended for the use and 
advantage of cultivated and 
educated people, but such poems 
and writings are composed in 
the language common to the 
nation and regulated by gram- 
matical rules. 

We now come to the con- 
sideration of the second of 
the above-mentioned opinions, 
according to which ancient Greek 
ought to be fixed as the common 
language of our race. If by the 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



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toO veov o'vpp.oV) rj toirXio-fitvov 

fJL€ TTjXefioXoV, r) T^Xccr/CoVtOV, 
^ fllKpOO-KOTTLOV K.T.X.* dvdyKKj 

apa va vorjdrj evravOa dpyala 
'EXXiyvt/ci) yXaxnra fxovov Kara. 
to eTSoSy tjtol Kara rrjv yp&fJL- 

AAAa /cat av Kara rrjv ircpi- 
0)picrfX€vr]v ravrrjv o-rjfiaa-iav 
vorjdjj, r) koivt) avrrjs XPW IS 
fi,€V€i dKaropdwos. IloXXot 
Twroi rrjs dpxaias ypafxfxariKrjs 
KaTecrrqo'av dir* al<ov<ov els rov 
Xaov irdvrq £cvot /cat d/caTa- 

X^TTTOt, TToXv <$€ dXXoT/0t(0T€/>a 

KarcoTT] €ts avrov rj dpyala &vv~ 
Ta^ts* StoYt r) vea r(ov e EXX^ra>v 
yXaxnra /u/xctrat to dveirrvy- 

pkvOV T(OV V€(tiT€pU)V TTJS Ev/DOWT^S 

ancient language is here meant 
both the substance and the form, 
that is to say, both the vocabulary 
and the grammar, we see at once 
that those who put forward this 
opinion propose an impossibility. 
The vocabulary of ancient Greek 
is utterly insufficient to express 
the innumerable ideas with 
which the progress of the arts 
and sciences from ancient times 
to the present day has enriched 
the human intellect : there is 
therefore an absolute necessity 
for the creation of innumerable 
new words to express those 
modern ideas. But in this case 
the ancient Greek language re- 
mains no longer really ancient : 
it will resemble an antique 
statue which has been clothed 
to meet the requirements of 
modern fashion, or furnished 
with a gun, a telescope, or a 
microscope, etc. : by the ancient 
Greek language, then, we are 
obliged to understand that only 
its form is here meant, that is to 
say, its grammar. 

But even if we take it in this 
restricted sense, its universal 
employment remains an impos- 
sibility. Many forms of the 
ancient grammar have been for 
ages altogether strange and 
unintelligible to the common 
people, far stranger to them 
the ancient syntax ; for the 
modern language of the Greeks 
imitates the diffuse style of 
the more modern languages of 

i by Google 



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Tviavrr) o&ra r) dpyaia. 
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revrov on Okkci work Karaxrrrj 
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avrou. U ri /cat av €t7roKrt 
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virb rrjs £wjpds <f>avraxrias rj 
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rdtfnv /cat Karacrrfi £akra tov 
Aaov yAaxrcra. 

"O0€V 6(f>€tkov(TL pkv ol vkoi 
o/toycvcis, ocrot Or)p€vovariv kv 
tois yv/jLvao-iois /cat cv t<J> Ilav- 
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<fciv avnjv €VX€pa>s /cat Kopxb- 
<«»s, tva fjL€Taxcipi£(ovTai avrrjv 
«VOOKtfU09 6Vov oi o"o<j>ol t^s 

EvpdwnyS fJL€TOLX€lpl£oVTCU Tr)V 

Europe, expressing by means 
of prepositions many relations 
which in the ancient language 
were shown by the termination, 
more usually resolving participles 
into relative, causal, hypothetical, 
adversative and other clauses : 
the correct use of the moods of 
the active and middle voice of 
verbs, and also of many particles, 
demands an amount of subtle 
discrimination which is beyond 
the power of the mental percep- 
tion of the common people. 
The ancient Greek language 
being of this character, and so 
strange to the common people, 
it is impossible to believe that it 
will ever become intelligible to 
them, and out of the question that 
it can become their vernacular. 
And whatever some may say, 
who are carried away by their 
vivid imagination rather than 
guided by their judgment, the 
ancient Greek language cannot 
rise from its tomb and become 
the living language of the 

Therefore our young fellow- 
countrymen, who in the colleges 
and the university are pursuing 
a course of higher education, 
should exert themselves to the 
utmost to acquire the unrivalled 
language of our ancestors, and 
carefully exercise themselves in 
it, so as to be able to write it 
with facility and elegance, in 
order that they may employ it 
with success where the scholars 

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'Poi/AaiVc^v, els iroirjfJLara SrjXov- 
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Kal r) kolvt) Xpfjo-tS rrjs dp\atas 
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Kal els Tas 8ia<j>6povs rov 

KOlViOVlKOV /3lOV <T)(€<r€lS' 

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dAAa 8ev o-v/ufxtivovori, 7rdvres 

7T€pl TQV TV7TOV aVTrjs, TTepl TOV 

fiaOfwv rrjs KaOaporryros Kal 
rrjs irpbs rr)v dp\aiav ypafifia- 
TiKrjveyyvrrjTos. E?vcu</>avc/oov 
on r) koivy) avrq yAaxro-a wpeirei 
vd €xy f3dxriv rr)v vvv AaAov- 
fxevrjv^ Iva fir) KaraoTQ rov Xaov 
dXXorpia' dXX' evravr^ irpewei 
vd KaOapurOy t&v Kara tottovs 
itoikIXihv \vb\LurpJav Kal pvO- 
fiurOy Kara rov kolvov rrjs 
dp\aias ypap,fiaTiKrjs tvttov eirl 

of Europe make use of Latin, 
for poetry for example, and for 
such works as are composed for 
the use of the learned : but since 
it is impossible for all to master 
ancient Greek and make a com- 
mon use of it, it still remains 
absolutely and indispensably 
necessary to create some com- 
mon language which can be 
employed for other works and 
poems, for the teaching from 
the pulpit, for legislation, for 
parliamentary debates, for the 
courts of justice, for the daily 
press, and for the various rela- 
tions of social life. 

We now pass to the examina- 
tion of the third opinion. 

The third opinion is the one 
which the majority of the learned 
men of the nation embrace as 
being the most reasonable, which 
lays down that for the common 
use of the Greeks there must be 
formed a language which is mid- 
way between the vulgarity of 
local dialects and the purity and 
grammatical accuracy of ancient 
Greek ; but they do not all agree 
about the form that this language 
must take, nor about the degree 
of purity and approximation to 
the ancient grammar. It is 
evident that this common lan- 
guage should have for its basis 
that which is now spoken, in 
order that it may not be strange 
to the common people; but at 
the same time it must be purified 
from various local vulgarities, 

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to»v AoyiW o/ioycvwv dA^^s 
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twv 8c dvappi^(ap€VU)V irpbs tov 
dp\atov y tQv 0€ KpdpA. tl tvttwv, 
«PX a * w » / *<** vcwv, ckAcktoiv /cat 

and adjusted in accordance with 
the ordinary form of the ancient 
grammar, as far as such adjust- 
ment may be practicable, that is 
to say, as far as it can be carried 
without the language, so adjusted, 
being unintelligible to the com- 
mon people, and its gradual 
introduction as their vernacular 
beyond their mental capacity. 
This rule, thus simply stated, is 
correct; but its adaptation to 
every detail presents many diffi- 
culties, and gives rise to fresh 
differences of opinion. From 
the beginning of the present 
century much has been written 
upon this subject Before the 
Greek revolution especially 
Corae'8, Codricas, Neophytos 
Ducas, Qazes, Pharmacides, 
Canellos the physician, and 
others, made the question of 
modern Greek the subject of 
important essays, and of many 
contentious articles in the philo- 
logical journals, but the opinion 
of CoraSs, to which most of the 
learned inclined, was gaining 
the ascendency. The Greek 
revolution, however, put a stop 
to that pen-and-ink war about 
language, and its place was 
taken by the sword-and-blood 
war for political independence : 
after the termination of the 
latter there has prevailed among 
our learned fellow-countrymen 
a veritable anarchy in their 
opinions about the language, 
some inclining to the more 

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TtS 6A7TIS V7roA€t7T€Tai, OTfc fj 

popular form ; others clambering 
upwards to the ancient form ; 
some heedlessly accepting a sort 
of mixture of forms ancient and 
modern, select and vulgar, and 
in the same work, in the same 
chapter, often in the same sen- 
tence, mixing ancient forms with 
modern vulgar ones in a disgust- 
ing manner. All recognise the 
necessity of a deliverance from 
this anarchy : but how is it to 
be accomplished? The nature 
or the fate of the Greek nation 
is peculiar. As in the struggle 
for its political independence 
there came forward many brave 
men who devoted themselves to 
their country, performing great 
deeds and gaining high praise, 
yet no one displayed a superiority 
above the rest so marked as to 
attract the confidence of all, and 
make him the common centre 
of all the efforts of the nation 
towards the end they had in 
view ; so in the intellectual 
struggle for the formation of a 
common language for the nation, 
many noteworthy combatants 
came forward who contributed 
more or les£ to its correction 
and enrichment, yet no one was 
able to unite all the votes of 
our learned fellow-countrymen 
in favour of his opinion, and 
by his own footsteps mark out 
the track which all, or the 
greater part of the learned 
Greeks, would follow. In this 
state of affairs what hope is 

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pifyyrai ciAAotc aAAovs Twrovs, 

left that my opinion here ad- 
vanced should gain any greater 
approbation ? There would be 
no such hope, were this opinion 
an original idea of my own ; 
but here I do not proffer my 
individual opinion, but rather 
the conclusion I have come to 
from observing the style of 
writing which the majority, as 
well as the more critical of 
our scholars, with the exception 
of some slight differences of 
opinion, tacitly accept. There 
are certainly observed certain 
deflections and deviations from 
the orbit here traced, in differ- 
ent directions among different 
scholars ; but these must be re- 
garded in the same light as 
those perturbations in the move- 
ments of the heavenly bodies 
which the accidental and vari- 
able influences of certain other 
bodies produce, and by the elim- 
ination of which astronomers 
discover their normal orbit 

On the whole I accept the rule 
which has been laid down by the 
famous Corae3 in some of his 
letters, that every one, when he 
writes, ought to write in such a 
way that from his writings some 
kind of grammar of the language 
might be deduced : this means 
that a writer ought at least to 
agree with himself, that is to say, 
that he ought to follow steadily 
certain rules, and consequently 
not employ different forms at 
different times, and one kind 

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k<u aXXoT€ dXXov Tpoirov (rvv- 

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y Ev 'AOrjvais 31 Kvyovo-Tov 

O <f>tXos vfiQv 

#IAinn02 K2ANNOY. 

of syntax at one time and one 
at another, now soaring on 
wings up to the heights of 
ancient Helicon above the 
clouds, now suddenly descend- 
ing to the low-lying plains 
which the vulgar cultivate for 
their material sustenance; at 
one time drawing water from 
the Castalia or Hippocrene of 
ancient Hellenism, at another 
from the muddy swamps of 
vulgarity. This rule I shall 
keep in sight when, in what is 
to follow, I sketch out the form 
of our common language. Since 
in a language there are two 
things to be considered, the 
material and the form, I will 
speak about both in another 

Athens, 31 August 1860. 

Your friend, 

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8c icai cya) wporlOe/xai va irpd£<a 
ro avro /cara rov wpoo-e^rj 
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<ras c^co o*vvTa^ct8wor»yv. 

Tovro 0a ^vat 7roXv €v\dpu- 
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Kai 18l(j)s irtpl rrjs 'J&XXrjvucrjs 
01$ o/uActrat Kai ypdfarai vuv. 

Oa p* evprjre irpoOvpLOV va 
<ras 5<«xr(u 7rao-av irXrjpo<j>opiav. 

Good-morning. Are you Mr. 
Androcles ? 

Yes. May I ask you whom I 
have the honour of addressing ? 

My name is Wilson. I am 
professor of Greek at Cambridga 
This letter is for you from the 
Greek ambassador here. 

Pray take a seat. Come near 
the fire, for it is bitterly cold to- 

You are right. Out of doors 
there is a very cold east wind 

The ambassador writes me 
that you intend shortly to visit 
Greece. Since I also propose 
to do the same next April, I 
shall be delighted to have you 
as a fellow-traveller. 

This will be very pleasant 
for me, for I shall learn a great 
deal from you about Greece, 
and especially about the Greek 
language, as it is now spoken 
and written. 

You will find me quite ready 
to give you every information. 

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TTpOKplvu) T7/v 8id MaoxraAias 

Evtv^ws r) OdXa<r<ra 8kv p* 
ivox^ci* iir€i8vf o/xa>s irokv 

€7Tl0vfJL<t> VOL l8d) TTJV KtpKVpaV, 

cav 8ev eras [xkXu, as wrdyw/icv 
8ta Bpcvn^rtov. 

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pkorara, KaO* ocrov fidXurra Od 
8vvrj0(o va foa) dp^atbvs Tivas 
<f>iXovs lv KepKvpa. 

Avva<r$€ va /aoi 8wrqre 
ir\rjpo<f>oplas nvas 7T€/3i twv 
dTrooTao-cwv tj}s o6ou ti)v oVoiav 
p.kXXop*v va Xd/3(x>fX€v ; 

MaAtora. *Edv Tts Sev 
Siarplx/qi KaO 9 ooov 8vvarat va 

<f>0dxTQ €K Aov8lVOV €fcS B/DCVTtJ- 

<riov €fcs cAJ/covra dopas. 'Ekci&v 
& cts KepKvpav oV drfioirkoiov 
els 8€KaT€<r(rapas &pa$. 'Ek Kc/> 
Kvpas elsTLdrpas els Sc/cac^ ay>as. 
'Ek IlaT/owv 8c SwaTat Tts va 
fjL€Ta/3rj €ts 'A&Jvas €is o/cto> 
&pas 8id rov <ri8r)po8p6pjov. 
Ev^ap«rra>. Kai wore vopC- 

f€T€ 0<Z r)<r$€ €TOlfJLOS 8td TO 

Ta£ti8iov ; 

EiS ras €7TTa AirpiXiov kXiri- 
fco va ^/*at €Toifws, <5<rrc av 
dya7raT€ direp\6p^0a eKecvqv 
rr)v rjpepav. 

'Eyw /cat Tto/oa tlpai Zroipjos, 

W(TT€ 7TpoOvfJL(0S (TVfJL(f>U)V<a VOL oV- 

€X6u)fJL€V €is rets €7TTa 'AirpiXtov. 

By which route do you think 
it will be better for us to travel? 

If the sea disagrees with you 
it will be preferable to go by 
Brindi8i: if not, I prefer the 
Marseilles route. 

Fortunately the sea gives me 
no trouble : but as I am very 
anxious to see Corfu, if you do 
not mind, let us go by Brin- 

Very good, I am quite agree- 
able, especially as I shall have 
the opportunity of seeing some 
old friends in Corfu. 

Can you give me any in- 
formation about the distances 
along the route we are going to 

Certainly. If one does not 
stop on the way, starting from 
London, one can arrive at Brin- 
disi in sixty hours : and thence 
by ^teamer to Corfu in fourteen 
hours : from Corfu to Patras in 
sixteen hours : and one can go 
by rail from Patras to Athens in 
eight hours. 

Thank you. And when do 
you think you will be ready 
for the journey ? 

I hope to be ready by the 
seventh of April, so, if you like, 
we will start on that day. 

I am quite prepared even 
now, so I readily agree to start 
on the seventh of April. 

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&pav avayt»p& r) Sta TLapuriovs 
dpa^ooTOixva. ; 


717x01, /cat <f>0dv€t els Hapuriovs 
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els Hapuriovs, Siori Oa eyupuev 
Kaupbv va dvairavOtofJiev okiyov 
Kal va. Senrvrjo-topev. 

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fiard pas Kal va kdf3<ap,ev 

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^/iat €K€fc. Xai/>€T€. 

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VO Aaj3(l)/X€V T17TOT6. 

Ilcpi tovtov da. kdfib) Kakrjv 
<j>povri8a. Xai/)€T€ Kal irdXiv. 
KaA^v evrdpuoo-iv. 


What line do you say we 
should take ? 

As I do not like to travel 
by nightj I propose we should 
take the Chatham and Dover 

Agreed. Do you know at 
what o'clock the train for Paris 

At half-past eight in the 
morning, and it arrives at Paris 
at five thirty-seven p.m. 

We shall arrive" in Paris in 
good time, and so shall have 
leisure to rest a little and get 
some dinner. 

On the day of our departure 
we must be at Victoria Station 
about eight o'clock, so as to have 
time to look after our luggage 
and get our tickets. 

I will be there at eight 
punctually. Good-bye. 

Do not forget to eat a good 
breakfast before you leave your 
house, for we shall have no 
time to get anything at the 

I will take very good care 
about that. Good-bye again. 
Au revoir. 


Digitized by VjOOQlC 



KaXrj rjfxepa eras* BA.€7ra> 

tJX$€T€ 7TpO ifJLOV. HoT€ £<f>- 

6d(raT€ ; 

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vd IXOrjrc, SioTi Scv ct^cv/oov 
irolas 0«r€a>s €i(riTrjpLa QkXtT€ 
va Xd/3(i)fJL€v. 

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8iov 0a ijvai /MiKpov. 

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oaxra> 6V 6/cootov; 

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koX StKaen-rd (reXXivia 8ia rd 


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i8tK<£ /iov ctvai ISco. IIov €?vat 
rd iSi/ca eras; 

'O dy0o<f>6pOS TO. €\€L €K€t. 

"Akoixtc <rv. 2cva Aeyco. *EA.a 
cSto. Ta irpdyfjLara rov Kvpiov 

Good -morning. I see you 
have come before me. When 
did you arrive ? 

At a quarter to eight 

Have you taken your ticket ? 

Not yet I was waiting for 
you to come, because I did 
not know what class tickets you 
wish that we should take. 

I always travel first-class, but 
if you like us to take second- 
class tickets, I am quite willing. 

No. Better to take first-class, 
because the journey will be a 
long one. 

Please give me two first-class 
tickets for Brindisi. How much 
have I to pay you for each ? 

Twelve pounds eight and six. 
Here are twenty-four pounds 
seventeen shillings for the two. 

Now we must look after our 
luggage. Mine is here. Where 
is yours ? 

The porter has it there. 
Here ! I say ! Come here. 
Take care to put this gentle- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



TOVTOV KOI TOL l8iK(X fWV <j>pOVTl(r€ 

va to fidkys 6/iov €is tcakrjv 
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BA«T(0 6 av6pO)TTOS TO <f>kp€l. 

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tijv ^rjfjLaiav Kal Ta 'H/*€p^o"ta 

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cfvai dStd<f>opov dv ijvat crvvrrj- 

ptJTlKOV rj <f>lk€k€V0€pOV <f>vkkoV. 

man's luggage and mine together 
in a good place. Here is some- 
thing for yon. 

Thank you, sir. You need not 
be anxious about it, I will take 
care to have it properly placed. 

We shall start in five minutes, 
so let us get into our carriage. 
We are lucky, for we shall be 
by ourselves. 

It is a piece of good-fortune. 
But where is your overcoat ? 

A good thing that you re- 
minded me of it I quite 
forgot it. It is in the waiting- 

Make haste and get it ; we 
have only two minutes left. 

I see the man is bringing it. 

Have you any change ? 
Change me this shilling, so that 
I may give sixpence to the 

There goes the bell ! We 
are off. 

At the exact time. 

We have already crossed the 
Thames. Are we going to stop 
anywhere ? 

No. The express goes straight 
to Dover without stopping any- 
where on the road. 

Would you like to see the 
morning papers? I have The 
Times, The Standard and The 
Daily News. 

Give me The Daily News, or, 
if you like, The Standard. It is 
indifferent to me whether it is a 
Conservative or a Liberal paper. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



"E^ct tmtotc oirov&xibv ; 

Acv fikeird) tvjtot€ d£uov 

Eis rovs Kaipovs /SXeiro) fxiav 
fmicpav dXXrjXoypa<f>Cav Ik 


Tl€pl twos ; 

Hepl rrjs AvroKpanipas &p€- 
tkpcKOv, rjris evpta-Kerai T<apa 


Akv 7rurT€V(a va hrirvxy els 
tov (tkowov 8ia tov oirolov 
pATkfSf) cts IIa/>«riovs. 

Ovr eya> irurr€V(i) . . . dXXa 
/?A.€7ra> €<j>0d(rafj.€V els Koivtco- 
f3ovpiav. 'Ewcotcc^&jtc 7totc 
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vaov ; 

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t<£ ovri fieyaXoirpeirh KTipiov. 

Hoiav &pav Od <£0ao-a>/A€V cis 

Ets ras Sena kcli T€Taprov 
aKpcfiajs. "E^o/acv aKOfirj 8c/ca- 

€7TTa fXlXia VOL 8iaTp€^(i)fJL€V. 

AcV €fX€lV€ TToXv. HdVoV ypT)- 

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8kv irpo<t>Odvei tis va i8y rrjv 
ir*pi£ ytapav. 

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'E^^ao-a/xcv €is Ao/^co. Ei- 
fieOa kv t$ oTaOfUf). Acv 
6d k£kX0mp*v ; 

*0\i. 'H dfm^ooTo i\ia Oa. 
pas vTrdyyi p*\pi tov drfw- 

Does it contain anything 
important ? 

I see nothing of any import- 

In The Times I see a long 
correspondence from Paris. 

About what ? 

About the Empress Frederick, 
who is there now. 

I do not think she will 
succeed in the object for which 
she went to Paris. 

Nor I either . . . but here 
we are at Canterbury. Have 
you ever paid a visit to its 
famous cathedral ? 

I have been to see it twice. 
It is indeed a magnificent build- 

At what o'clock shall we ar- 
rive at Dover ? 

At a quarter past ten exactly. 
We have still seventeen miles to 

There is not much left. What 
a pace the train goes at 1 One 
has not time to see the country 

Look! there is the sea ! The 
great sea, how fond I am of 

Here we are at Dover. We 
are in the station. Shall we 
not get out ? 

No. The train will take us 
up to the steamer. 

Et/x€#a hrl rrjs irpoKVfiaias. We are on the pier. Take 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



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Eis ttjv ytavlav, oirurOkv (ras. 

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/xovr}<raT€ twtotc; «X CT€ TO 
dke^ippo^ov ; 

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cfvcu ^o~v;(os. 

Ti <5/>a €iv<u ; 


H6t€ a7T07rX€€l TO aT/io- 
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At p^avat ^pxurav va favaiv- 
Tai. 'Ioov diroo'Vpovo'i tyjv k\l- 
fULKa, lAwav to, o-;(oivia. 
AuwAiofiev 17817. 

IIoo-ov n€yaXo7rp€7T7js <f>aiv€- 
t<h ij irpoKVfiaia tov vavap^iov! 

E?vat /Acya Ipyov t<£ ovti. 
H oiKo&ofir} avrrjs rjpxure Kara 
to eros 1847 Ka * *o\Liravrjdr)(rav 
oY avr^v hnraKOO-uu irevTrJKOvra 

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irvm/iev KaOapbv dkpa. 

Ev^apumas. *H avpa ttJs 
Oakatrcrqs ttvai cvdpe&ros. 

your bag. Where is my 
stick ] 

In the corner, behind you. 

Are you ready ? Take care • 
that you have forgotten nothing. 
Have you got your umbrella ? 

Yes. Let us go to the steamer. 
The sea is calm. 

What o'clock is it ? 
A quarter past ten. 
When does the steamer sail 1 

In five minutes. 

Let us make haste then, so 
as to get a good place. 

There are a good many pas- 
sengers. The greater number 
seem to me to be Americans. 

Yes. They are Americans. 

The engines have begun to 
move. Look, they are drawing 
away the steps ; they have let 
go the ropes. We are under 
weigh now. 

How grand the Admiralty 
pier looks. 

It is indeed a fine work. It 
was begun in 1847, and it cost 
seven hundred and fifty thousand 
pounds. It extends into the 
sea more than fifteen hundred 

Let us go and sit there, in 
the bow, so that we may inhale 
the pure air. 

By all means. The sea-breeze 
is pleasant. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 

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Kan Tiy Sioti eyu €\u) Tpo/iepav 

Kal eyw ireivta. * As elo'ekOio- 
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MoAis e<f>OdxrafA€v els tov 
o'TaOfwv t»}s woXeias Kal evOvs 

How soon we have arrived 
at Calais I It is exactly mid- 

Get your passport ready, for 
I see the police-officers at the 

At what o'clock does the train 
start from the pier ? 

At forty minutes past twelve, 
so that we have time to take 
something, for I am frightfully 

And I too am hungry. Let us 
go into the refreshment-room. 

Bring us two plates of soup 
first, and afterwards one portion 
of roast beef for the two of us. 
We do not want any vegetables. 
A little cheese to finish with, 
and a two-franc bottle of wine. 

Shall we each have a cup of 
coffee ? 

Yes. But have we time ? 

Unfortunately we have not': 
so let us make haste and get 
into the carriage. 

We have hardly arrived at 
the station in the town, and 
we are off again. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 




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tov TroAv/iatfous o-vyypa<f>€<t)S 
• • . aAA' IA0€T€ ttXtjo-iov fwv 

It is exactly forty - seven 
minutes past twelve. At one 
thirty-five we arrive at Bou- 
logne, at three twenty-eight at 
Amiens, and at five thirty-seven 
at Paris. 

Fortunately we again have 
the carriage to ourselves, so that 
we can read some modern Greek 
hook, and so before I arrive 
in Greece, I may improve my 
knowledge of the language. 

Have you ever read the letters v 
of Corais ? 

Not many. Some time ago I 
read his life, and in it some ex- 
tracts from the letters of this 
great scholar, and I was greatly 
pleased with them. 

Do you mean the one lately 
published by Mr. D. Thereianos ? 

Yes. This work is indeed a 
valuable one, and on reading it 
one sees clearly not only the 
deep learning of the author but 
also his industry, and his pure 
patriotism. This remarkable 
work reflects the greatest credit ^ 
on modern Greek literature. 

I am glad you have formed a 
correct and just idea regarding 
this noble monument which the 
industry of the learned author 
has raised to Adamantios Corais 
. . . but come close to me, that 
you may better hear the words 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 




Sta va a.KOvr)T€ KaXXirtpa ras 
Ac^cts rrjs iwurroXrjs rr)v biroiav 
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ywraTt Xoiirov TrapaKaXu> y kin- 
rpkxj/ark \wi va /BXiirta Kal tyo) 
€ts to Pi/3\iov. 

of the letter which I am going 
to read to you. 

By all means. Will you do 
me the favour to tell me when 
and to whom Corais wrote this 
letter ? 

On the fifteenth of November 
of the year 1791 from Paris to his 
friend Protopsaltes at Smyrna. 

That is to say exactly a 
hundred years ago. I am 
curious to see how modern 
Greek was written at that time. 
Begin then. Pray allow me 
too to look at the book. 

'Etc Uaptaloav, 15 Koefjfiplov 1791. 

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fi€V on €irXrj(rla(r€V 6 Kacpbs va 
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fjiepivovs kwSvvovs Kal /JaVava, 
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TOVy rj KaK<os Trap* dXX(ov <rvpr- 

/3ovXtvO€lS i TO fJL€<TOVVKTlOV Tl}s 

Paris, 15th November 1791. 

My dear Protopsaltes, 

It was the will of fate that I 
should find myself in France at 
the present juncture, so as to 
see with my own eyes and hear 
with my own ears everything 
regarding a political change, of 
which examples are scarcely to 
be found in the Greek or Roman 

The disturbances in France 
were almost at an end on the 
twenty-first of last June, and we 
were all in hope that the time 
was near for us to be delivered 
from our daily dangers and suffer- 
ings, when the king, either of 
his own accord, or ill-advised by 
others, at midnight, between the 
20th and 21st, took his children, 

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criAowrov t^s £aw}s i"* 01 *' "O^- * 

the queen, and his sister, and 
fled in the disguise of a servant 
of the queen, who took the ficti- 
tious name of a countess. 

On the morning of the 21st, 
at eight o'clock, the body-guard, 
observing that there seemed to 
be nobody either in the king's 
apartment or in the queen's 
bedroom, began to have suspi- 
cions, and on opening the doors 
found no one. I leave you to 
imagine the confusion and up- 
roar throughout the city. 

. . . When the king fled from 
Paris he left a sealed letter 
addressed to the Assembly, in 
which he made complaints, and 
said that the reason of his flight 
was that since the Assembly had 
exceeded the limits of its author- 
ity, the people had obtained too 
much power, and were insolent to 
their very rulers, and so forth ; 
without however disclosing what 
he intended to do, or whether 
his object was to leave France 

On the boundary, by the 
king's command, a general with 
some companies of soldiers was 
waiting to receive him, aud pass 
him safely into Germany. 

Such a fearful day as the 
21st I never witnessed, nor 
probably ever shall as long 
as I live. All the populace 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 




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tfro 8vvar6v, rbv ftacriXea. 

Ets rds cikoo-l8vo Xoarbv rov 
fjLrjvos, &pa IvScKctr^ rrjs vvktos, 

scattered throughout the squares 
and streets of the city, men, 
women and children, some say- 
ing one thing, some another, 
cursing and abusing both the 
king and the queen, one calling 
the king a traitor, another a 
perjurer, and bestowing on him 
as many complimentary epithets 
as you can imagine. 

The Assembly, being afraid of 
the terrible consequences likely 
to arise from the rage of the 
populace, ordered all the citizens 
to arm themselves forthwith. In 
this way we passed the whole of 
the day of the 2 1 st and the follow- 
ing night, when scarcely any one 
went to bed, some from fear, others 
out of curiosity as to what would 
be the result of these events. 

The Assembly sat all that 
day, the following night, and 
the next day, the 2 2d, and the 
night of the 2 2d, nearly forty 
hours, consulting as to what 
ought to be done in such a 
dreadful state of affairs. 

Besides the Assembly, the 
Notables of Paris were also col- 
lected in a subordinate assembly, 
awaiting every moment a reply 
from the different couriers whom 
they had despatched to every 
part of the kingdom, in order, 
if possible, to seize the king. 

Accordingly, on the 2 2d, at 
11 o'clock at night, instead of 

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going to bed, I too went to the 
town hall, in company with my 
friend (in whose house I am 
staying), and we stood there 
listening, like many others, to 
the debate in the council of the 
Notables. After an hour, that 
is to say at midnight, not being 
able to bear the heat and the 
excessive crowd, we were think- 
ing of returning, when unex- 
pectedly, a]l of a sudden, a 
courier appeared with the news 
that the king with his family 
had been recognised and cap- 
tured in a small village called 
Varennes only five leagues from 
the boundary. I leave you to 
imagine into what joy the sorrow 
and dejection of the whole city 
was converted, without, however, 
its anger undergoing any change. 
Two hours later and the king, 
most assuredly, would have been 
outside the boundary. But his 
advisers, just as they had shown 
themselves stupid from the 
beginning, so on this occasion 
they displayed their imbecility. 
They were only five leagues 
from the boundary, when, in- 
stead of urging on the horses, 
so as to finish the two remaining 
hours' journey, they alighted at 
an inn, to take a little rest. 

In that inn, in the room 
where the king was reposing, 
there was a picture of his 
majesty hanging on the wall. 
The innkeeper observing that 

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the king's countenance resem- 
bled the picture, conceived sus- 
picions, and at last, when he 
was quite sure, uncovering and 
approaching respectfully, he said, 
" How is it that you are here, 
your majesty V The king, 
alarmed, at once told him to 
keep silence. Both king and 
queen entreat him and make 
him many splendid promises. 
But he was inexorable and 
replied, " I will not be a traitor 
to my country. If your majesty 
leaves France it is all over with 
us." He at once rouses the 
whole town (for it was the dead 
of night), he rings the bells, and 
collects the inhabitants of all 
the villages around to help him, 
so that the king may not escape 
from them, and sends the news to 
the Assembly in Paris. 

On the 25th of the month, 
then, in the afternoon, the king 
entered Paris accompanied by 
many thousands of people, men, 
women and children, who had 
followed him from various cities. 
Add to these many thousands of 
Parisians who came out to meet 
him, not to do him honour as 
at other times, but some enraged 
against him for his flight, others 
rejoicing that he was captured, 
but all in profound silence and 
amazement, and with downcast 

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And now an occurrence took 
place, worthy of remark, which 
shows how, among civilised 
nations, even the very lowest of 
the people display intelligence 
on many occasions. Although 
the National Assembly had given 
strict orders to the people not 
to be guilty of any unworthy 
conduct towards the king, the 
populace was in such numbers 
and so enraged that if they 
had been inclined to insult or 
outrage him, neither gods nor 
demons could -have prevented 
them. One then of the actual 
mob wrote upon a paper in large 
letters and fastened it on a wall 
upon the route by which the 
king had to pass, so that the 
following remarkable words 
might be read by all : 

"The king is now entering 
Paris ; whoever takes off his hat 
to greet him will be flogged; 
but whoever shall dare in any 
way to insult or abuse him will 
be hanged." 

Thank you very much. These 
details regarding the French 
revolution were quite unknown 
to me. 

What do you think of the 
language ? 

It seems very nearly the same 
as is written now. 

Have you read many works 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



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E?VCU Tp€lS KOL 61KO0-17T6VTC, 

in the Greek of our own 
time ? 

Not many ; but I read 
regularly the Nea Hemera of 
Trieste, and the Neologos of 

Your choice is an excellent 
one, for these two papers are 
among the best in Greek 

Did you take much pains to 
learn modern Greek ? 

I did not find the least 
difficulty. When any one has 
a good knowledge of ancient 
Greek, he can learn the modern 
language in a few lessons, for 
the difference is trifling. All I 
want now is to accustom my ear 
to conversation. 

I will endeavour to help you 
in this : but we must talk Greek 
during the whole of our journey. 

I am quite ready to do this : 
but I am afraid that I shall 
make you disgusted with my 
bad pronunciation. 

Do not be afraid of that Let 
us make a good beginning then. 

But I beg you will correct me 
whenever I pronounce the words 

I will do so willingly. See 
what o'clock it is, please, for I 
think we are near Amiens. 

It is twenty-five minutes past 

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three, so we shall be at Amiens 
in three minutes. — We have 
arrived. In five minutes we 
shall start again. 

Have you ever visited Ami- 

No, though I have much 
wanted to do so, for I have often 
heard people praising its cathe- 

It is a splendid edifice, a 
masterpiece of the Gothic archi- 
tecture of the thirteenth century. 
Regarding this wonderful church, 
Viollet-le-Duc says that its style 
is pure and faultless Gothic, and 
that it may be called the Parthe- 
non of Gothic architecture. 

It was here, if I am not mis- 
taken, that in March 1802 was 
signed the so-called "Peace of 
Amiens," when the republic of 
the Ionian islands was also re- 

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Here we are at last at Paris ! 

Here ! I say ! take our luggage 
and call a cab. 

To what hotel are you going, 
gentlemen ? 

To the Grand Hotel. But 
how much are we to pay you ? 

Three francs and something 
as a present. 

Very good. Make haste, for 
we want to be in time for dinner. 

All right, gentlemen. We 
shall be at the hotel in a quarter 
of an hour. — Here we are ! 

Where is the interpreter of 
the hotel ? 

What do you wish, gentlemen? 

We want two good bedrooms 
on the second floor. 

Do you want them for long ? 

No. Only for two nights. 

Show the gentlemen rooms 
number 24 and 25. 

They are spacious and airy 

When does the table d'hote 
begin ? 

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as. Mc dAtyov Ad8t /cat Ae/xovt 
ylvovrai vooTcpuoTarau Ao/ct- 
paa-are vd (Srjrc dv $a cas ape- 

At a quarter past seven. 

Bring us some soap and clean 

They are ready on the wash- 
ing-stand. Here is some hot 
water they have brought for 

The basin is very small I 
cannot find my sponge. I do 
not know where I put my comb. 
— Where can my brush be? — 
Ah ! I remember now, I have 
them in my box. 

Have you not yet washed ? 

No, but in five minutes I 
shall be ready. 

I will wait for you in the 

Have they rung the bell ? Is 
dinner ready ? 

Yes, gentlemen. This way, 
if you please. You will find 
the dining-room on your right. 

Where shall we sit? Have 
you kept two places for us ? 

These two seats are for you. 
Do you feel the draught ? Would 
you like me to shut the window ? 

You will oblige us. 

What will you take first? 
Would you like some salted 
sardines or in oil ? The radishes 
are tender. The shrimps were 
caught to-day. The caviare is 
of the best quality. 

Give me the olives, please. 
With a little oil and lemon 
they become most delicious. Try 
them and see if you will like 

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Avo Kovwas Ka<f>£, 7rapaKak<o. 

Pass me the salt, please — give 
me the pepper — change the 
knives and forks. 

The soup is excellent. It is 
a little salt — it is without salt — 
it is very hot. 

What have we got after the 
soup ? 

Mutton with spinach and fried 

Bring me some fowl with rice 
or peas. A little bread, if you 

I have not got a clean fork. 
Give me another knife, a smaller 

Bring me a small bottle of 
wine for my friend, and a bottle 
of beer for me. 

The beer is not good : it is 

The salad is most delicious. 
It consists of many vegetables. 
It contains lettuce, endive, beet- 
root, and a little parsley. 

The worst of salad is that it 
is very appetising, and makes 
one eat a great deal. 

You are right in this ; but 
when any one travels he should 
feed well, that he may easily 
bear the fatigue : so let us take 
also a quail each ; they look very 

Bring us the sweets. 
Have you any pastry ? 
Bring us some cheese-pie. 
Two cups of coffee, please. 

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ikaxurTqv Kovpacriv. 

Where is the smoking-room ? 

You can smoke here if you 

So much the better. 

Would you like me to bring 
you cigarettes or cigars 1 

No, thank you, we have some. 

Smoke one of my cigarettes. 
They are of the best quality. I 
brought them with me from 
London. How do you find 
them ? 

They are indeed good. Where 
did you buy them ? 

I bought them in London at 
D. Papadopoulo Brothers in 
Leadenhall Street. 

Twenty years ago one had a 
difficulty in getting good cigar- 
ettes in London, because every one 
used to smoke only cigars or pipes. 

It is late and I am beginning 
to feel sleepy. I beg you to 
excuse my withdrawing to bed. 

And I shall do the same, for 
I am very tired. 

At what o'clock shall we get 
up in the morning ? 

At nine. — Good-night. 

Good-morning. How did you 
sleep last night ? 

Very well indeed. The mo- 
ment I lay down on the bed I 
fell asleep. The bed was a very 
comfortable one. 

And I too slept very well, and 
I do not feel the least fatigue. 

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Mtcro7T(oya)vos tou 'IouAtavov 

Let us go now to breakfast, 
and afterwards we will go out 
for a walk. 

Breakfast is ready ; I have 
ordered fried eggs with some 
ham, and coffee. 

You did quite right. Waiter ! 
Bring us two kidneys cooked on 
the gridiron. 

Certainly, gentlemen.. 

Bring us some more milk : this 
is not enough. Where is the 
sugar ? — Here it is, gentlemen. 

Are you ready to come out ? 

Certainly. What road shall 
we take ? Shall we go to the 
Louvre ? 

I have often been to see the 

Let us go and see Notre Dame 
de Paris. It is a very ancient 
building. The church, as it now 
stands, dates from the twelfth 
century. The island on which 
it is built is called " lie de la 

In the time of the Romans it 
was called Lutetia Parisiorum. 
Strabo calls it Lucotocia ; but 
Julian, Lucetia. The passage in 
which mention is made of this 
island I copied a few days ago 
in my note-book, from Julian's 
Misopogon, and if you like, I will 
read it to you. 


IIoAv Od p,€ v7roxp€<jxrr}T€. 
" 'ETuyxa^ov cyw ytipAfav 

You will greatly oblige me. 
" I happened to be passing the 

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winter in my beloved Lucetia : 
this is the name which the Kelts 
give to the town of the Parisians. 
It is a small island lying in the 
river and a wall entirely sur- 
rounds it, and wooden bridges 
lead to it from both sides, and 
the river seldom falls and rises ; 
generally it is the same in 
summer and winter, supplying 
water very pleasant to drink 
and bright to look at, for any 
one who wants it. As the 
people live on an island, they 
are of course obliged to draw 
their water from it. The winter 
there is rather mild either from 
the heat of the ocean, for it is 
distant not more than nine 
hundred stadia, and perhaps 
some light sea-breeze distributes 
itself, and sea- water is supposed 
to be warmer than fresh water ; 
either from this cause or from 
some other which is not known 
to me, it is a fact that the 
inhabitants of the place have a 
rather warm winter, and the 
vine grows well on their land, 
and some of them have now 
contrived to rear fig-trees, cover- 
ing them up in the winter (just 
as if with clothes) with wheat- 
straw and similar substances, 
such as possess the power of 
protecting the trees from the 
injury they sustain by exposure. 
Now the winter happened to be 
more severe than usual, and the 
river brought along with it ice 
like slabs of marble : you know, 

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I suppose, the Phrygian stone — 
the ice very much resembled it 
in whiteness, large pieces of it 
being brought down heaped one 
over the other ; and indeed 
almost made a continuous pass- 
age so as to bridge the river. 
Meanwhile the weather was 
more inclement than usual, and 
the room where I slept was 
not heated at all, in the usual 
way, by the stoves underneath, 
as most of the houses were, 
although it was properly pre- 
pared to receive the heat of 
the fire. This too happened, 
I suppose, through my stu- 
pidity, and my want of hu- 
manity towards myself, of 
course, in the first place : the 
fact was that I wished to 
accustom myself to bear the 
cold atmosphere without the 
help of these appliances. Per- 
sistent as the winter was and 
constantly increasing in severity, 
still I did not allow the servants 
to heat the house, fearing to 
bring out the moisture in the 
walls, but I ordered them to 
bring inside some dull fire with 
a very small quantity of red-hot 
charcoal. Although there was 
but little, it set in motion the 
vapour out of the walls of the 
room where I was sleeping. As * 
my head became filled with it, 
I was nearly suffocated : but 
being carried out and advised 
by the doctors to throw up what 
I had lately eaten, which, by 

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Jove ! was not very much, I 
vomited and immediately felt 

This important passage is full 
of interest, but I am ashamed 
to say that I have never read 
the works of Julian. When I 
go back to Cambridge my first 
care shall be to go through them. 

I advise you also to read 
Gibbon's chapter about Julian, 
which I am sure you will find 
highly interesting. 

I will do as you advise me. 
But where shall we go now? 
The more interesting parts of 
the church we have seen. 

Shall we go to the Bois de 
Boulogne ? 

By all means. Coachman ! 
To the Bois de Boulogne. 

Here we are at the village 
of Auteuil. It was here that 
Boileau and Moliere lived. We 
are at the entrance of the wood. 

Stop, coachman ! We will 
alight here. Let us go this way. 
Let us go to that milk-shop and 
drink a little milk. Two glasses 
of milk, if you please. 

Do you wish it hot or cold ? 

Cold. And give us two 
biscuits. What have I to pay 

Half a franc, gentlemen. 

Now let us walk about a 

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TOV 'A/iAcTOV €IS TTjV 6/uAoV- 

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rjvpafiev I 
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ttolos c?/*at ; 
• Opar. 'O t&tos, — oouAos 
o*ov ttiotos, ai50€VTa, 5ta 
'A\»X e <£t'Aos Acyc /aov, 

little. Let us turn to the right 
What beautiful paths ! How 
cool the water of this little 
brook looks ! Look at that 
waterfall ; how prettily the water 
falls among the rocks, refreshing 
the ferns ! Let us go down 
this path to that little pond. 
Shall we sit under this elm 

Certainly. The situation is 
a splendid one. How grace- 
fully this swan swims ! Have 
you ever heard a swan sing ? 

I have never heard it, and I 
do not believe that swans do 
sing, although it is said that 
they can sing. 

But let us drop the swans 
and their singing. Have you 
any book in modern Greek for 
us to read, so as to pass the 
time ? 

Yes, I have in my pocket 
Hamlet in vernacular Greek. 
Shall I read you a little of it ? 

If you please. 

Listen, then. 

Horatio. Hail to your lord- 
ship ! 

Hamlet I am glad to see 

you well : 
Horatio, — or I do forget myself. 

Hor. The same, my lord, and 
your poor servant ever. 

Ham. Sir, my good friend; 

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lavrov (TOV. 
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Orjrd, va /x^ ft€ ir€pL7ra[(ys' 
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ydfiovs TTJs prjTpos pov. 
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acrra ?}o-av ra 8vo t<£ ovrt. 
'ApX. Ot/covo/uas, <£tAc 

/aov, otKOVO/itas \dpiv I 
*2 tov ydpov to avpiroo-iov koA- 

kvfia €T\av tcpva. 

Fll change that name with 

And what make you from 

Wittenberg, Horatio? 
Marcellus ? 

Marcellus. My good lord — 
IZam. I am very glad to 

see you. (To Bernardo) 

Good even, sir. 
But what, in faith, make you 

from Wittenberg ? 

Hor. A truant disposition, 

good my lord. 
Ham. I would not hear your 

enemy say so, 
Nor shall you do mine ear that 

To make it truster of your own 

Against yourself: I know you 

are no truant. 
But what is your affair in Elsi- 

nore ? 
We'll teach you to drink deep 

ere you depart. 

Hor. My lord, I came to see 
your father's funeral. 

Ham. I pray thee, do not 

mock me, fellow-student ; 
I think it was to see my mother's 

Hor. Indeed, my lord, it 

followed hard upon. 
Ham. Thrift, thrift, Horatio ! 

the funeral baked meats 
Did coldly furnish forth the 

marriage tables. 

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nrov&oT€p6v fiov, 


)v rjp,€pav ! 

i fiovy irarkpa p.ov I — 
o/jll((o ttws tov fikkirto! 
r. "Ql Uod Kakel 

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r. K' cyu) tov €io\t fiid 
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.los I 

• "12/ ?}to avSpas . . . 
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>v ofioiov tov! 

r. Av^cVra /aov, fwv 

uverai tov €t8a X^ s 

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r. Tov 7raT€pa crov, tov 
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Would I had met my dearest 

foe in heaven 
Ere I had ever seen that day, 

Horatio ! 
My father ! — methinks I see my 


Hot. 0, where, my lord ? 
Ham. In my mind's 

eye, Horatio. 
Hor. I saw him once; he 

was a goodly king. 

Ham. He was a man, take 
him for all in all, 
I shall not look upon his like 

Hot. My lord, I think I saw 
him yesternight. 

Ham. Saw ? who ? 
Hor. My lord, the king your 

Ham. The king my 

father ! 
Hor. Season your admiration 
for a while 
With an attent ear, till I may 

Upon the witness of these gentle- 
This marvel to you. 

Ham. For God's love, 

let me hear. 
Hor. Two nights together 
had these gentlemen, h 
Marcellii8 and Bernardo, on their | 

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In the dead waste and middle of 

the night, 
Been thus encountered : a figure 

like your father, 
Armed at point exactly, cap-a-p^, 
Appears before them and with 

solemn march 
Goes slow and stately by them : 

thrice he walked 
By their oppressed and fear- 
surprised eyes, 
Within his truncheon's length ; 

whilst they, distilled 
Almost to jelly with the act of 

Stand dumb and speak not to 

him. This to me 
In dreadful secrecy impart they 

And I with them the third night 

kept the watch : 
Where, as they had delivered, 

both in time, 
Form of the thing, each word 

made true and good, 
The apparition comes. I knew 

your father ; 
These hands are not more like. 

Ham. But where was this ? 

Mar. My lord, upon the plat- 
form where we watched. 

Ham. Did you not speak to it ? 

Hor. My lord, I did ; 

But answer made it none ; yet 

once, methought, 
It lifted up its head and did address 

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Itself to motion, like as it would 

But even then the morning cock 

crew loud, 
And at the sound it shrunk in 

haste away, 
And vanished from our sight. 

Ham. 'Tis very strange. 

Hor. As I do live, iny 
honoured lord, 'tis true ; 
And we did think it writ down 

in our duty 
To let you know of it. 

Ham. Indeed, indeed, sirs, 
but this troubles me. 
Hold you the watch to-night ? 

Mar. and Ber. We do my 

Ham. Armed, say you ? 

Mar. and Ber. Armed, my 

Ham. From top to toe ? 

Afar, and Ber. My lord, 

from head to foot 
Ham. Then saw you not his 

Hor. 0, yes, my lord ; he 

wore his beaver up. 

Ham. Whatj looked he 

frowningly ? 
Hor. A countenance more 

in sorrow than in anger. 
Ham. Pale or red ? 
Hor. Nay, very pale. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



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€p\0/JL€V7JV VVKTa, 

Ham. And fixed his 

eyes upon "you ? 
Hor. Most constantly. 
Ham. I would I had 

been there. 
Hor. It would have much 

amazed you. 
Ham. Very like, very like. 

Stayed it long ? 

Hor. While one with moder- 
ate haste might tell a 

Mar. and Ber. Longer, longer. 

Hor. Not when I saw't. 

Ham. His beard was 

grizzled, — no ? 
Hor. It was, as I have seen 
it in his life, 
A sable silvered. 

Ham. I will watch to- 

night : 
Perchance 'twill walk again. 
Hor. I warrant it will. 

Ham. If it assume my noble 

father's person, 
111 speak to it, though hell itself 

should gape 
And bid me hold my peace. I 

pray you all, 
If you have hitherto concealed 

this sight, 
Let it be tenable in your silence 

And whatsoever else shall hap 

Give it an understanding, but 

no tongue : 

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'2 tov vovv <ras va to €\€T€ 9 

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pera<f>pdxras to Spapa e\ei (us 
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To ovo/wi tou Kvpiov Bi/ccXa 
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€7TtTvx<Ss pere<f>pao-ev eh rr)V 
'AyyXtKrjv yXwro-av 6 ev Aov- 

I will requite your loves. So, 

fare you well : 
Upon the platform, 'twixt eleven 

and twelve, 
111 visit you. 

All. Our duty to your 

Ham. Your loves, as mine 

to you : farewell. 

What do you think of the 
translation ? 

Very good : but I must con- 
fess that there were some words 
and phrases which I did not 
understand very well. 

That was natural, for the 
translator of the play employs 
principally the vernacular and 
not the language as it is written 
by the learned : but when you 
have thoroughly learnt both, 
you will not find much differ- 
ence between them. 

By whom was the translation 

By Mr. Demetrius Bikelas, 
who has translated into vernac- 
ular Greek several other plays 
of Shakespeare. 

The name of Mr. Bikelas is 
familiar to me, for I have read 
an historical tale of his, which 
pleased me very much. 

Do you mean Loukis Laras ? 

Yes. The work which was 
translated into English so suc- 
cessfully by the Greek am- 

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0a KafMDfxev kolXol 7rplv <£#ao"a>- 
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*As vwdywpAv Xonrbv evOvs tg>- 
pa va toI dyopdcr<Dp,€V, Slotl perd 
to ycv/ta 8cv 0a, €\(apev Kaipov, 

bassador in * London, Monsieur 

I see the sky has begun to 
be overcast, and I am afraid 
that it will rain. 

Yes, I think the weather is 
turning to rain, so let us hasten 
to the hotel 

There, it has already begun to 
drizzle. Put up your umbrella, 
please, for I did not bring mine, 
as I thought we should have 
fine weather. 

There is no occasion. It was 
only a passing cloud, and the sun 
has shone out again charmingly. 

That reminds me of the 
passage attributed to Anacreon — 
" The Titan shone out softly, 
the cloud-shadows are moving." 

And upon my word it is a 
good thing they do move : and 
I have no doubt that they are 
going towards London, their 
native land. How much more 
useful they would be if they 
went to Greece ! 

Are they then so much desired 
there ? 

Not only desired but quar- 
relled about, as is clear from the 
proverb " For the shade of the 

If that is so, we should do 
well, before arriving in Greece, 
to buy broad-brimmed hats and 
good sun-shades. 

Let us go then now at once 
and buy them, for after dinner 
we shall have no time. 

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£7n/3(apL€V. — Eis tov crradpLov 
tov AikoV. — IIoAv KaAa. 

This hat suits you very well 
Now you look like a real 
traveller. These sun-shades are 
on purpose for hot climates. 
Now let us go and have our 

At what o'clock do we start? 

At eight forty precisely. 

We have then two hours at 
our disposal. 

Let us go to the restaurant 
opposite. It is famous for its 
roast meat. . . . 

Now let us go to our hotel 
and pay the hotel-keeper and be 

Our bill, if you please. — 
Seventy francs. 

You pay, and I will give you 
the thirty-five francs when we 
arrive at the station. 

The carriage is ready. Let 
us get in. — To the station for 
Lyons. — All right ! 

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avcwravriKa. Ev^o/Aat vet /at) 
fias €voxXi}<ry /caret? t*)v vv/cra. 

*A$ KOip,r)$U)fl€V Tto/OO, SlOTfc 

cycu ttoAi; vwrafa>. 2as €v\OfJLai 
Kakrjv VVKTO. 

KaXrjpepa <ras. 'Ekoi/at}- 
^/i€v iroXv jcaAa. Evrv^ws 
Kavcts Scv /*as t qv(o\\rj(T€ ttjv 
vvkto. Tt <5/>a €?v<u ; 

E£ 7ra/oa rkraprov. 'AAA* as 
avoi^u)/i€ v rot irapadvpa 6Va>s a va- 
ffV€ixru>/A€v oAtyov KaOapov dc/oa. 


We have arrived in good time 
at the station. Our luggage has 
been safely put in the luggage- 
van. It now remains for us 
to find, if possible, an empty 
carriage. Here is one. Get in. 
You take that corner, for I know 
that you prefer having your 
back to the engine. I shall lie 
down here, for I am dreadfully 
tired. There now, the train is 
moving. We are off. 

Would you like me to shut 
the window ? 

If you please : for the night- 
air is cold. 

That is all right. We are very 
comfortable. I hope no one will 
disturb us during the night. 

Now let us go, to sleep, for I 
am very sleepy. I wish you 

Good - morning. We slept 
very well. Fortunately no one 
disturbed us in the night What 
o'clock is it ? 

A quarter to six. But let us 
open the windows, so as to get a 
little breath of fresh air. 

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Tt Xap,irpbs Kaupos I ITocrov 
ev^dpurros eTvcu ij Trpoyivrj avpa, 
*H Koikas Sid rrjs oTrotas 8i€p- 
XOfJLtOa eTvai ypafaKWTOLTr). 
Kvrra^aTC Trocrov \api&vTws 
/hci 6 irorapjbs Aatoxrts / At 
6\6ai avrov eTvai #caTa</>vroi. 

*H fXLKpa €K€LVTJ TTeSlds cfvGU 

xA^p^s iapw&v av0€<ov. "OA.T/ 

•q irept£ X^P - *? vai TepTrvoraTq. 

TLXrj<rid(op.€v vo/ufco els (rraO- 

fJLOV rtva, oiotl rjXaTTioOt) Yj 
ra\vT7fS rrjs dpLa^ooTOi\Las. 

Etvai 6 crradpos tt}s Ktofio- 
7rdXc(os 2a/*y8c/ov. Tlevre pavov 
Xeirrd pJevopev evravda, 'IBov 
7raA.iv €Kivrj<rap,€v. UapeTqprj- 
(rare els rbv OTadphv to wXrjOos 

TQ)V deCLTtoV ' f AcV VOpC(€T€ 

otl oi irXeurroi o)pLoia£ov pJe 
'IraAovs ; 

Eis ravra rd p*pv\ rd 8vo 
€$VTj y oi YdWoi Kal 'IraXoi, 
eTvai oXiyov dvapepiypcevoi, 
a A. A* e-KiKparei /?€/?cug>s to 
TaXXiKbv o-roi\elov. "la-ins ol 
ev t<£ oTadpup tfo~av Ta£ei8ib)Tai 
€K rrjs Bopeiov 'Irakias. 

IIoAv WtOaVOV. 'AAA* €LT€ 

'Irakol €?vat, eire TaAAot, rj 
y\<o<r<ra dp<j)OTepu)V etvat Tpavbv 
T€Kprjpiov rrjs peydXys Svvd- 
peios rov dpyalov 'Pio/AaiVcoO 

Ol e Pw/xatot etyov (OS KVpLOV 
avTiov peXrjpa vd ewiKpary r) 
yXwro'd t<ov els Tot /a€/ot/ ra 


ap\lav t<0Vi Kal u>s eK tovtov 
irepl rd reX-q rrjs TerdpTrjs 
iKarovTaerrjplSos rj AariviKrj 

What splendid weather ! How 
pleasant the morning breeze is! 
The valley through which we 
are passing is most picturesque. 
See how gracefully the river 
Laisse flows. Its banks are 
covered with vegetation. That 
little plain there is full of spring 
flowers. The whole of the 
country around is most delightful. 

We are approaching some 
station, I think, for the train 
has lessened its speed. 

It is the station of the little 
town of Chambery. We only 
stay five minutes here. There, 
we are on the move again. Did 
you notice in the station the 
number of spectators? Don't 
you think the majority looked 
like Italians? 

In these parts the two nations, 
the French and Italians, are 
rather mingled, but the French 
element decidedly prevails. 
Perhaps the people in the sta- 
tion were travellers from North 

Very likely : but whether 
they be French or Italians, the 
language of both is clear evi- 
dence of the great power of the 
ancient Roman empire. 

The Romans took especial 
care that their language should 
prevail in those parts which 
were under their sway ; con- 
sequently about the end of the 
fourth century the Latin tongue 
became general in the Roman 

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yAoxnra Karearrrj yeviKrj ivrbs 
tou 'Pco/xatVcov KpdrovSy Ik twv 
OKTiov rrjs B/>€TTavtas p*XP l 
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Etvat Oavfxa ttws 6*€V Ittc- 
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Tfirjfia rov 'Pw/iaiVcov Kpdrovs, 

'O Aoyos ctvat cwrAouo-TaTos. 
Ta «V tq ccrTrcpta J&vpwTry Wvr) 


kyjv <j>iXoXoyiav ci^or tot€, /cat 
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Padfwv KaT€yorjT€v<r€ tovs 

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e$€top€iTO (os €^a>v apfiofavcrav 
/cat KaXrjv dvarpo<f>rjv lav fev 
eyviapife T^'EAA^vt/oyv. 

"Oo"a ct7TCTC ctvat a Ar^co-raTa' 
StoVt /cat vvv €Tt €?vat <f>av€pa ^ 

empire, from the cliffs of Britain 
to the shores of the Adriatic 

It is a wonder that it did 
not prevail also in the eastern 
division of the Roman empire. 

The reason is very simple. 
The nations in western Europe 
had in those days neither any 
civilisation nor any national 
literature, and consequently the 
language of their conquerors, as 
well as their manners and cus- 
toms, were easily introduced 
among them ; but in the East 
the case was different. Here 
the Hellenic civilisation, which 
originated in Greece, and was 
disseminated by Alexander the 
Great and his successors through- 
out all the countries which this 
Macedonian conqueror subdued, \ 
had taken deep root, and the j 
Greek language was the common . 
medium for everybody, both in 
literature and trade. The Rom- < 
ans tried by every kind of means ; 
to make their own language pre- 
vail also here, but not only had 
they no success at all, but the 
Greek language made a tri- 
umphal entry into Rome itself, 
and cast its magic spell upon the 
Romans to such a degree that no 
citizen was considered to have re- 
ceived a befitting and really good 
education unless he knew Greek. 

What you say is very true, 
for even at the present day the 

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30V 7rapa/3aXXop€vrj 

tov IIAaTwvos /cat 

aOVttV TOV, C/C 7T/3(OT^S 

power and imperishable nature 
of the Greek language is manifest 
The Latin language, like a good 
mother, gave birth to and fos- 
tered many languages, Italian, 
French, Spanish, Portuguese 
and Roumanian, but she herself, 
as a living language, has ceased 
to exist for many ages. Is there 
in any part of the world a nation 
which speaks Latin? The Greek 
language, on the contrary, from 
the earliest ages down to the 
present day remains a living 
tongue. Travel all over in- 
dependent Greece, both the 
continent and the islands ; go 
to Epirus, Macedonia and Thrace ; 
pass to Constantinople ; visit 
all the maritime cities of Asia 
Minor, and the islands under 
Turkish rule : everywhere you 
will hear the inhabitants speak- 
ing Greek. 

This is acknowledged by all 
travellers ; but you cannot deny 
that the Greek of the present 
day is not in all respects like 
the ancient language. 

But do we say that it is 
so ? The Greek language, like 
every other, has in the course 
of its long life undergone certain 
changes and alterations, but these 
were never fundamental but only 
external. The language of 
"Homer, when compared with 
that of Plato and his contem- 
poraries, at first sight appears 

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0^€<t>$ <f>aiV€TaL OOTHtf6fc>? 8id- 

<l>opos, d\M orav res k^eroxrg 
avrrjv KaXok €vpicrK€i Sri cfvcu 
rj avrrj. *H drriKr) SiciAcictos 
«ri 'AXe^dvSpov rod /xeydkov 
kolI tmv 8ia86)(0)v TOV, Karcur- 
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ptpos rrjs dp\LKrjs avrfjs kar- 
Torqros ' cTrt'Pai/Aatcov eri 7T€pur~ 

(TOTCpOV' €7Tl 8k BufaVTIVtoV r) 

8ia<f>0opa avrrjs viri}p£e fJLtyurrrj ' 
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pdkrj pk avOpunrov 7rAowriov, 


Trjs TTc/Diowtas toi>, aAA* o^t 

*H irapofioiaxris eTvai KaraA- 

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p*Ta<l>pd(oVT€S avrb (rvy\p6vo)S 
€is rr)v (rrjpcpivrjv 'EAAtjvik^v. 


materially different^ but if 
any one examines it carefully, 
lie finds that it is the same. 
The Attic dialect, in the time 
of Alexander the Great and his 
successors, having become uni- 
versal, lost much of its original 
subtlety ; in the time of the 
Romans still more ; and in the 
time of the Byzantines its cor- 
ruption was very great ; still no 
one ever ventured to say that 
thf language_of_ihe Byzantine 
autnors was not Greek. The 
Greek language may be com- 
pared to a wealthy man who 
has lost a great part of his 
property, but not. the whole. 

1. 'Ey dpxS c'lrolrjo'ev 
& debs rbv ovpavbv kclI 

The comparison is appropriate. 

The decay, however, of the 
Greek language can be seen 
very clearly even before the 
Byzantine epoch. Compare, for 
instance, the first chapter of 
Genesis according to the Septu- ; 
agfnt with the Greek language J 
as^liow written, and you will 
find great similarity. I have 
with me a copy of the Old 
Testament. Here is the first 
chapter. I beg you to do me the 
favour to read me a part of it, 
translating^ it at the same time 
into modern Greek. 

With pleasure. 

'Ei/ apxi iirolr)<r€v 6 In the beginning God / 

debs rbv ovpavbv kclI tV 

created the heaven and 
the earth. 

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2. 'H te yij fp> dbpa- 
rot teal dicoTo<riccrJo<jTOS, 
Kal <tkotos iirdvta ttjs 
&fZfo<rov ' Kal irvcvpa 
Beov iweftpero iwdvia 
tov Wotoj. 

8. Kal elwev b Bebs 
TevriB-fyna <f&s, Kal iy4- 
vcto if&s. 

4. Kal elbev b Bebs Tb 
<f&s &ti Ka\6v. Kal Sie- 
Xvpurev b Bebs dvd p.kcov 
tov (pwrbs kcU dvd pu&aov 


5. Kal UdXeaev b 
debt to 4>ws Ijfie'pav, Kal 
t6 ff kotos iK&\e<r€ vfara. 
Kal iyivero ivirlpa Kal 
iyivero xport, ijfUpa fda. 

6. Kal etirev b 0ebs 
Tepri$^na <rTep4cjfia lv 
fxtffy tov USaros Kal forta 
SiaxvpLfov dva fxiaov 
titiaTos Kal tidaros. Kal 
iytvero oQtcjs. 

7. Kal iirolTi<Tev b 
debs rb aTepkwpja' Kal 
biex&pwev b Bebs ova 
fiiaov tov tibaros, 6 ty 
inroK&Tia tov arepedfia- 
ros, Kal dva fUcov tov 
iibaros tov iirdvv tov 


8. Kal iK&Xeaev 6 
Oebs rb ffrepc'wfia ovpa- 
vbv ' Kal etbev b Bebs 6ti 
koX6v Kal iytvero ia- 
iripa, Kal iye'vero Tpuf, 
rjfjie'pa SevT^pa. 

9. Kal etirev b 0e6s, 
2wax07fa"w Tb tibwp rb 
vtok&tu) tov ovpavov els 
Gvvayurftiv fdav, Kal 6<p- 
0j)T<a i) £np&, Kal iye'vero 
ovTWS ' Kal avvfixdt} Tb 

tidiOp Tb VVOK&TU TOV 

ovpavov els ras cwa- 

'HW^ fpo dbparos 
Kal aKaTacKetiaoros, Kal 
ff kotos iirdvu ttjs d/3tf<r- 
aov Kal wvevfia Beov 
i<p4pero iw&vw tov 05a- 


Kal elvev b 0e6s, *As 
yelvy 0ws, *al kyewe 

Kal elbev b 0ebs rb 
<pds 6rt ffro kclK6p, Kal 
8i€x<*>pi<rev b Oebs to </>&* 

dvb TOV ffKOTOVS. 

Kal iKdXeeev b 6ebs 
rb 4&s fyfUpav, koI Tb 
ffKoros iK&keae vfara. 
Kal iy&vcv fowipa, koI 
(yewe irpwtfyfUpa wpdrrq. 

Kal el-rev b Beds,* As 
yelvy arepitafia iv fUffip 
tov 05aros, koI As <5ta- 
X<*>pl£v 0&M"« dirb v8d- 
twv, Kal tyeivev otirm. 

Kal ewolricev b Bebs 
rb GTep4uina ' Kal 8ie- 
X&ptvev b Bebs dva fUaov 

TOV tidcLTOS, rb bTOlOV 

ffro vwoKdrcj tov areped*- 
yuaros, *al dva puiaov tov 
tibaros tov iirdvu) tov 

Kal iKdXevev b Bebs 
rb ffTepiwpja ovpavbv ' 
koI eTSev b Bebs 6rt ffro 
koX6v ' Kal tyeivev ia- 
Tr^pa, *cal tyeive irpwt, 
7)fxtpa bevripa. 

Kal etirev b Beds, *As 
ffwaxBy rd Hbtap rb viro- 
Kdro) tov ovpavov els 
avvaywyty piav, koX As 
<pavy i) &pd } Kal tyeivev 
oOtcos' Kal <rwfixBi)ffav 
Tb. OSara ra inroKdru) 
tov ovpavov els ras <rwa- 

And the earth was 
without form, and 
void ; and darkness 
was upon the face of 
the deep. And the 
Spirit of God moved 
upon the face of the 

And God said, Let 
there be light : and 
there was light. 

And God saw the 
light, that it was good : 
and God divided the 
light from the dark- 

And God called the 
light Day, and the 
darkness he called 
Night. And the even- 
ing and the morning - 
were the first day. 

And God said, Let 
there be a firmament 
in the midst of the 
waters, and let it di- 
vide the waters from 
the waters : and it was 

And God made the 
firmament, and divided 
the waters which were 
under the firmament 
from the waters which 
were above the firma- 

And God called the 
firmament Heaven : 
and God saw that it 
was good : and the 
evening and the morn- 
ing were the second day. 

And God said, Let 
the waters under the 
heaven be gathered to- 
gether unto one place, 
and let the dry land 
appear : and it was so : 
and the waters under 
the heaven were gath- 

i by Google 



y(ayhs aimav, Kal &<pOrj 

10. Kai Ud\e(T€v 6 
debt tV £yp&y yrj v > Ka -l 
rb (rfamiiLa twv tiddrcw 
iicdXeee 0a\da<ras. 

yuryhs avrQv Kal i<pdvrj 

Kai iic&\€<rev 6 $ebs 
rV j-rfpdv yrjv, Kal rb 
fftiffTrjfM twv vddruiv 
iicdXecre daXdurcras. 

Tovro vofJLifa dpKei €K rrjs 
T€V€<r€Q)S. *As dvayv(0<r(ofi€v 
Tiapa Kal fiepos Tt €K rrjs Katies 
/XtaOrjKTjs. 9 Avoi£ar€ rb IA' 
Kt<f>d\aiov rrjs 'AiroKaXvfaios. 
'EiriT/x^arc /*ot, £ya> v* a very i- 

PWOTCO) TO dpxaLOV K€lfl€VOV, 

Vjiets 8c fJL€Ta<j>pd(€T€ avrb 
Kara Ai£iv els ttjv (rrjficpivriv 

ered together unto one 
place, and the dry land 

And God called the 
dry land Earth : and 
the gathering together 
of the waters called he 

I think this is enough from 
Genesis. Now let us read a 
portion from the New Testa- 
ment. Open the 14th chapter 
of the Apocalypse. Allow me 
to read the ancient text, and / 
you translate it word for word 
into modern Greek. 

14. Kai cWov, kal 
Hob v€<j>i\rj Xewofr, Kal 
brl rty ve<pi\r/v KaO^fie- 
POi fpoios vl$ dvOp&irov, 
fywr iirl ttjs K€<pa\i)s 
afoov ar&pavov xP v<rou v, 
koX iv 777 x €l pl *vrov 
ipiravov 6£6. 

15. Kai AXkos ayye- 
Xo! O-rjXdev iK tov vaov 
Kpd$(av iv peydXy 4>(avjj 
t£ Ka$7ifUv(p iirl rrjs 
papiXip, "ntfifov rb 
ipiravbv <rov Kal Oipiaov, 
hn fjXOi <roi if &pa tov 
Biplaaiy 6ri O-TjpdvBri 6 
Ofptffixos rip yip." 

16. Kai tpaXev 6 Ka- 
fyfievos iirl rV v€<pi\rfv 
rb dpiiravov avrov iirl 
tV yrpt Kal i$epL<rdrj ij 
ll. Kai *XXos &y- 

TeXos iffiXdev iK tov 
rcu>0 tov iv t$ ovpav<p, 
tx<av Kal avrbs Spiwavov 

18. Kai AXkos &y- 

Kai elbov, Kal Idov 
v€<f>i\T) \evKJ, koI ixl 
ttjs v€<pi\Tis iKdOrjrd tis 
8/xoios ixk vlbv dvdpdnrov, 
^Xwv ixl ttjs K€<f>a\r)s 
avrov (ni<f>avov -xpvffovv t 
icai iv t% x«/>i avrov 
Spiiravov <$£tf. 

Kal &\\os dyyeXos 
i^rjXBev iK tov vaov Kpd- 
fav fxerd fxeydXrfS ifxavrjs 
vpbs t6v KaB^fievov iirl 

TT)S V€<t>i\l)iy "Hi/JL\f/OV 

to Spiiravdv <rov Kal Oi- 
piffovy dibri <rol fjkdev tj 
&pa vd Be plays, iireid^ 
ijjr)pdv$Ti 6 Oepio-fibs rfjs 

Kal 6 Ka$jfJL€vos iirl 
ttjs ve<f>i\rji ^/3a\c rb 
Spirravov avrov iirl rty 
yijv, Kal iOepfodri ij yrj. 

Kal AXXos AyyeXos 
O-rjXSev iK tov vaov tov 
iv t<$ ovpavQ, (x (av Ka l 
avrbs Spiiravov <J£i5. 

Kai AXXos AyyeXos 

And I looked, and 
behold, a white cloud, 
and upon the cloud one 
sitting like unto a son 
of man, having on his 
head a golden crown, 
and in his hand a sharp 

And another angel 
came out from the 
temple, crying with a 
great voice to nim that 
sat on the cloud, Send 
forth thy sickle and 
reap : for the time has 
come to thee to reap, 
for the harvest of the 
earth is over-ripe. 

And he that sat on 
the cloud cast his 
sickle upon the earth ; 
and the earth was 

And another angel 
came out from the 
temple which is in 
heaven, he also having 
a sharp sickle. 

And another angel 

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ye\ot ilfiXOer iic tov 
dv<ricuTT7)plov, tx"** Q ov ~ 
alav M tov xvpbs, Kal 
i<pwvT]<r€ Kpavyjj fieydXy 
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rb <J£iJ, " U4fuf/oy <rov rb 
bpixavov rb d£t$, koI 
Tp&yrf(rop tovs pbrpvas 
ttjs yrjs, 6ri iJKfxaaav al 
ortHpvXcd avrrjs" 

19. Kcd tpaXcv b &y- 
yeXos rb bpiicavov avrov 
els rip yrjv, Kal iTptiyrpe 
rip dfixeXov rijs 717s, 
Kal tpaXev els rijv Xrjvbv 
rod dvfiov rod Beov rip 

20. Kal irra-Hi0rf 1j 
Xrfvbs (£<*> rijs TbXeun, 
Kal i£r)Xdev atfia ix ttjs 
Xrivov &xpf> tG>v xaXipuH' 
t(ov tiTTCJVf dxb ffTaSltav 
XiXlwv QaKoaltav. 

i^7JX0€P £k TOV OwTWffT^' 

plov t {x°>v iJ-ovaLav ixl 
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Zpbravov Tb <J£tJ, " Uifi- 
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Kai ixariidri b Xrfvbs 
££w ttjs wrfXcws, Kal ii-r}\- 
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tmnav, els bidamiiw. 
XiXluv il-aKoaLwv <rra$- 

*H ITaAata AiadrJKrj Kara 
tovs e/SSofirJKOVTa €ypd<f>rj iirl 
TlroXefiaLov tou Aayov Kara to 
Itos 283 7T.X., r) fe'AiroKakvif/is 
'Iwdvvov irepl to, reXrj rrjs irp<t>- 
rrjs fJL X. €KaTovracTT/ptoos, Kal 
o/jAos, av /cat irapfjkdov €ktot€ 

TOO~Ol atWVCS, 0€V f3X.€7T€l TtS /AC- 

ydX-qv Sia<f>opav fiera^v rrjs totc 

TOtS \.e£eiS, OVT€ €LS TOLS kAmTCIS 
TWV oVo/ZaTO)!', OVT€ €tS TOVS 

<T)(r)fJLaTurfJLOvs twv prjfiaTiov, 

OVT€ CtS Tt7TOT€ akX.0 OTTOV- 

6a?ov, to 07rotov va akXoioi rrjv 
(f>vcrLV rrjs yX(!>cr(rqs. 'Airopti 
tis T<J> ovTt cts Tt va a7ro8ioa"Q 
rrjv eKTrkrjKTLKTjv ravrrjv 6/xoid- 

came out from the 
altar, he that hath 
power over fire ; and 
he called with a great 
voice to him that had 
the sharp sickle, say- 
ing, Send forth thy 
sharp sickle, and gather 
the clusters of the vine 
of the earth ; for her 
grapes are fully ripe. 

And the angel cast 
his sickle into the 
earth, and gathered 
the vintage of the 
earth, and cast it in- 
to the great winepress 
of the wrath of God. 

And the winepress 
was trodden without 
the city, and there 
came out blood from 
the winepress, even 
unto the bridles of 
the horses, as far as 
a thousand and six 
hundred furlongs. 

The Old Testament according 
to the Seventy was written in 
the time of Ptolemaeus, the son 

and the Revelation of St John 
about the end of the first 
APTifmy after Christ, °"^ yg^ 
although so many centuries have 
passed since then, one sees no 
great difference between the 
Greek <bV that time and the 
present, either in the words or 
the declensions of the nouns or 
the conjugations of the verbs, or 
in any other important particular 
such as would alter the character 
of the language. In fact one is 
at a loss to know to what cause to 
ascribe this astounding similarity. 

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If the Old Testament had 
been translated and the New 
Testament written in the style 
of the Atticists of the time, 
the similarity certainly would 
not have been so great, but 
fortunately the Holy Scriptures 
were written not in the affected 
language of the learned of those 
days, but in that of the people 
which was intelligible to all : a 
language of this kind does not 
readily undergo any change from 
the effect of time. Corais says / 
somewhere, "A language is 
neither created nor changed in 
the space of a few years. A 
long time is required to form 
it, and a long time to effect any ] 
change in it, but it cannot en- 
tirely efface it unless it first 
effaces the nation itself." Besides, 
the Greek nation, although it 
lost its independence and its 
^ancient glory, never lapsed com- 
pletely into barbarism, but, on 
the contrary, even in its ut- 
most prostration, always kept 
alive a spark of its ancient 
civilisation. Learned men were 
never wanting in the Greek 
nation, as is plainly testified by 
their writings, which form an 
unbroken chain extending from 
the earliest times down to the 
present day. 

Gibbon acknowledges this 
when he says, " In their lowest 
servitude and depression the 
subjects of the Byzantine throne 
were still possessed of a golden 

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dvoiyova-av rovs dpxaiovs Orj- 
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fiao-av Kara to \poviKov 8ta- 
vrrjfia to fi€Ta£v tov TtTaprov 

key that could unlock the treas- 
ures of antiquity — of a musical 
and prolific language, that gives 
a soul, to the objects of sense, 
and a body to the abstractions 
of philosophy." 

But unfortunately this valu- 
able key very few employed, 
and they unskilfully. And those 
of them who managed somehow 
to penetrate into the interior of | 
the treasury, enchanted with the 
beauty of its ancient treasures, 
attempted to imitate them, and 
wrote in a language full indeed 
of Attic phrases and words, but 
miles behind the original ; but 
those who only peeped into the 
treasury through a little window 
and did not feel the magic 
power of its contents, wrote in 
an unstudied style in the lan- 
guage of the people of their day. 
Such are Pachomios, Palladius , 
CyrijlU8 _the Scythopolitan. Eu^ 
agrios, Johannes Moschus, and 
the author oTTiKe" Great Lvmo- 

When did these authors 
flourish? and what did they 
write about? For I must 
acknowledge that this is the 
first time I have heard their 

I cannot tell you exactly, but I 
think that they flourished in the 
period between the fourth and 
the eighth century after Christ 

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cavrov els /JLlKpOV Tt KcAAtOV 
fJUJLKpCLV €K€t0€V aTT^ActO-tV." 

They wrote the lives of martyrs, 
ascetics, and saints. Here are 
some extracts from the Great 
Lvnwnarium, which is commonly 
believed to have been written 
about. 4.Q Q a r> T. copied them 
into this note-Ddok a long time 
ago as specimens of the ordinary 
'language of those days. 

But I see that you have not 
confined yourself entirely to 
these, but that you have a large 
collection of specimens of the 
Greek language in its decline. 

Would you like me to read 
some of them to you ? 

You will oblige me very 
much. But I beg you to keep 
to the chronological order so 
that the gradual decline of the 
language may be apparent 

Here is an extract from the 
Lausawon of P ajjadius _ jwho 
flourished in 408 a.d. "We 
saw also one of the fathers who 
lived there, by name Ammon- 
ins, who had excellent cells 
and a courtyard and a well and 
other accommodation. When 
one of the brethren came to 
him who was anxious to be 
saved, and begged him to find 
for him a cell to live in, he 
went out as if for this purpose, 
after telling him not to leave 
the cells until he had found for 
him a fitting residence. Then 
leaving to him everything he 
possessed, cells and all, he went 
and shut himself up in a little 
cell far away from there/' 

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dOvpia Kal dftcAeta igrjkOev 
tov Kocrpov tovtov. Kai ^0- 

The following extract is from 
the 6rreo£ Limonarium, 490 a.d. 
( Theodoras) . "Three robbers 
-once attacked him, and while 
two of them held him, the 
third carried off his effects : and 
having taken away his books he 
also wanted to take his surplice. 
Then he said to them, * let that 
alone.' But they would not. 
And with a movement of his 
arms he threw the two men 
down. Seeing this they were 
frightened. Then the old man 
said to them, * do not be afraid, 
divide the things into four parts, 
take three and leave one/ And 
they did so, by his taking as 
his portion the surplice which 
he wore at mass." 

The following is from the 
-works of Johannes Moscjiiis^ 814 
a.d. " An old man was^seated 
outside the town of Antino, a 
great man, who had passed about 
seventy years in his cell. He had 
ten disciples, and he had one who 
was utterly careless about him- 
self. So the old man used often 
to admonish and exhort him, 
saying, * brother, take thought 
for your soul ; you will have to 
die and go to the place of 
punishment' But the brother 
always disobeyed the old man, 
not accepting his advice. It 
happened that after some time 
the brother died ; and the old 
man was very sorry for him, 
for he knew that he had departed 
from this world in entire des- 

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pondency and carelessness,. And 
the old man began to pray, say- 
ing, ' Lord Jesus Christ, our true 
God, reveal to me all about the 
soul of this brother.' And he 
actually saw, while he was in a 
state of ecstasy, a river of fire 
and a crowd of people in the 
fire itself, and in the midst of 
them the brother sunk up to 
his neck. Then the old man 
said to him, 'Did I not, my 
child, exhort you to take thought 
for your soul on account of this 
punishment ? ' Then the brother 
answered and said to the old 
man, ' I thank God, father, that 
my head at least is at ease, for 
through your prayers I am 
standing on the top of a bishop's 

From the Ghronicon Paschale, 
610 a .d. "In this year, in 
the month"" of HyperBeretaeus, 
or, according to the Romans, on 
the 3d of October, on the 7th 
day of the week, a great many 
ships appeared off the round 
castle, and in one of them was 
Heraclius, the son of Heraclius. 
And on the same day towards 
evening Phocas entered the city 
on his return from his procession 
to Hebdomon, and came on 
horseback to the palace there. 
And on the following day, 
that is to say on Sunday, 
when the ships had approached 
the city, Bonosus, who had per- 
petrated such atrocities in Great 
Antioch, as a viceroy under 

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Phocas, at the instigation of 
Theophanes of accursed memory, 
and who was then in the city, 
after attempting to set fire to 
the neighbourhood of Caesarium 
and failing in his design, took 
to flight, and coming in a ship 
to the harbour of Julian, in what 
is called the Maurus quarter, was 
so hard pressed by his pursuers 
that he threw himself into the 
sea, and being wounded while 
in the water by the sword of a 
life-guardsman, died then and 
there. And when his body 
was cast ashore, it was dragged 
off and taken to the Bull and 

The following passage is from 
.Leo Grammaticus, 1013 a.d. 
"In the royal procession dur- 
ing Peiitecost, when King Leo 
went to St. Mocius, and while 
making his solemn entry was 
approaching the dais, somebody 
coming out of the pulpit struck 
him on the head with a strong 
and thick stick, and if the force 
of the stick had not been dead- 
ened by its coming in contact 
with the chandelier, it would 
have killed him on the spot." 

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Bv£avTiV(ov (rvyypa<f>€Q)v T€K- 
prjpia rrjs ykwro-qs rov Aaov, 
kolI 6*ia va o"x^/*aTMnyTC ISkav 
two. Trcpt avTtov avdyvu)T€ ras 
c£fjs irtpiKOiras Ik twv irpoXzyo- 
pkvuxv rov 2. Zap.7reX.iov cts rot 
Ajy/*OTt#ca "^(r/xara ('Ev Kep- 
% 1852). 

"'Eav Kar* €UTv^iav €^ov 
SuwioOrj 7roAA.a #cat SitgobiKa 
TCKprjpui yXd^roirfS dyopaias kv 
rats SwiSo^tKars rijs urTopias 
€iro^a?s, rjde\op*v kvur^vdrj 6*ta 


The language of the extracts 
which you have just read to 
me, though simple and easily in- 
telligible, preserves nevertheless 
in many respects the character 
of the ancient language. "What 
I should very much like to 
learn is, at what time the Greek, 
as it is now spoken, began to 
make its appearance in the 
written language. 

To fix exactly the epoch when 

plag iraff t ^ r wh^ p ^ lf llflB Qf t1lp 
present day is not an easy matter, 
-feooiljhe eighth centurj^there 
begin to appear in the writings 
of the Byzanline^authors signs 
of the popular^ language ; and in 
order~T;hat you may form some 
idea about them, read the fol- 
lowing extracts from the preface 
of S. Zampelius to the Songs of 
the People (Corfu, 1852). 

"If by good fortune many f 
extensive examples of the vulgar | 
tongue had been preserved in 
the successive historical epochs, 
we should have been more com- / 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




<rvyKpt,Tucfjs /^Acn/s va <rvfi<- 

7T€pdviafJL€V TOfTOV 7TC/31 TttV WvO- 

koyiKtov alrtw, <xra crvvkftaXov 
els rr)v aWoiuxriv rrjs dp\aias 
yXuKnrrjSy ocrov teal irepl twv 
akk(t>v amttv, airtp Trpot^kvrp-av 
rrjv <rvy\<6v€v<riv nav 8ia<j>6p(ov 
dpyamv 'EXXtjvlkiov 8iaX.€KT(ov. 
Avotv\(os opu&s airdvis Kvpuvtt, 
fieyiorrj ir€pl rot roiavra KaO' 
okas tol$ eiroxas, kcu €£cu/xto>s 
7rapa rots Bvfavrivots (rvyypa- 
<j>€\kr iv 9 o$€v €ifJL€$a KaTqvayKao'- 
fjLtvoi va 7rpocr<f>vyo)fi€v €?s rtva 
fipayka, donjvdprrjra, kou iviore 
vtto t<ov KaroLKaipovs <f>i\o\6yb)V 
vevoOevpxva T€Kfirjpia, Ik 8k 
rovTiov toiv SXlyiov kou areAtov 
8€iy/xaT0>v va i£eiKdxr<i>fJL€v irepl 

TtOV <f>dxT€(i)V KCU 7T€pL7r€T€liOV TTJS 

veoeWrjVLKrjs rjfuav oWAcktov. 
C H dp^aiOTqs Kal 6 fJLecraitbv 
d\pt rrjs IB' €KaTOVTa€TYJpL8oS 
V7TO 8tak€KToXoytK7JV €lTO\plV 

oktyurras irapk\ovo-LV el&rjcreis, 

^oPovfieda 8k fir) to K€vbv tovto 

* P*Ivq 8ia iravros d7r\rjp<orov a>s 

€K rrjs dfiekcias twv \povoypd~ 

<fxt)V. McT€7TClTa €7T€Tat r) TWV 

KofjLvrjvwv tirox*), jjs Scty/itaTa 
8taA.cKTtKa iridavov 7roAXa va 
dvaKa\v<f>$<acriv €ts rds /?t- 
f$\iodr)Kas rrjs Ev/OGwnjs, 8ta- 
TcXccavTa /*€Yjoi rrjs (rrjfi€pov 
dv€K8ora, 'EttciSt) 8c irporidk- 
fi€$a va (r\€8idxTiop.€V ifagrjs 
jjlWo86v nva 8ta\€Kro\oyiKrjs 
epevvrjs, Kvpitas tov /aco-cimovos, 
KpcvofJb€V €vX.oyov va K<ZTa- 

\0)pl(T(i}pL€V 67TI TOV ITapOVTOS 

oklya tlvol x w P«* tt)s 18mtl8os 

petent, by means of comparative 
study, to come to a conclusion, 
both as to the ethnological causes 
which contributed to the alter- 
ation of the ancient language, 
and as to the other causes which 
produced the amalgamation of the 
different ancient Greek dialects. 
But unfortunately the greatest 
scarcity of such examples prevails 
throughout all the epochs, and 
especially among the Byzantine 
authors, and we are therefore 
obliged to have recourse to 
certain short unconnected ex- 
amples, sometimes garbled by 
scholars nf fTiP flay and 


from these scanty and incom- 
plete specimens to make our 
conjectures regarding the changes 
and vicissitudes of our modern 
Greek dialect. The ancient 
times and the middle ages up 
to the twelfth century afford 
very little information from a 
dialectological point of view. 
"We fear that this gap will re- 
main for ever unfilled owing 
to the negligence of the chroni- 
clers. After this period follows 
****- ftp™* 1 nf *h e Comneni. of 
which it is probable that there 
wHT be" "discovered in' The Kb- 
raries of Europe many dialectic 
examples which have remained 
unpublished to this day. Since 
we propose hereafter to sketch 
out a plan of dialectological 
research, especially with regard 
to the middle ages, we think it 
right, just for the present, to 

i by Google 



ykwnrrjSy dvayopueva €ts ttjv H , 
0', T, IA', /cat IB 7 , €KarovTa€T^- 
pib\ yuipia airep anropd&qv 
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Xprjvificvo-hxriv w$ vkrj pakerrjs 
irpbs tovs ircpl ra rotavra Kara- 

TtKfirjptov rrjs H' €KarovTa€-- 
TrjptSos. 'O Koirp(6vvfws irpooif- 
v *Xfy wrpeiTios irpbs KaXoypaidv 
Ttva wpopeftrjKviav p*v ry r)ki- 
Kujf., ttXt^v ^paiordnqv ^Imriicov 
5c dyofj&vovy €Kpa^€V 6 Srj/xos €/*- 

/l€T/Hi)S €V(O7Tl0V TOV /3<KrtX.€0)S 

*'H ' Ay dOrj /xas eyrjpaxre, I 
I icai oi> nyv avavcaxras / f( 
Trjs cVaV^s. ^Hi\ar]X o 

Tpavkos TToXiopKfav rrjv 2avi- 
dvav, rprdTrpre 8ta pkxrov rov 
Olicovopov rrjs ttoXcws tov 
Tafapivov, StOLKrjrrjv avrqs, aVo- 
orctXas dvSpa nva dypoiKov 
wro ra reixrj, \j/dk\ovTa rd 
(£fjs &rjfWTiKov ijurfw, irpos TOV 


"Akowov KVp OlKOVOfie 
tov Tvfltprjv Tt (rov Acyct • 
*Av fwv o\£s t^v 2aviavav 
MrjTpoiroXiTrjv <rc 7roara> 
' NcoKawrca/xtav cov Saxra).' 
'0 ftaxrikcvs 0co<£iA.os d<£t- 
K0/A6VOS €IS Kwv< 
vuciyT^?, Kat mhtikov Troii/cas 
rjfi<f>iecrfX€Vos cis to /3ev€Tov 
Xpwfta, xai/3€TaVai wro twv 

UK, (!>S €7T€Tai — 

insert some passages in the 
vulgar language belonging to the 
ei ghth, ninth , tenth, eleventh, 
and twelfth centuries, which we 
have picked up here and there 
from many sources, that they 
may serve as material for study, 
for those who devote themselves 
to such matters." 

* fi^Lgggtfwry. "The emperor,., 
Copronymus behaved improperly 
to a nun who was advanced in 
age but very beautiful : accord- 
ingly during a horse-race the 
people shouted in the presence of 
the king the following verse — 

* Our Agatha had grown old, 
and you made her young again.' " 

Oth Otmi ury. "The emperor 
Michael the Stammerer, when he 
was besieging Saniana, played 
a trick upon the governor 
Gazarinus through the agency 
of the Oeconomos (rector) of the 
city, by sending a rustic boor to 
the foot of the wall, who sang 
to the Oeconomos the following 
song in the vulgar language — 
* Hear, reverend Oeconomos, 
what Gyberes says to you : 
if you give me Saniana, 
I will make you a Metropolitan, 
I will give you Neocaesareia.' " 
" The emperor Theophilus, 
when he returned victorious to 
Constantinople, and celebrated 
a horse-race dressed in the 
colour of the Blues (one of 
the two factions of the circus), 
was greeted by the people with 
the following address — 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 




' KaAais ftas fjk$€$ dxrvyKpiT€ 
<fxiKTOvdpr) ! ' 

'H /?ao-iA«ro*a QeoSwpa Biapl 
icown/5 rrjs ctKovo/xaxtas, Surrf- 
puro fivariKtos op$68o£os. Ml£ 
8« T(i>v rjfJL€p(ov 6 yekwroiroios 
rrjs avkrjs AcvSc/oi/s, icpv<f>ios 


<rvk\a/3<bv avrr)v eir avTO<j><op<p 
irpovKVvowrav eiKOVurpara, €/wo- 

T^ aVT^V Tt T aVTlK€LfJL€Va 

€K€tva* iy & fiwrLXixrva rov 
yekuiroiroibv diraTuxroL, diro- 
Kpivtrai* 'to, fcaAa puov rot 
vtpia, Ka* aya7rd> ta 7roAAd? 
(Ta vtvta ravra rrjs eucrc^ous 
faoStopas Siarrjpovvrai els to 
opos *A0a>s, €v rjj fuovjj rov 

'Eirl 0co<£iAou /Jao-iAcais, 
Niki/<^o/oos Tts IIpat7rcl><rtTos 
a<f>rjp7ra£€ Kovp.f3a.pLav (irkoiov 
/xeya) X^/° as yvvaiKos. Atrn/ 
8c KaT€<l>vy€V els rovs Trafyv auras 
tou 'ImroSpopiov, oirtves wc- 
crxovro aur# 8io/o#akrat, r^v 
dStKiav 8td nvos prjxavrjs. 
TLoirfa'avres §€ ot avTOt 7rat- 
yviaJrai Kovp./3apiav puicpdv €V 
c^/xaTt 7rAotou p*rd dppkvov 
koX Skvres avrr)v c<f> dpd£-qs 
ptrd rpoxtov, yevopJevov Ittttlkov, 
ka-rrp-av epirpoo'dev rov /3axri\b- 

KOV OTapOLTOS <j>(t)VOVVT€S dkkrj- 

Aots* Xave, Karaite avro' 6 8* 
ckcyer OvSev Svva/iai Iva irourta 

TOVTO' K(H 7rdklV 6 €T€pOS' 'O 

Ni#c»7<£o/)os KaT€7ri€ ykpov TO 
ttAoiov T^S X 1 ?/ 3015 } Ka * °~^ 
ovftkv lo-\v€ts ?va <f>dyys avro; 
'Aicovcras ravra 6 Pacrikevs 


'You are welcome, incom- 
parable chief of charioteers.' " 

" The empress Theodora, dur- 
ing the iconoclastic strife, re- 
mained covertly orthodox. One 
day Denderes the court-jester, 
who was a secret spy in the 
service of the emperor, caught 
her in the act of adoring images, 
and asked her what those objects 
were. The empress, to deceive 
the jester, replied : ' They are 
my pretty dolls and I am very 
fond of them.' (These dolls of 
the pious Theodora are preserved 
on Mount Athos, in the mon- 
astery of Batopedion.) " 

" In the time of the emperor 
Theophilus a certain Nicephorus, 
the chief of the eunuchs, took 
away from a widow a cumbaria 
(a large ship). She went for 
redress to the players of the 
hippodrome, who promised by 
some contrivance or other to 
set right the injustice. These 
players, having made a little 
cumbaria in the fashion of a 
ship with sails, placed it on a 
wheeled cart, and, when the 
horse-races took place, stationed 
it in front of the emperor's 
stand, calling out to one another : 
' Open your mouth and swallow 
this ' ; the other said, ' I cannot 
do it/ and then again another 
said, * Nicephorus swallowed the 
widow's ship cargo and all, 
and you cannot swallow this ? ' 

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haxxre <f>pvydvots tov Il/rot- 

Kaurap Bapoa? SaKVopevos 
ry <f>66v(p 6Vt 6 Bao-tAevs c&t- 
Kwev dydirqv irpos tov BacrC- 


to !£ijs ay opalov irapoipiaKov ' 
~ 'E8uo£afi€v 'AAwircKa, kcuH 
UUrkPr)K€ Acovraptv.' /J 

'Avaic/oto'ts tov IlaT/oiapxov 


«ta to apyaiOTtpov, Kara to 
ovvrjOes, vtto t<ov yjpovo- 

*Av6p4as o Ao|i^rrucos. TviopC- 
fcts, 5 Scottoto, tov 'A/?/Jav 
Seo&iywv ; 

$6tu>$. 'Kfiflav QtoBupov ov 

Ao|iArT. Tov *A#3av Oco- 
&u/X)v tov ^ZavSa^aprjvov ovScv 
yvotpifeis ; 

$6ru>s. Tv(opi(<a pjovov 

tov puova\ov OeoSwpov, apx*- 


AotOfrr. 'A$8a 2av6a- 

fiaprjvk, 6 fiao-iXcvs cparrp ac* 
iroi) cmt* Tot xprjpwLTa /cat Ta 
vpdypara tt}$ fiao-ikeias puov ; 

SavBap. "07rov <fSa>K€V 

avra o /BaxriXevs' vvv 8k hr€i 
Ta f^Tet, c^owtav €^€t fva 
avaXdfly avra. 

AopArr. Emtc, Ttva ^0€A,€S 
voojo-at fiaaikka virodipjevos cts 
tov irarkpa puov tva /t€ TwfrXwrQ • 
o^v oiryycvrj, ^ tov Uarpidp- 

When the emperor heard this 
he had the chief eunuch burnt 
with brushwood." 

"Caesar Bardas, eaten up 
with envy because the emperor 
displayed affection for Basileius, 
repeated to his courtiers the 
following popular proverb — 

'We drove away the fox and 
the lion entered? " 

" Cross - examination of the 
patriarch Photius. 

(Style in some measure gar- 
bled by the chroniclers, as 
usual, to assimilate it to the 
more ancient type.) 

Andreas the Domesticus. My 
lord, do you know the abbot 
Theodore 1 

Photius. I do not know any 
abbot Theodore. 

Domest Do you not know 
the abbot Theodore Sandabar- 

Photius. I only know the 
monk Theodore who is arch- 
bishop of Euchaita. 

Domest Abbot Sandabarenus, 
the emperor asks you : 'Where is 
the money and the property of 
my majesty ? ' 

Sandab. Where the emperor 
gave them : now that he de- 
mands them, he has the power 
to take them back. 

Domest (for the emperor). Say 
whom you wanted to make 
emperor when you suggested to 
my father to blind me. Some 
relation of yours? Or of the 
patriarch ? 

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SavSaf). Ov yvtopifo irepl 
Tiva>v KaTrjyopelre p&. 

Maxtor. Kai irQs ep.rjvvo'as 
T<j> ficurikei, iva ekeyga) irepl 
tovtov rov irarpiapxqv ; 

SavSap. € OpKlfa <T€, 8«r- 
itotol, Kara rov 0€ov, Iva. irp&rov 
iron/joys rr)v KaOatpea-lv /aov, 
#ccu tot£ yvfjivbv ovra rr)s 
Upwrvvrjs, as pk KoXaxTdxrcv ws 
Kaicovpyov ov yap e&jXoxra 
ravra els rov /?ao~iAia. 

<t><4nos. Ma r?)v (TWTYjplav 
rrjs fox^s /*ov, KV/oi Ocoowpc, 
dpxiario-Koiros el koX ev t<£ vvv 
atawe /cat €V T<j) piWovri. 

AojUcrr. (6vp<a6eCs). OvSev 
€fw}vvcras, *A/J/?a, 6Y c/aou €i$ 
tov /?ao-iAia, on iva ekey£<a t5v 
Trarpiapx^v els tovto; #cat t.A- 

T^s Ackcit^s. 1 'E/c rrjs Ta/c- 
ti/o}s KcovaravTtvov tou Uop- 
<f>vpoyevvrjrov, vlov JSaxrikeiov 
tou BovXyapoKTovov aTrooirao-- 

'Apfjuofa 8e, orparqye, av 
Kovpo-evo-dxriv ol 2a/m/o/voi 
evdev rov opovs Tavpov, Iva 
eTnrriSevo-y Kar avrtjv €is rots 
orevds Kkeurovpas rov opovs, 
e£aLp€T0)s orav eTrtOTpefjxatri koi 
Sxrtv aVo kottov, tyovres &ra>s 
kol irpaiSas r) KTrjV&v r) irpay- 
fidriov. Tore yap ofaikus dva- 
fiipdfav els vif/rjkovs roirovs 
ro£6ras Kal o-<f>ev&ovofiokurras 

Sandab. I do not know what 
you are accusing me of. 

Magister. And how is it that 
you sent a message to the 
emperor for me to cross-examine 
the patriarch about this affair ? 

Sandab. {addressing the 'patri- 
arch). I conjure you, my lord, 
before heaven, first to depose 
me, and then when I am de- 
prived of my priestly office, let 
them punish me as a criminal : 
for I did not give this informa- 
tion to the emperor. 

Photius. By the salvation of 
my soul, my lord Theodore, you 
are archbishop both in the pre- 
sent life and in the life to come. 

Domest. (in a passion). Did 
you not send a message through 
me, Abbot, to the emperor, for 
me to cross-examine the patriarch 
about this ? " etc. 

10th Century. Extract from 
the Tactics of the emperor Con- 
stantine Porphyrogenitus, son 
of Basileius Bulgaroctonus. 

"It is necessary, general, if 
the Saracens make a raid with- 
in Mount Taurus, for you to con- 
cert measures to oppose them in 
the narrow passes of the moun- 
tain, especially when they are 
on the road back, and have 
undergone fatigue, and perhaps 
having with them booty of cattle 
or property. For it is then 
that you ought to send archers 

1 An epic idyll called 'H &payvd*pi<ris, which will be found in the 
Appendix, belongs to this century. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



iva piTTThKTi /car avTtov. Kat 
ovrws iva TTOLrjs kolI 8ta t<ov 
KapaXkapiuyv rds irpoo-/3o\ds 
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•fj xpcu*>, ^ St eyKpvfJLfxdTtoV rj 6Y 
aAAwv cVm/Scv/idVwv • otov tva 

KvAlOT/S 7T€TpaV €tS TOVS K/MJ- 

povs, ^ tva <f>pd£rjS rds 66\)i>s 
<mto Sevfywov Kat 71-0177077$ avrots 
a&a/JaTOv. ..." 

Tavra apKOixrtv Ik twv a£to- 
Aoycov TpoXeyofieviav r ov TtOLinre - 

AtOU. Ta I£t}s €lVat €LAY)pL/JL€Va 

c/c twi/ tov Ko/oa?} irpoXcyofAcvtov 
cis tov B' rofxov tcov 'Atciktuv 
avrov* cfvat 8c dirocnraxr fxdr la £k 
t5v " 'Zvp.PovXevTLKiov Xoytov 


av€\f/u)v avrov 2D7ravcav n kv iro- 
Airifcots avofwioTcXevTois crrt- 
Xots. HiOav(iyraTa Sc dvr}Kovo~iv 
€is tov cV&Karov attova. 

To TTon/fta tovto </>l/)€t hriypa- 
r^rjv oTLXOvpyqfJLCvrjv rr)v egfjs — 
' a 'Ef 'AAc^tou Ko/avtjvov, TOV 


' Aoyot X/ 07 / " 1 " ^ fiovXevriKoly 

irdvv wpato/Acvot, 

IIpos tov dvexf/ibv avrov, *2ira- 

vcas to €7rLK\rjv" 

"E^rctTa dpx^L dwb rovs 

(tt[-)(ov$ rovrovs — 

"ILuSt fiov TTodeivoTarov, TratSt 

piov r)yairrjp,€VOV } 

'OoTOUV <K T(OV dWctoV flOV Kat 

o~ap£ €K rqs o~apKos fwv," 
Kat l£aKoA.oi»0ct irapaiviov — 
M Ytc px>v av 6X2/5 fikpip.vav 
rj Ivvo tav cts vovv o~ov 

and slingers up on the heights 
to discharge missiles upon them. 
And so that you may also make 
attacks upon them with cavalry ; 
or, as the exigency may demand, 
by ambuscades or other con- 
trivances: such as by rolling 
boulders over the cliffs, or barri- 
cading the roads with trees and 
rendering them impassable for 
them. . . ." 

This is sufficient of the ex- 
cellent preface of Zampelius. 
The following is taken from 
the preface of Corais to the 
second volume of his Miscel- 
lanies : they are short extracts 
from the "Words of advice of 
Alexius Comnenus to his nephew 
Spaneas" in political blank verse. 
Most probably it belongs to the 
eleventh century. 

This poem has the following 

heading in verse — 
f"From Alexius Comnenus of 
J blessed memory, 
| good words of advice and most 
; beautiful 

1 to his nephew surnamed Spa- 
; neas." 
j Then he commences with the 

following lines — 
: " My child, dearest and best 


bone of my bone, and flesh of 

my flesh," 

and he proceeds with his advice — 

"My son, if you have any 

solicitude, or purpose in your 


Digitized by VjOOQlC 



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wo$€is Kal dkXas, 

BAi7T€ fit) Aiycis (fxivcptos tov 

Xoyurfwv <rov o\ov. v 

"Yu fuovy t8c av <f<£ay€S £cvov 

tiVotis irpayfia, 

Kal irijpcs teal Kar€\vcr€S kot€- 

8airdvrj<r€S to, 

Miy Kpvrfys, rovro /xtj dpvrjQyjs 

firj to dAA.7yA.oyi}o7ys. 

AtaTt ovk c?x € fidprvpes, CnjfJUl' 

8iv ev€\vpov." 



av €\ys ytirova, 

Kal €\Jf 0~€ KOLKIOLV 

Kal fiaivcrai <rov cyKapStaKa, 


Kal fiddys Kal yv<apurjjs tov, 
vU fwv irp6<r€^€ tov • 

Kal /3\.€7T€ /xr) €/JL7rurT€v6ys Kal 
iroury o~€ {rj/xCav" 

"Ylk pov, av 1x2/5 yeCrovav 

rj (rvyy€VTJv rj <f>l\ov f 

Kal 1TOUT€T€ SiKacriiMov Kal fid- 

\7JV dfJL<f>OT€p(s)Sy 

BA.eiT€, €* Tt hrtpTaa-at, Kal ijv 

€ts evTpojrrjv tg>v, 

Mrj $av\aTi<rQS, fJLrj to iryjs 

firjSk b\)fJtXKrt,€VO"QS. i1 

TcAevTp 0€ to irolrffia €1$ TOVS 

€^rjs o~rtx ov 5 — 

"'EttcI 8' 6 Aoyos 6 f3pa)(ys 


'ApKOvv Kal o-k a o*€ eypa\//a. 

*Av Tavra va 7rooo-€x#s, 

Kal 71700s tov vouv tov ypd/ifjba- 


to do anything you set your 
heart on and desire, 
see that you do not divulge en- 
tirely your plans." 

"My son, see, if you have de- 
frauded a stranger of anything, 
and taken and consumed and 
expended it, 

that you do not conceal it, nor 
deny it, nor prevaricate about it, 
because he had no witnesses or 
any pledge of security. ,, 

" My son, if you have a neigh- 
bour and he wishes you ill, 
and he rages passionately against 
you, and seeks to injure you, 
and you have learnt and under- 
stand him, my son, beware of 

and see that you do not trust 
him, lest he do you harm." 

" My son, if you have a neigh- 
bour or relation or friend, 
and you do anything to make 
you go to law and contend with 
each other, 

see, if you know anything and 
it be to their shame, 
that yon do not babble or talk 
about it, or make it public." 

The poem ends with the 
following lines — 
" Since a short speech is agree- 
able to all, 

what I have written to you is 
enough for you. If you heed it, 
and give your mind to the 
meaning of this letter, 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



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puov €v eiprjvy, 

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els kvudfias aluivas" 

Mi^arjk 6 Kypovkapios ira- 

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tov Kofwyvdv dAAa p&rkicsira 

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ry TraTpiapytlip rr\v e£fjs &q- 

ptoorj ira.poip.iav — 

''Eyw or eKTura <fx>vpv€ pov 
Kal lyw va <rc xaAaoW 

'EKaTovTacTiypis IB'. T«/<- 
/ii^/Dia ykiooxTLKa ravrrjs rrjs 
tKarovraerrjpCSos tyopjev ra 
voirjpara rov IItwxow/ooS/oo- 
pov ra. xnrb rov' Koparj 8rj- 
pxxnxvdkvra kv Tip irp(ar<p ropy 

TWV 'ATttlCTWV. To k£rjs aVo- 

OTToo-pa €krj<j>0rj i£ avrGtv. 

u 'A?ro piKpoOev pi IXcyev 6 

ykpo>v 6 irarrip pov, 

f Tckvov puov pad* ypa.ppja.ra, av 

Okkys va ankkoys ' 

B Arrets rbv ociva, rkicvov pov ; 

7refos eK€pnrdr€i • 

Kcu Twpa (j8Ac7r€ts) yeyovcv 


'Akoyorparkovrkkivos Kal 7ra- 


Avros oWav^ kp&vdavtv, vwoStj- 

0*W OVK €L)(€V 

Kcu rtopa (fik&rei? rov) <f>op€t 

ra paKp-qpirrjKa rov. 

Avros piKpbs ov&v tSev rov 

kovrpov to Kar<a<f>kiv t 

Kal Ttopa kovrpucifierai rpirov 

rrjv k/38opA8a. 

KafidSiv €t\€V otovthtlvov r(av- 


you will pass your life here 

bodily in peace, 

and save your soul for endless 


"Michael Cerularius, patri- 
arch of Constantinople, invested 
Isaacius Comnenus as emperor ; 
but afterwards, being angry with 
him, he repeated in the patri- 
archal palace the following 
popular proverb — 

'I built you, my oven, now 
let me destroy you."' 

12th Century. As specimens 
of the language of this cen- 
tury we have the poems of 
Ptochoprodromus published by 
Corais in the first volume of 
his Miscellanies. The follow- 
ing extract is taken from 

"From my boyhood, my old 
father used to say to me : 
' My child, get yourself educated 
if you wish to be of any use. 
Do you see that man, my child ? 
He used to walk on foot, 
and now (you see) he has golden 

he rides a horse with three breast- 
straps, and mounts a fat mule. 
This man, when he was study- 
ing, had no shoes : 
and now (you see him) he wears 
boots with long pointed toes. 
When he was young, the fellow 
never saw the threshold of a bath, 
and now he goes to the baths 
three times a week. 
He used to have a ragged hempen 

Digitized by VjOCKMC 



Kat (f>6prjv to puovaXXayos \€i- 


Kat rtopa (/JAifrcis) yeyovcv 


T\.apay^p.urrorpd\'qXos /cat px>p- 


H€ur6'qTi oZv ycoovrt/cots /cat 

TrarpiKofe <rov Aoyots* 

Kat fJAxOe rot ypap.pja.riKa av 

SkX-QS va. <^€A.€OT7S, 

"Av yap ir€urOys rats <rvp./3orj- 

Xats /cat rots 8i8dypxio m C puov, 

2v pkv Xoiirbv va Tip.rjdjjsi p.€- 

ydXias €vrv\rjo-€is ' 

'Ep* 6c rbv iraripa arov /cav €V 

rots rcXevrots ftov, 

Na dpctfys <os aSvvarov Kat va 

yzpofiovKrprQS. ) 

t £ls 6° ^f/cowa tov ye/x>vTOS, 

SecnroTa, rov irarpos px>v 

(Tots yap yoveiKrt TrtiOecrOai 

<f>rjo-l to #€tov ypa/A/ta), 

*E/Aa0a Ta ypap.pxjLTUtd, 7tXyjv 


J A<f>ov 0€ rd)(a ykyova ypap.pjari- 

kos Texvtrqs, 

'JbiriOvpAo /cat to \pitipXv /cat /cv- 

TaAov /cat xj/iyav 

Kat Sta T9V Trctvav t^v 7roXXr)v 

/cat tt)v oT€VO\d)piav 

*Y/3oi{(u t^v ypap.pxiTLKYjV /cat 

/cAatya> /cat c/xovafiw 

'KvddspLaraypdp.paTa! X/oto-T€, 

/cat ttov rot #€A.€t / 

'AvdOcpav /cat tov /catoov, /cat 

K€ivi)v rrjv r)p.€pav, 

'Owov /xc TrapcSw/cacrtv €ts to 

ovcoAtov e/xevav/ 

Ta^a va /Aa#a> ypa/x/xaTa, Ta^a 

va £co d7T€K€lVa. 

and wore it as his only suit in 
winter and summer, 
and now (you see) he has come to 
be clothed in a splendid tunic, 
with a fat neck and a sleek face. 

Give heed then to the words of 
an old man who is your father ; 
and get yourself educated if you 
wish to be of any use, 
for if you follow my advice and 

then you yourself will be hon- 
oured and very happy, 
and me, your father, at least at 
the end of my life, 
you will support in my feeble- 
ness and take care of my old 

And when I listened, my lord, 
to my aged father, 
(for the Holy Scripture tells 
us to obey our parents) 
I learnt literature, but with 
what trouble ! 

And now that I have in a way 
become expert in letters, 
I long for bread, crust or crumb, 

and from excessive hunger and 


I abuse grammar and weep and 

exclaim : 

'A curse on learning! Christ, 

and on any one who likes it ! 

Cursed be the time and that day, 

when they handed me over to 
the school 

to be educated forsooth and for- 
sooth to gain my living.' 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 




Av fi ZXeiirav ra ypdfxfmra, 
ical fidOava rc^vtr^s 

*Air avrovs O7rov Kafivovcriv ra. 
KkaTTora Kal fovViv, 

Na jmOa T€\vrjv K XairoT riv Kal 

Vafaw fJAT €K€lVrjV 

Mc ravrqv yap ttjv KXaTrorrjv 

rrjv ir€purop€fj£vr)V, 

Na avoiya to appApw /aov, va 

TofipurKa yefmrov 

>Pa>/uv Kpaxrlv ttXtjOvvtikov, Kal 


Kat waXafxiSoKOfifiaTa, Kal rfu- 

povs Kal (TKOvp/irpia, 

Jlapov otl T<o/oa dvo tyu) to, 

pXeiroj tovs iraTovs oXovs, 

Kal pXeiru) \aproo~dKKOvXa 

ye/idra ra ^aprta, 

larafAat tot€ KaTr)<j>r)s Kal awo- 


Aiyodvpu), Xiyo\ln)\ia aVo ttoX- 

XrjS pLOV 7T€LVaS' 

Kal 8ia ttjv ireivav ttjv iroXXrjv 

Kal ttjv <TT€VOX(tipiav 

'ApvovpLai Ta ypapLpLariKa to. 

KXairora irpoKpivo)" 

IT' 'E/caTovTacTg/ns. c 12s 

yXwrciKov T€Kp,rjpiov tov aiwvos 

tovtov €OTQ) to egrjs diroo-irao-pa 

€i\rjpp^VOV €K T(0V " X/OOVllCtoV 

tov Ma>/D€<os," Kara ttjv €#c6oo-iv 
tov *EXXur<rev. ILcpiypdfaTai 
0€ rj KaTaicn/o-t? rfjs ILeXoTrov- 
VTp-QV V7TO twv <&pdyK(ov. 
" A90TOV yap epiurevcrev o 

prjyas *2aXoviKr)s y 
*EvepLeiv 6 fxtaep Nt£€<£/>€S p*ra 

tov Ka/A7rav«n/v, 

Tovs ap^ovTas ipwrrjo-e, tovs 

tottlkovs 'Pw/muovs, 

If I had left letters alone and 
learnt to be a craftsman, 
like those who work at gold- 
brocade and live by it, 
I would have learnt the gold-bro- 
cade trade and got my living by it ; 
for with this gold brocade which 
is so highly regarded 
I should have opened my cup- 
board and found it full, 
bread and wine in plenty, and 
cooked tunny-fish, 
and slices of the small tunny- 
fish, and dried mackerel-fry and 

while, when I open it now, I see 
all the bottoms (of the drawers), 
and I see bags filled with papers, 

and then I stand downcast and 
overwhelmed with trouble, 
my heart sinks and my soul 
faints with excess of hunger ; 
and from this great hunger and 

I disown letters and prefer gold- 

13th Century. As an ex- 
ample of the language of this 
century let the following extract 
serve, taken from the Chronicles 
of the Morea, according to Ellis- 
sen's edition. It is a description 
of the conquest of Peloponnesus 
by the Franks. 

"Now after the departure of 
the king of Salonica, 
Monsieur Geoffrey remained with 
De Champagne, 

and he inquired from the local 
Greek noblemen, 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



'Oirov tovs toVovs r)£€vpav, rd 

Kacrrpa kolI Tats x<opais, 

"OXrjs rrjs IIcAoTrovvi^ros, owov 

KpaT€L 6 Mcopcas, 

Tov vol tov Supfiyvevcrovcn. tov 

ica&vos rrjv 7T/)a£lV, 

Ki uxrav €/o<i>T»/o*€ KaXd teal 


Tov Kafiirav€<rr)V XdXrjo'€ teal 

7TpOS €K€lVOV Aiyef 

' AvOevrq, cya> a>s £«vticos av- 

dpwiros 8k rov toVov, 

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vat fM€Ta <rkva ' 

K <os €ir\rjpo<f>opriOriKa dif av- 

tovs tyjv dXrjdeiav, 

Kat (I8a 6<j>0a\fjLO<f)av<os to 

Kaurrpov rrjs KopivOov, 

Tov "Apyovs /cat tov > Ava7rA.tov, 

rr)v Svvapuv r»/v c^ovv, 

*Av OtXys vd Kadcfccrai, vd rd 


Xavcts rd €7r€X€(prj<re$, aVc/jyw- 

fikvos cSxat. 

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o-LTapxr)fjL€va t 

K- ov&v Ta Svveo~at 7rocr<os ftc 

iroXtfLOV vd Ta^s. 

Eya> yap tfiaOa naXd dirb 

kolXovs dvOpiaTrovs 

'Airb rr)v Udrpav epurpooSev 

p>€\pis €ts tyjv Kopwvrjv 

l ]jl ^co/oats 2v cwrAtorcoats, Kap 

7TOt 8c Kat 8pVfAU)V€$y 

N' dwipxecrai, eXcvOepa p? 6Xa 

(rov rd <f>ovcrdTa. 

K* a<£ov KcpSio-ys rd \(apid 9 /cat 

vd 0~€ TpOO-KVVYj<rOVV y 

Ta KaaTpa dv cpLpAivoixriv a>s 
ttot€ va /3ao-Ta£ovv ; 

who knew the country, the forte 
and the towns, 

of all Peloponnesus, which tbe 
Morea comprises, 
that they might explain to him 
the condition of each of them, 
and as he questioned them 
closely and received informa- 

he spoke to De* Champagne and 
said to him : 

' My lord, I, as a stranger resi- 
dent in the place, 
questioned the (native) noble- 
men who are with you : 
and as I have received accurate 
information from them, 
and have seen with my own 
eyes the citadel of Corinth, 
and of Argos and of Nauplia, 
and the strength they have, 
if you wish to sit down and in- 
vest them, 

you will fail in your attempt 
and lose your labour. 
The forts are strong and well 

and you cannot at all get pos- 
session of them by war. 
For I obtained reliable informa- 
tion from competent men 
that from beyond Patras as far 
as Corone 

the towns are rather scanty, but 
plains and forests prevail, 
so that you may pass freely with 
all your forces. 

And when you gain the villages 
and they submit to you, 
if the forts stand firm, how long 
will they hold out ? 

i by Google 



*Opur€ yap rd 7rA.€vri#ca va 

vrrdyovv rrjs 6aXdo-(rqs 9 

K' rjfiets as VTraycviofxev o\ot 

cwro rrjs orepeas' 

Kal d<f>ov cwnafJAV €#C€i, ottov- 

\eis rov Aaov <rov, 

10V T07TOV OTTOV €K€pOUT€S, €A- 

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K* €15 TOV BcOV TO IA.60S TOV 

vaxV s Swfoprjoy.' 

*Q$ to ffKoxxrtv 6 cvycvrjs 

avros 6 Ka/A7rav€07/s, 

McyaAcos €V\apurrrp-€ rbv Trpay- 

roorpdropd rov. 

*Qpur€ k ivirdpyrp-av rty \tapav 

rfjs Kopivdov 

^owraVa a<f>rjK€ kolXol rov rdtrov 

vd <f>v\drrow, 

K* WS TO €TlT€V 6 fJLUrlp Nt{(6</>/)€5, 

Kal €Ka6(a8rjy€W€ to, 
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TT)V 686v TOV. 

'Arb rrjv Hdrpav tfX.Oao'i, 's^ 

'Av8pa/3CSa o'axrav, 

*Ek€l ottov ^<rav ot dp\ovres rov 

Kapnrov rov M<oo€<o$. 

Etotc 6 fiurep Nrfc^pcs, . a>$ 

<f>pOVLfM)S 07T0VV0V, 

'Eowa^c tovs apxovras, *ai 

Aiy€t 7T/)6s €K€lVOVS. 

'*A/>;(OVT€S, <£tA.Ol, *' d&€\<f>ol 

Kakol Kal ftov o-vvrp6<f)oi, 

'Eo-€4S 6/0aT€, /?A.«T€T€ 6TOVTOV 

tov avQevrqv, 

c Oro$A0€V els rovs toVovs o~as, 

8ia va tovs KcpSloy. 


5ta Kovporov ^A0€, 

Na ira/ty f£a, pov\d re, Kal totc 

va irayalvQ. 

Order now your navy to go by 


and let all of us go by land : 

and when we arrive there, where 

you have your people, 

at the land which you have won, 

I have faith in your fortune 

and in the mercy of God that 

you will be successful.' 

When the noble De Champagne 

heard this, 

he heartily thanked his general. 

He gave the command, and they 
provisioned the town of Corinth ; 
and he left a strong force to 
guard the place, 
and just as Monsieur Geoffrey 
told him and showed him the 

so he acted, and started on his 

They passed by Patras and ar- 
rived at Andravida, 
where the chiefs of the plain of 
the Morea were. 
Then Monsieur Geoffrey, like 
the prudent man he was, 
assembled the chiefs and said to 
them : 

'Chiefs, friends, brethren, and 
my good comrades, 
you see, you behold this lord, 

who came to your lands to gain 

possession of them. 

Do not think, chiefs, that he 

came for plunder, 

to carry off cattle and clothes, 

and then go away. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



'O/dw <ra$ yap cos ^povifAOVS, 

koli KaOapa eras Xeyto' 

Oea)/»€tT€ tcl <fx>va-dra tov, ttjv 

wapprjcriav rrjv €\€i' 

Avdkvrqs elvai /?ao"tA.€vs, Kal 

dkXti vol K€p8i<rg. 

'Eorets avOcvrrj ovk €\^t€ tov va 

<ras ftorjOrjo-r}, 

K* av Spdfwvv Tot <£owdra fias y 

tov roirov eras Kovparevovv, 

Net al\fJLaXwTi(rovv tcl \(apia, 

Kal va <r<^ayovv avSpOnroi^ 


eras /JL€TavoifyrQ ; 

Aoiirbv kpkva </>aiv€Tai 8ia KaXrj- 

T€pov eras 

Na 7roL(ro)fJL€V (rvufilfiao-iv, va 

Xiixpuxriv ol <£ovot, 

Ta Kovpcrrj k al ai^fiaXuxriais 
dirb to. yoviKa cas • 


k rj£tvp€T€ tovs dXXovs 

Hov o-vyytvets &as jS/omtkovtcii, 

<f>CXoi <ras Kal <rvvTp6<f>oi 

Upa£lV VOL 7TOl(T€T€ 's aVTOVS, 

8iol va 7rpo(rKvvrja m ovv. > 

c 12s t rjKova-av ol dp\ovT€S y 

oXoi tov irpoo-Kvvovo-f 

KaTa7ravTO0€V tarreiXav tovs 


"Evtf* fj^evpav ot iJ "* 10 "* <f>CXot 

Kal o^vyyevets tovs* 

To irpayfia tovs i&rjXwav k 

hrX-qpoffyoprp-dv tovs' 

'A<j>povTurtav tovs ecrreiXav dVo 

tov Kafwravecnyv, 

"Oo~oi flcA/qo-ouv va eA0ovv, va 

€X°vv irpocrKvvrjo-€i, 

I see you are sensible men and 
so I speak openly to you : 
you see his forces and the 
splendour he has : 
he is a sovereign lord and his 
desire is to make conquests. 
You have no lord to help you, 

and if our forces set out and 

plunder your country, 

and enslave your villages, and 

people are killed, 

what good will it be to you 

afterwards, when you repent 1 

So I think it is better for you 

that we make an arrangement, 
and that there should be no 

no carrying off plunder and 
prisoners from your property ; 
and you who are wise, and 
know the others, 
where they are to be found, 
your relations, friends and com- 

use your efforts with them that 
they may submit/ 
When the chiefs heard this, 
they all submitted to him : 
in all directions they despatched 

wherever they knew their 
friends and relations were : 
they made the matter known to 
them and gave them informa- 
tion : 

they sent to them from De Cham- 
pagne a promise of security, 
for as many as would come in 
and submit, 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



Ta yovtKa tovs va^ova-tv, Kal 
irXkov va tovs Swry 

"Oo-oi d£id£ovv k (xxfteXovv, 
Tifirjv fieydiXrjv va^ovv. 

'I2s T ^ICOV<raV Ol dp\OVT€S 
Kal TO KOIVOV 6/AOt<0S, 

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€irpo<rKvvov<rav 6\oi. 

K' a<£6Vov k<rwd\Orp'av €K€l 's 

t^v 'AvSpaftiSa, 

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0X77S rrjs Meo-apeas 
'Eiroir]<rav o~vpLf$ifiacriv /xera tqv 
IA' 'EKarovracTTy/MS. "AmJ- 
yrj(ris ££aip€TOS T$eX.$dv8pov tov 
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§€ X/jwairfa, OvyaTepa prjybs 
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Kpv<f>i(DS iraTpos Kal firjTpibs av~ 


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u Aeurc 7rpoo-KapT€prjo-aT€ fll~ 

Kpbv (o/oatot 7ravT€S, 

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'Yiro&o-iv irapd^wqv iroWd 

7raprj\\ayp.€vr)V y 

Oorts yovv OkXti *£ avrfjs 6\i- 

P^v T€ Kal \aprjvac 

Kat va OavfLOLO-y virodeo-iv rfjs 

ToXfirjs Kal dvSpeias. 

Aotirbv tov vovv urrrj<raT€, v 

aKov<n/T€ tov \6yov, 

that they should keep their 
property and he would give 
them more, 

that as many as were worthy 
and proved of use would re- 
ceive great honour. 
When the chiefs heard this and 
the people likewise, 
they began to come in and all 

And as soon as they were col- 
lected there in Andravida, 
the nobility of the Morea and 
of all Mesarea 

made terms with De Cham- 

1 4th Century. " The remark- 
able story of Bertrand the Roman, 
who through the affliction he 
suffered from his father, went 
abroad, and abandoned his native 
land and afterwards returned. 
He took to wife Chrysantza, 
daughter of the king of Great 
Antioch, but without the know- 
ledge of her father and mother." 

After this long title the poem 
begins as follows — . 

"Come now, my gentle 
readers, have a little patience, 
I am going to relate to you a 
most delightful tale, 
a strange subject with much 
variety of incident, 
so whoever of you wishes to feel 
grief or joy at it, 
and admire a story of daring 
and heroism, 

pay attention, that you may give 
heed to the tale, 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



Kat vet Savfiaxreri rroXXd* \f/tv- 
ottjs ov fir) <f>avovfmu" 

'Ev rots k£rjs OTtxots 7T€pt- 
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crdvT^as ' 

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AevKofipaxitov, rpvcfxpd . . ." 

Mc <rvyxQ)p€iT€ vd eras Siclko- 
^a>, 8toT6 /Skcina tyddo-aptv els 

and be lost in admiration: I 
shall not disappoint you," 

In the following lines the 
beauty of Chrysantza is de- 
scribed : 

" The spirit of art inspired her 
jet-black eyebrows, 
traced their arches with great 

the Graces modelled the nose 
of the beautiful one, 
her mouth the Grace of Graces, 
her teeth pearls, 
her cheeks rose -red, her lips 
with nature's dye, 
the fragrance of her mouth be- 
yond dispute, 

with beautifully rounded chin ; 
erect and stately, 
white-armed and delicate . . ." 

Excuse my interrupting you, 
for I see we have arrived at 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 


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Xpovoirivaica els rds 4.14 
<f>6dvofjL€V els 'AXe£dv8peiav, 


Shall we get out and take 
some refreshment ? 

How long does the train stop 

Half an hour. 

Then let us get out. I will 
take a biscuit or two and a 
small glass of wine. 

And I will do the same. 

How do you like this wine ? 

I think it is very nice. It is 
genuine Italian wine. 

Let us go now and ask if we 
can, with the tickets which we 
have, pass through Florence, for 
I very much wish to see that 
famous city. 

There is not any occasion for 
us to ask, for I know very well 
that this is permitted : but let 
us get into the carriage, for the 
starting-bell is ringing. 

When shall we arrive at 
Florence ? 

A little after midnight Ac- 
cording to the railway time-table 
we arrive at 4.14 at Alessandria, 
where the train stops 7 minutes. 

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At 6.4 we shall be in Genoa, 
where we shall have time to 
dine, for the train stops 38 
minutes. At 10.50 we arrive at 
Pisa, and at 12.40 at Florence. 

How long do you say we 
ought to stay at Florence ? 

I wish that it were possible 
for us to stay several days, but 
as we have to visit Rome also, 
we must perforce content our- 
selves with one day. 

You are quite right and it 
must be so. Now, if you like, 
let us continue our reading. I 
think I interrupted you while 
you were reading the description 
of the beauty of the white-armed 
and delicate Chrysantza. 

Yes, you interrupted me there, 
and you did well, for I must 
confess that I never read in my 
life a more stupid poem. 

Then let us spend our time 
in talking or reading something 
about Florence. 

Just the very thing I was in- 
tending to propose to you, for I 
know that the name of this 
splendid city affords many re- 
miniscences to every educated 

This is true, for what Greek 
of any education, when he hears 
the name of Florence, does not 

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recollect that in the days of 
affliction she was the refuge 
and the home of the Greek 
Muses ? Many learned Greeks, 
in the middle of the 15th cen- 
tury flying from their enslaved 
country, took shelter in Italy 
and especially in Florence, 
where they were hospitably 
entertained and received every 

I believe that the vital spark 
of the revival of Greek literature 
was brought to Italy before the 
taking of Constantinople, so that 
it may be justly said that the 
learned Greeks who sought safety 
in Italy after the capture of 
that city did not absolutely 
initiate but rather completed 
this intellectual regeneration. 

This is true and not to be dis- 
puted. The study of the Greek 
language in Italy commenced in 
the time of Boccaccio and 
Petrarch, but its votaries were 
very few. Petrarch writing 
to Boccaccio in the year 1360 
says that in Italy there were 
not to be found more than ten 
persons who could read Homer 
in the original, and that half of 
these were in Florence. 

Do you remember who it was 
that taught Petrarch Greek ? 

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If my memory does not be- 
tray me, his name was Bernard 
Barlaam, who was a native of 
Calabria but studied Greek in 
Thessalonica and Constantinople, 
and soon became distinguished 
as a philosopher, mathematician, 
and astronomer. 

Had Boccaccio a good know- 
ledge of Greek ? 

Certainly Boccaccio had a 
more complete knowledge of 
Greek than Petrarch. He learnt 
it in Calabria under Leontius 
Pilatus, who translated Homer 
into Latin. This translation 
Boccaccio copied for his friend 
Petrarch. Boccaccio greatly 
contributed to the advancement 
of the study of Greek, having 
succeeded in securing the found- 
ation of a special chair in 
Florence for the teaching of that 
language, so that perhaps they are 
right who say that the revival 
of the study of ancient Greek is 
not entirely due to strangers. 

Modern critics may have this 
or that idea' about the revival of 
Greek literature in Italy, but 
the learned Italians of the 
15th century do not attribute 
it to their own countrymen, 
but to the Greeks who came 
from Byzantium and Greece. 

This is so : but no one can 

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deny that at that time there 
prevailed in Italy a kind of 
intense and, so to speak, inspired 
ardour for the study of Greek 
literature, so that when the 
learned Greeks came there, they 
found a good and fertile soil 
ready to receive the seed of 
their instruction, and so the 
crop was abundant : but who is 
considered the first and most 
distinguished of those learned 
men who sowed the seed ? 

Manuel Chrysoloras. He 
was born at Constantinople in 
the middle of the 14th cen- 
tury and belonged to a dis- 
tinguished family. Being by 
nature talented and having been 
excellently brought up and edu- 
cated, he became a very learned 
man and an accomplished orator. 
In the year 1391 he was sent 
by John Palaeologus as am- 
bassador to Richard II. of Eng- 
land and to other princes of the 
West to ask for help against the 
Turks, who were then threaten- 
ing Constantinople. But his 
words fell on ears that would 
not listen, and he was compelled 
to return unsuccessful to Con- 
stantinople. Here he did not 
remain long, for his friends in 
Italy, and especially those in 
Florence, persistently invited 
him to go to them. He accepted 
their invitation and sailed for 
Venice, having with him Deme- 
trius Cydonius, who was one of 

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the learned Greeks of that time. 
The reception they met with in 
Italy was most cordial, and to 
form a faint idea of what it 
was like, one must read the 
following letter written by 
Coluccio Salutati to Demetrius 
Cydonius when the latter landed 
at Venice with Chrysoloras. 
"• ... At a time when the 
-study of the Greek language 
has almost been abandoned, and 
the minds of men are wholly en- 
grossed by ambition, voluptu- 
ousness, and avarice, you have 
made your appearance before 
us as messengers from the di- 
vinity, bearing the torch of 
knowledge in the midst of our 
darkness. Happy indeed shall 
I esteem myself (if this life can 
afford any happiness to a man 
who to-morrow will close his 
sixty- fifth year) if I can by 
your assistance imbibe those 
principles from which all the 
knowledge which this country 
possesses is wholly derived. 
Perhaps, even yet, the example 
of Cato may stimulate me to 
devote to this study the re- 
mainder of my life, and I may 
thus be able to add to my 
acquirements a knowledge of 
the Grecian tongue." 

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When Chrysoloras came to 
Italy, who occupied the chair 
of Greek literature in Flor- 

No one, for the chair which 
was founded in Florence by the 
efforts of Boccaccio continued 
vacant for thirty years. The 
first who taught in it, Leontius 
Pilatus, left it very soon and 
went to Greece; and the chair 
remained empty for want of a fit 
and competent teacher. Hence, 
when Chrysoloras came to Flor- 
ence and commenced his lectures, 
people of every degree flocked to 
him from all parts of Italy, and 
listened with indescribable en- 
thusiasm to his learned dis- 
courses. The majority and the 
more distinguished of the learned 
men of that age were his 
hearers and disciples. Not only 
scholars but the prominent nobles 
attended the lectures of the elo- 
quent Greek. Leonardo Bruni 
of Arezzo, in one of his works, 
gracefully relates how he decided 
to become a disciple of Chryso- 
loras. This is verbatim what 
he says : "At that time I was 
a student of the law ; but my 
soul was inflamed with the love 
of letters, and I devoted a portion 
of my labours to the study of the 
science of logic and rhetoric. 
On the arrival of Manuel, I be- 
gan to hesitate between the con- 
siderations, whether I ought to 
abandon my legal studies or 
throw away this golden oppor- 

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tunity; and in the ardour of 
youth I said to myself: 'Wilt 
thou then prove so unworthy of 
thyself and thy fortune ? Wilt 
thou refuse to be admitted to 
close association and familiar 
intercourse with Homer, Plato, 
and Demosthenes? with those 
poets, philosophers and orators, 
of whom such wonders are re- 
lated, and who are for all ages 
celebrated as the highest teachers 
of the sciences ? Professors and 
students of law will always he 
found in our universities ; but 
a teacher, and such a teacher, of 
the Greek language, if he once 
escape us, can never perhaps he 
afterwards replaced.' Convinced 
by these arguments, I gave my- 
self up to Chrysoloras, and the 
strength of my passion increased 
to such a degree that the lessons 
I imbibed by day were the con- 
stant subjects of my dreams by 
night" At this time Giovanni 
of Ravenna, a very learned nian, 
occupied the chair of Latin at 
Florence, and hence from these 
two schools came the most il- 
lustrious men of that age. 

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Besides the above-mentioned 
Leonardo Bruni, the following 
are among the more distinguished 
pupils of Chrysoloras : Carolo 
Marsuppini, Palla Strozzi who 
was the reformer of the Uni- 
versity of flbrence, Ambroeio 
Traversari, Guarino of Verona j 
Poggio Bracciolini, Francesco 
Filelfo, Vittorini Rambaldoni, 
Pietro Paulo Vergerio, Gregorio 
daTiferna,and Giovanni Aurispa 
the Sicilian. 

Chrysoloras may rightly be 
regarded as completing the work 
which Petrarch and Boccaccio 
began, and as the first who 
laboured with success for the 
diffusion of Greek learning in 
the West 

While on the subject of the 
progress of classic studies in 
Florence, we must not forget 
the glorious house of the Medici. 
This illustrious family, which 
rose to supreme power in the 
Florentine Republic in the 15th 
century, owes its early renown 
to commerce. About the be- 
ginning of the 13th century, 
some members of the family 
began to take part in the govern- 
ment of their country. In the 
14th century Giovanni was dis- 
tinguished for his wealth and his 
influence in the republic : he was 
succeeded by his son Cosimo. 

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The life of Cosimo was a 
glorious one. He succeeded in 
allying himself with powerful 
princes, and in keeping the state 
free from revolution, and so was 
enabled to turn his attention 
to the development of the arts 
and sciences in his native country, 
spending much of his private 
fortune for this purpose. He 
was conspicuous as the great 
patron of Greek literature, and 
thus made Florence a focus of 
classic study. Cosimo was suc- 
ceeded by his son Pietro, who 
was feeble not only in body but 
in mind ; but fortunately the 
latter's son Lorenzo was endowed 
with many gifts, and assisted his 
father in the government of the 
state. It was he who was 
subsequently called Lorenzo il 
Magnifico. After his father's 
death, he succeeded him and 
showed himself a worthy de- 
scendant of his celebrated grand- 
father. He ruled his country 
with justice and moderation. 
He was a munificent patron 
of the fine arts and of litera- 
ture. He was a man of exten- 
sive learning and successfully 
cultivated the Muses, for he 
wrote elegant lyric poems. If 
any one were to attempt to give a 
detailed description of the public 
institutions, the colleges and uni- 
versities which were founded at 
his cost, and to recount the lives 

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of the celebrated painters, sculp- 
tors, architects, philosophers and 
poets, by whom he was sur- 
rounded, it would be the same 
thing as if he undertook to write 
the history of the Renaissance. 
Lorenzo de' Medici was the first 
who established in Florence an 
academy, from which, as from 
the Wooden Horse, emerged the 
leaders in Greek literature, who 
disseminated Greek philosophy 
not only throughout all Italy, but 
through France, Spain, England 
and Germany. From all these 
countries there came to Florence 
many students, who going forth 
from there imparted the light of 
learning to the rest of Europe. 

But to the house of the 
Medici the deepest gratitude is 
also due for having founded 
public libraries. Cosimo and 
his son Pietro took great pains 
to collect Greek manuscripts, 
and Lorenzo was inspired, so to 
speak, with a divine frenzy to 
increase still more the number 
of valuable manuscripts,, and 
spared neither labour nor ex- 
pense. He established a private 
library in his own residence, 
and, in order to enrich it, des- 
patched John Lascaris twice to 

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Greece. On his second mission 
Lascaris brought to Florence 
about two hundred manuscripts, 
among which were eighty works 
till then unknown in Italy. 

I think that while we are on 
the subject of books and libraries 
it is unjust not to mention also 
the name of the Florentine mer- 
chant Nicolo Nicolio, to whom 
Boccaccio bequeathed his library. 
It was he who, before the time 
of the Medici, conceived the idea 
of founding a public library, and 
laboured with the utmost en- 
thusiasm to carry out his design. 
He formed accordingly a library 
of eight hundred volumes, which 
he bequeathed to the public for 
their use : but as his creditors 
laid claim to it, Cosimo de' 
Medici paid them thirty-six 
thousand ducats, and taking pos- 
session of the books deposited 
them in the library which he 
erected at his own expense in 
the monastery of St. Mark. 

How the time goes by when 
one is engaged in serious con- 
versation ! Here we are at 

Let us get out then and have 
some dinner ; for I am dreadfully 

And I am starving. Appar- 
ently pleasant conversation 
sharpens the appetite. 

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Did you ask the station- 
master whether we shall have 
to change our train at Pisa ? 

Yes, and he told me that we 
must remain in the carriage 
where we are, because, when we 
arrive there, the first six carriages 
will be taken off from the train, 
and thus without being disturbed 
we shall turn off to Florence. 

That is all right. Now let 
us light our cigars and continue 
our conversation about the 
Medici, for I feel to-day as if 
I were possessed with Medico- 

And I have the same feeling, 
but I think we ought to talk 
upon some other subject, in 
order that our conversation may 
not become monotonous. 

Let it be as you say, for 
variety in everything is always 
pleasant : what shall we talk 
about then ? 

If it had happened that we 
were travelling to Chios or 
Smyrna, what do you think 
we should have talked about 1 

Possibly about many things, 

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but certainly Homer would have 
held the first place in our con- 

So then, as we are travelling 
to Florence, do you not think 
it right that we should devote 
some part of our conversation 
to the divine bard of this cele- 
brated city ? 

Quite right. But I must 
tell you that I do not know 
much about Dante, so that I 
am afraid all the burthen of the 
information regarding him will 
fall on you. 

I undertake the task of telling 
you whatever I know about 
Dante, and first of all listen to a 
short account of his life. He 
was born in Florence, of a dis- 
tinguished family, in the year 
1265, and was carefully brought 
up and educated. Being by 
nature impetuous and ambitious, 
he soon mixed in politics. At 
that time Italy was in a turmoil 
of intestine wars and foreign 
intrigues. Most of her cities, 
having shaken off the imperial 
yoke, had now become republics, 
among which was Florence, 
whose inhabitants were divided 
into two factions, the Guelphs 
or partisans of the Pope, and 
the Ghibellines or imperialists. 
Dante, belonging to the faction 
of the Guelphs, took part in the 
campaigns against the Ghibel- 
lines and distinguished himself 
in many battles. In the year 
1300 he began his political life, 

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which resulted in many misfor- 
tunes for him. He was appointed 
a prior of the state with seven 
others, but this office of prior 
only lasted two months. At 
that time the republic was dis- 
turbed by the contentions of two 
powerful parties, the White and 
the Black. Dante, desirous of 
pacifying the state, introduced 
a law by which the chiefs of the 
two factions were to be exiled, 
and- this was carried out. But 
as after a short time the chiefs 
of the White faction were per- 
mitted to return to the city, the 
opposite faction threw the blame 
of this on Dante ; he however 
argued with reason that he was 
not then a prior. 

In the following year (1301) 
a report spread that Charles of j 
Valois was coming with an army 1 
to reinstate in Florence the 1 
chiefs of the Black faction. 
Accordingly, those who then 
held the government immedi- 
ately sent Dante as ambassador 
to Boniface VIII., under whose 
inspiration Charles of Valois 
was acting. From this embassy 
he never returned to his native 
land, for while he was perform- 
ing the duties of ambassador at 
Rome, Charles of Valois, under 
the pretence of acting as a peace- 
maker, marched into Florence, 

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and all who belonged to the 
Black faction at once joined 
him, and a fearful battle took 
place between the two parties, 
which lasted three days; but 
at last the Blacks got the upper 
hand and treated with great 
cruelty their defeated opponents, 
for some of them they butchered, 
others they banished, and con- 
fiscated their property. Dante 
was condemned by default to 
perpetual exile and his property 
was confiscated. After a few 
months a more terrible sentence 
was passed upon him: he was 
condemned by the opposite 
faction to be burnt alive if 
captured. This sentence was 
repeated in 1311, and again in 

This shows that the party in 
power at Florence was afraid of 

No doubt ; for Dante at first 
left no stone unturned to come 
back in triumph to his native 
country. But as all his attempts 
resulted in failure, in his despair 
he took to a wandering life. 
Thus it was in exile that he 
composed his great work, the 
far-famed trilogy, which con- 
sists of the Inferno, the Purgu- 
torio, and the Paradise 

Do you recollect the date of 
his death, and the place where 
it occurred ? 

Yes, he died in the year 1321 


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at Ravenna, in the month of Sep- 
tember, and was buried there 
with great ceremony by his 
friend and protector Guido 
Novello da Polenta. 

I am heartily obliged to you 
for the information you have 
given me regarding Dante, for 
I knew only a very little about 
him, as I told you just now. 

Would you like me to read to 
you an extract from his trilogy ? 
As you see, I have with me a 
copy of Dante in the original, 
and moreover the accurate trans- 
lation of Doctor Carlyle. 

By a lucky coincidence I also 
have with me the Greek transla- 
tion by Constantine Musurus. 

I have read in the newspapers 
and periodicals some criticisms 
upon it, but I have never seen 
the book. 

Here, this is the book. 

I had an idea that it was in 
three volumes. 

The first edition was in three 
volumes, but a year ago a new 
edition appeared, revised and 
corrected, which contains in one 
volume the whole of Dante's 

Musurus did well to publish 
the book in one volume, for thus 
he made it not only cheap but 
also portable. But do you know 
that many people in England 

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thought that Musurus was a 
Turk ? I remember that when 
the publication of the translation 
was announced in the news- 
papers, a certain professor of in- 
ternational law, at an entertain- 
ment, said in the simplicity of 
his heart : " We must not accuse 
Turks of ignorance, for from 
the translation of Dante into 
Greek by Musurus Pasha it is 
quite clear that there are dis- 
tinguished men of great learning 
in this nation, which is so un- 
justly blamed as barbarous." 
" I cannot make it out," rejoined 
another ; " why did he translate 
Dante into the language of the 
Giaours, and not into Turkish 
or Arabic ?" u That is precisely 
what I too am at a loss to under- 
stand," added another, "but 
perhaps he did it to display his 
great learning to the scholars in 
England." Then I could no 
longer restrain myself, but said 
with a smile to the company : 
" Shall I tell you why Musurus 
wrote in Greek ? For the very 
simple reason that he was a 
Greek and not a Turk." As 
soon as they heard this, they 
changed the subject. 

Let us now go back to Dante. 
I will read to you the epis- 
ode of the unfortunate Ugolino, 
who after driving Nino de' Vis- 
conti out of Pisa, himself as- 

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sumed the government : but the 
archbishop Ruggieri de* Ubal- 
dini, actuated by envy, raised 
the people against him, and 
holding a cross in his hand 
arrested him, and imprisoned 
him in the tower of the Piazza 
de* Anziani with his two sons 
and his two grandchildren. 
After some time the gates of 
his prison were nailed up, and 
the ill-fated Ugolino saw his 
sons and his grandchildren 
dying after suffering the ter- 
rible agonies of hunger : at last 
he too died. But we must not 
forget that Ugolino also com- 
mitted many wicked actions 
during his life, and that it was 
on this account that he was 
being punished in company 
with his deadly enemy Rug- 
gieri Dante relates that he 
saw the two sinners in the ice, 
one of whom was biting the 
neck of the other and devour- 
ing his brains. He asked him 
who he was and why he was 
doing this. Then the sinner 
leaving his horrible meal and 
raising his head, wiped his 
mouth with the hair of the 
half-eaten head and replied : 

" Tu dei saper ch' i' fui '1 Conte Ugolino, 
E questi 1' Arcivescovo Ruggieri : 
Or ti dir6 perch' i' son tal vicino. 
Che per Y effetto de' suoi ma' pensieri, 
Fidandomi di lui, io fossi preso 
E poscia morto, dir non e mestieri. 

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DANTE 101 

Per6 quel, che non puoi avere inteso, 

Cioe, come la morte mia fu cruda, 

Udirai ; e saprai, se m' ha offeso. 
Breve pertugio dentro dalla mnda, 

La qual per me ha '1 titol della fame, 

E 'n che conviene ancor ch' altri si chiuda, 
M' avea mostrato per lo suo forame 

Piu lune gia ; quand' io feci 1 mal sonno, 

Che del f uturo mi squarci6 1 velame. 
Questi pareva a me maestro e donno, 

Cacciando 1 lupo e i lupicini al monte, 

Per che i Pisan veder Lucca non ponno. 

In picciol corso mi pareano stanchi 
Lo padre e i figli ; e con Y agute sane 
Mi parea lor veder fender li lianchi. 

Quando fui desto innanzi la dimane, 

Pianger senti* fra J l sonno i miei figliuoli, 
Ch J erano meco, e dimandar del pane. 

Ben sei crudel, se tu gia non ti duoli, 

Pensando ci6, che -1 mio cor s' annunziava : 
E se non piangi, di che pianger suoli ? 

Oia eran desti ; e Y ora s' appressava, 
Che '1 cibo ne soleva essere addotto, 
E per suo sogno ciascun dubitava ; 

Ed io senti' chiovar Y uscio di sotto 
All' orribile torre : ond* io guardai 
Nel viso a' miei ngliuoi senza far motto. 

Io non piangeva ; si dentro impietrai. 
Piangevan' elli ; ed Anselmuccio mio 
Disse : Tu guardi si, padre : che hai 1 

Perci6 non lagrimai, ne ri8po8 , io 

Tutto quel giorno, ne la notte appresso, 
Infin che Y altro Sol nel mondo uscio. 

Com' un poco di raggio si fu messo 
Nel doloroso carcere, ed io scorsi 
Per quattro visi lo mio aspetto stesso ; 

Ambo le mani per dolor mi morsi. 

E quei, pensando ch* io '1 fessi per voglia 
Di manicar, di subito levdrsi, 

E disser : Padre, assai ci fia men doglia, 

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Se tu mangi di noi : tu ne vestisti 
Queste misere carni, e tu le spoglia. 

Quetami allor, per non fargli piu tristi : 
Quel di, e Y altro stemmo tutti muti. 
Ahi dura terra, perch e non t' apristi ? 

Posciache fuinmo al quarto di venuti, 
Qaddo mi si getto disteso a' piedi, 
Dicendo : Padre raio, che non m' aiuti ? 

Quivi mori. E come tu me vedi, 
Vid' io li tre cascar ad uno ad uno 
Tra 1 quinto di e '1 sesto : ond' i' mi diedi 

Gia cieco a brancolar sovra ciascuno, 

E tre di gli chiamai, poich' e' fur morti : 
Poscia, piu che '1 dolor pote il digiuno. 

Quand' ebbe detto ci6, con gli occhi torti 
Riprese 1 teschio misero co' denti, 
Che furo all' osso, come d' un can, forti." 

Inferno, xxxiii. 15. 

Translation by Musurus. 

" ( KofirjTa fj? Ovyo\lvov urdi 

7tot orra. 

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"Oow 8rj o-Kkrjpbs virijp^' 6 

Odvaros fwv, 

Ae£a>, /cat yvuxry 7roow ^oYktjo-c 

MtK/oov Tt Siavytov rrjs elpKTrjs 

Translation by Dr. Carlyle. 

" * Thou hast to know that I was 

Count Ugolino, 

and this the archbishop Ruggieri: 

now I will tell thee why I am 
such a neighbour to him. 
That by the effect of his ill 
devices I, 
confiding in him, was thereafter 

put to death, it is not necessary 

to say. 

But that which thou canst not 

have learnt, 

that is, how cruel was my death, 

thou shalt hear, and know if he 

has offended me. 

A narrow hole within the mew 

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which from me has the title of 


and in which others yet must 

be shut up, 

had through its opening already 

shown me 

several moons, when I slept the 

evil sleep 

which rent for me the curtain 

of the future. 

This man seemed to me lord 

and master, 

chasing the wolf and his whelps 

upon the mountains 

for which the Pisans cannot see 


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After short course, the father 

and the sons 

seemed to me weary, and me- 


I saw their flanks torn by the 

sharp teeth. 

When I awoke before the dawn 

I heard my sons who were with 

me weeping 

amid their sleep and asking for 


Thou art right cruel if thou 

dost not grieve already 

at the thought of what my heart 

foreboded ; 

and if thou weepest not, at what 

art thou used to weep ? 

They were now awake and the 

hour approaching 

at which our food used to be 

brought us, 

and each was anxious from his 


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kvirrj<r(o. not to make them more un- 

*H/a€v a-iyrjXol kcivyjv rjfiepav That day and the next we all 

KaXXrjv. were mute. 

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avrou k^kpxerai kv {rwovdy c/c 
tov *^oov #cai KaradcXyerai 
(iTtvifov 7rpbs tov Stavyi} alOepa. 

Ah, hard earth, why didst thou 

not open ? 

When we had come to the fourth 


Gaddo threw himself stretched 

out at my feet, 

saying, " My father, why helpest 

thou me not ? " 

There he died ; and even as 

thou seest me, 

saw I the three fall one by one, 

between the fifth day and the 


when I betook me, already 

blind, to groping over each ; 

and for three days called them 

after they were dead. 

Then fasting had more power 

than grief.' 

When he had spoken thus, with 

eyes distorted, 

he seized the miserable skull 

again with his teeth, 

which, as a dog's, were strong 

upon the bone." 

The scene which this episode 
presents is most horrible, so read 
some pleasant part, conducive 
to cheerfulness and not sadness. 

With pleasure. Let us leave 
the Inferno then, and pass to 
Purgatory. Dante, with his 
companion, comes in all haste 
out of Hell and is charmed as 
he gazes at the clear air. 

" Dolce color d' oriental zaffiro, 

Che s' accoglieva nel sereno aspetto 

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DelT aer puro infino al primo giro, 
Agli occhi iniei ricominci6 diletto, 

Tosto ch' io fuori usci' dell' aura morta, 

Che m* avea contristato gli occhi e '1 petto. 
Lo bel pianeta, ch' ad amar conforta, 

Faceva tutto rider 1* oriente 

Velando i Pesci, ch' erano in sua scorta." 

Purgatorio, i. 13. 

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Now you read the Greek trans- 
lation of Musurus, and I will 
repeat to you from memory the 
passage in English as rendered 
by Mrs. Oliphant. 

"The sweetest blue of eastern 
sapphire, spread 
O'er the serene sweet breathing 
of the air, I 

High to the first great circle 
overhead, I 

Woke new delight within my 
heart whene'er I 

Out of the dark, dead sphere of 
ill I came, I 

Which eyes and heart had so 
weighed down with fear. 
The lovely planet, in whose 
tender flame ' 

Love comfort finds, made all the 
orient laugh, ' 

Veiling the constellation in her 
train." ' 

Dante, with Virgil as hisl 
guide, leaving behind him the 
horrible gulfs of HeU, passed] 
through a delightful plain every- 
where exhaling perfume, till M 
came to the banks of a coci? 
brook, of which the transparent 

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kckAi/zcvovs c£ atSovs €/3d8urev 
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ira/w t^v oxOrjv rov pvaKiov 
ffvSoKrp-i v* dvareivrj rd op.p.ara 
Tpo5 toi/ 7row^nyv, /cat 17 yA.v/c€ta 
avrwv (EK<f>paxris Karep.dyevo'ev 
avrov. *Av Kal to €v/k>s tou 


/mtwv 6 Advrqs opuos 8ev er6kp,a 
va to Ttpao-y. 'QvopAfcro 81 
/wa£ t^s A^&rjs. 'H 81 yvvrj, 
*}Tis cKakeiro MartkSa, irepi- 
ypa<f>€t els avrbv e/c rrjs air'evavri 
°X@V S Tr ) v <f>vcrw rrjs Upas 
X<»pas kv y eireKparei dtSiov 
tap /cat ot K€ltoikovvt€S kv avrjj 
iprav dOipOL Kal dyvoi. 'EvTav^a 
Bipylkios €pL€t,8ia<rev. *H 8e 
VPXwc irdk iv vd $8rj a>s Koprj 
(piar6krj7rTos Kal irepieiraTti p£ 
prjpa /3pa8v irapd to x € 'A.os 
tou pvaKOs Trpofiaivovo-a irpbs 
Ta aVa> tov peiOpov, Kal 6 
Advrrjs irapr)KokovOei avrr)v 
Kara rr)v airevavri oyd-qv. 
Afyvrjs o~rpa<f>€ura irpbs avrbv 
vpoa-e^vrjo-ev, " ' A8ek<f>€, (Ski-ire 
fat a/covc/' Kat t6ov kdpxj/ is 

stream flowed gracefully. Halt- 
ing there, he observed the 
meadows beyond the brook and 
admired the wealth of flowers of 
the verdant May. Suddenly a 
woman appeared, who walking 
alone gathered flowers and sang. 
Dante, wishing to hear the words 
of the song, begged her to come 
nearer to him : and she, with 
her eyes modestly cast down, 
gladly came towards him : when 
she arrived near the bank of 
the brook, she condescended to 
raise her eyes to the poet, and 
their sweet expression enchanted 
him. Though the width of the 
brook was only three paces, 
Dante did not venture to cross 
it. It was called the brook of 
Lethe. The woman, whose name 
was Matilda, describes to him 
from the opposite bank the 
nature of the sacred country, 
where perpetual spring pre- 
vailed and the inhabitants were 
innocent and pure. On this 
Virgil smiled. She began again 
to sing like a girl in love, and 
walked with a slow step along 
the edge of the brook, going up- 
stream, and Dante followed her 
on the opposite bank. Suddenly 
she turned to him and said : 
"Brother, look and listen." 
And lo, a bright light shot in 
every direction across the great 
forest, and a sweet melody was 
heard, and seven beautiful lamps 
appeared flashing and approach- 
ing him with an imperceptible 

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8u8pap* wavraxoOw rov pcy<i- 

AOV SpVfUOVOS) Kdl ft€\<pSia 

rJKOvero yAv*€ta, teat eirra ircpt- 
/caAActs kv\viai kirttfAvrprav 
<£€yyo/JoAowrat #cat Kivovpevat, 
ficr aveiraurdr^rov jfya&tas #av- 
-qo-titiS vpos avrdv. 'OAavnys 
tKdafxfios ir Ai/o-tafci crt ftaAAov 

7T/JOS TO ptfflpOV OTTUtS /3X.€7TQ 

KaAAiov rot yivofuva Kara rrfv 
aVevavri ox^iyv. 'A<fx>v wap- 
rjXOov at €7rra X.v\vlat, £<f>dvr)- 
<rav ciKOo-trcotra/xs irpwfivrai 

\€V\€tflOVOVVT€S KOI €OT€fl- 

/icvoi Sta KpiviDV irdVrcs 6c 
€^aAAov. 'Eyyvs avnov ctto- 
p€vovro rko-<rapa £<pa €OT€fificva 
8ia irpaxrivtov 6ak\(av #cat e- 

XT€pCU/X€Va 6V ?£ 7TT€pVyU>V^ 

<utiv€S *J<rav irA^/octs dfifiaTW. 

J Ev /A€(T<p TOVTWV ^TO 8lTpO\OV 

apfia k\K6pAvov vwb ypviros 
KaXkiirrkpov. TLapa tov &€£u>v 
rpo)(ov €7Top€vovro T/o€ts vapdi- 
voi xpaWovcrai #cat \opevovcraL' 
^crav 8c aflrat at Tpcts d/oerat, 
IIioTts, 'EAn-ts #cat 'Ay dirt), at 
otto tat ySovcrou tppnrrov dvOrj 
iirl wpaias yvvatKos KaOrjfikvrjs 
hrl tov apfxaros. Avrrj 8k tfro 
rj BcaT/JtKT/. 'AAA* as dvayvo>- 
o-ftifiev dAtyovs ort'xovs €/c t?}s 
A' (£8rjs tov KaOapTTjpCov. 

slow movement Dante, amazed, 
went still nearer to the stream 
that he might better see what was 
taking place on the opposite 
bank. When the seven lamps 
had passed by, there* appeared 
twenty-four elders clad in white 
and crowned with lilies, and 
all were singing. Near them 
went four beasts crowned with 
green boughs, and having six 
wings which were full of eyes. 
In the midst of them was a 
two-wheeled chariot drawn by 
a griffin with beautiful wings. 
By the right wheel were walking 
three virgins singing and danc- 
ing : these were the three vir- 
tues, Faith, Hope, and Charity, 
who, while they were singing, 
threw flowers over a beautiful 
woman seated in the chariot 
This was Beatrice. But let us 
read a few lines from the 30th 
canto of the Purgatory. 

" Io vidi gia nel cominciar del giorno 
La parte oriental tutta rosata, 
E P altro ciel di bel sereno adorno, 
E la faccia del Sol nascere ombrata, 
Si che, per temperanza di vapori, 
It occhio lo sostenea lunga f iata : 
Co8l dentro una nuvola di fiori, 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 

viii DANTE 109 

Che dalle mani angeliche saliva, 
E ricadeva giu dentro e di fuori, 

Sovra candido vel cinta d' oliva 

Donna m' apparve sotto verde manto 
Vestita di color di fiamma viva. 

E lo spirito mio, che gia cotanto 

Tempo era stato, ch } alia sua presenza 
Non era di stupor tremando affranto, 

Sanza dagli occhi aver piu conoscenza, 
Per occulta virtu, che da lei mosse, 
D ; antico amor sentl la gran potenza. 

Tosto che nella vista mi percosse 
L' alta virtu, che gia m* avea trafitto 
Prima ch' io fuor di puerizia fosse, 

Volsimi alia sinistra col rispitto, 

Col quale il fantolin corre alia mamma, 
Quando ha paura, o quando egli e afflitto, 

Per dicere a Virgilio : Men che dramma 
Di sangue m' e rimasa, che non tremi ; 
Conosco i segni dell' antica fiamma. 

Ma Virgilio n' avea lasciati scemi 
Di se, Virgilio dolcissimo padre, 
Virgilio, a cui per mia saluta die' mi : 

Ne quantunque perdeo V antica madre, 
Valse alle guance nette di rugiada, 
Che lagrimando non tornassero adre." 

Purgatorio, xxx. 22. 

'Eav nopa avayvwrrjT* tyjv Now if you will read Musurus' 

ficrd^pacriv tov Moixrovpov, 6a translation, I will repeat Mrs. 

dxayyctAo) /ecu eya> tyjv rrjs Oliphant's, which I think is a 

Kvpias *OA.«£avT, fjTis vofiifro successful one. 


" EtSov kv dpxy rrjs rjfMpas wot* " As I have seen in dawning of 

rjSrj the day 

Trjv €<o iravav €pvdp6yjpovv y tov The rosy orient and the blue 

t a\kov serene 

Ovpavbv (rroXriv Kvavavyrj <f>o- Of the surrounding skies, and 

povvra, rising ray 

'HAibv t avarkXkov to <£ws Of the great sun, all tempered 

<tk to>8€5, in their sheen 

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"floV ofxfMwiv ar/u'oW t# <Tv/i- By vapours and soft clouds, that 

TrvKVioareL so the eye 

Avvaurd' dvrk^iv kirl iroXv Might long endure their glowing 

rr)v aiyXrjv. splendour : seen 

Ovtcds €V fjj&ry v€(f>€Xrjs *£ av- Thus 'mid a cloud of flowers, 

Oetov thrown up on high 

e Y7r' dyytXiKw \€Lp(av avv^a)- From those angelic hands, and 

jjl€vt]s, dropping down 

llaAiv €vrbs cktos tc /caTa- In showers of bloom within, 

iriirrovcrrjs without ; so I, 

'E7rt KaXvTrrpas Xevtcrjs <f>kpov<r Under a snowy veil and olive 

i\aias crown, 

JZTt/jLfi', €<f>dvrj fioi AcoTrotv V7rb Saw now a lady with a mantle 

rrpaxroyjpovv green, 

Heirkov k*\ <rroXr)v xptofiaros And shining like the living 

<t>\oybs foxnjs. flame her gown — 

To 6° ifwv 7rv€v/xa, to irokvv At which my spirit, that so long 

rj&rj xpovov had been 

Ov KaTa/3\r)0€v tin rrjs rrapov- Thrilled by no tremor from her 

o-tas presence fair, 

Avrrjs €K Odfifiovs, €/c7rA^€a>s While yet the eyes discerned her 

koli rpofiovy not, though seen — 

ILplv rj ftXtfAfJuwiv avrrjv ava- Felt, even though undiscerned, 

yviopto-rj, some spell was there 

KpvTTTQ 8uva/x€t, Trap* avrrjs Which potency of ancient love 

€Kp€ovcrrj, renewed, 

"EpcDTos <r<f>o8pdv Iq-\vv jjo-Otr Soon as my heart was touched 

dp\atov. by movement rare 

"A/m 8k irpoo'PaX.ovo'rjs rds cfids Of that high virtue which had 

6\f/€is deep imbued 

Trjs Oavfuurrijs dperrjs, rj fi And pierced my soul while yet 

Zrpaxr' r)8r) in childhood's hand. 

Uplv rrjs iraiBucrjs r)kudas €$f A- I turned me swift to my left 

0a>, side, as would 

'Eo-rpd^rjv €irl kaid (itO* otov A child in fear or trouble, to 

Odppovs the hand 

Tp€\€i iraihiov irpbs rr)v avrov Where stood the mother, rush- 

fir]T€pa ing to her breast — 

"Ot ?xct <j>6/3ov rj 7r€/5i7rt7TT€i To say to Virgil, * Nothing can 

kwrais, command 

"lv €L7r(o Bi/oyiAiy 'Tavts ov My heart to still its throbbing ; 

ft€V€t thus confest, 

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Aifiaros drpofirp-os kv tq (rapKt 


'Apx<uas <f>\oybs aurOdvofiai 


'AAA.' ovk r)v BtpytAtos* Kark- 

Xiirk /xe, 

#cv, Bt/rytAtos 6 yXv/curros 

irarrjp /xov, 

BipyiXtoSy os r)v ifir) <ruyrrjpia* 

0v8' 6 ri Trep aw(ti\€(r rj irp&rri) 

EkwAw' i/x-as 7ra/>€tas rds €K 


KaOapds tov fir) V€<f>todrjvai 


IEws eras <f>aiV€Tai rj e EA- 

Xrjvucr) /x€T(i<f)paxrLS tov Mov- 

(rovpov ; 

' kKplfitOT&Tri * BvOTL OV fWVOV 

6?vat ort^os 7rpbs <ttl\ov fxk 
To'LraAticov 7r/5a>TOTV7rov, dAAa 
(r\€§bv kcu A*£ts irpbs A«£tv. 
To V<f>OS OfJLQ)? fiol <£atV€Tat 

*px a K ov ' 

e H 7rapaTrjpri<rts vfi&v €?vat 
dXrjOrjs, dAA' 6 fi€Ta<t>pd£<i)v ep- 
yov Totavr?;s OTrovoatoT^TOS 8ev 
owarat va cvpj/ KaTaAA^Aovs 
Ai£cts #cat <f>pdo~€is iv ry AaAou- 
fttvy yAakro-y, /cat l£ dvdyKrjs 
irperczi va KaTa<t>vyr) ets rr)v dv- 
€^dvrX.rjTOV rrrfyr)v rrjs dp\atas 
EAA?/vtjd}s, rrj fiorjOtiy rrjs 
oirotas €?vat KaropOorrbv va /act- 
€V€X#(«krfcv at v\fnr] Ivvotat 
tov Advrou €ts r^v xa#' ijftas 

Ev rrpayfia rb oVotov 8cv 
5uva/iat #caAa>s va vo^o*a) etvat 
^ <m\ovpyia rrjs fxeTa(f>pd(T€0)S. 

I feel the burning of the ancient 


But Virgil, lo ! to whom my 

heart addrest 

Its inmost sighs — Virgil, the 

dearest sire — 

Virgil, to whom I gave me up 

— had stole 

Himself from me. Nor wonder, 

nor desire, 

Of all that our first mother lost, 

my soul 

Could comfort for this loss, or 

dry the dew 

That wet my cheek for such 

unthought-of dole." 

What do you think of the 
Greek translation of Musurus ? 

Most accurate : for not only 
does it agree line for line with 
the Italian original, but it is 
almost word for word. Yet his 
style seems to me to follow the 
ancient language. 

Your observation is correct, 
but the translator of a work of 
such a high class as this cannot 
find suitable words and phrases 
in the vernacular language, and 
of necessity he must have re- 
course to the inexhaustible 
fountain of ancient Greek, by 
the help of which it is possible 
for the sublime conceptions of 
Dante to be transferred to the 
Greek of our day. 

One thing which I cannot 
clearly understand is the metre 
of the translation. Will you do 

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Mot K<ipV€T€ TYfV X*P lV V< * H* 

8ia<f>u>Turr)T€ wtpl avrrjs ; 

'O Mowov/dos Acyct kv Ttpirpo- 
Ady<p ttjs fi€Ta<f>pdcr€ii)S ort fter- 
€\€ipur6rj pArpov 6a>0€Kao*vA- 
kafiov krjyov els 7rapo£vrovov 
Ac£tv, o/xotov ficv t<£ lap/3 lk^ 

€<TT€pr)fl€VOV $€ TOV \pOVlKOV 
(OS €t£ci'o€T€ TToAv KoAo, IT/DO 

ttoAAwv atcavwv aTTwAer&j, /cat 
<f>o/3ov[Aat, aTTbyXkcrdrj dvejrt- 

Ilotbv cfoat to <rwrj$€<rr€pov 
pLerpov iv tq XcocAA^vik^ wot- 

Ot V€toT€0Ot ^/AWV irotijTat 

ypdfowi Tot irovfipxKTa avrwv 
(rx^oov Ka0* oAa to, perpa* 
6 <rvvr)6coT€pos opaas Trap rjpiv 
ort'xos cfyat 6 8€Ka7revra(n;A- 
Aa/?os €ts ov broirjdrjo-av to. 
irXtioTcpa Wvlkol fjp&v po-furra, 
cos 7r. x» TO € gV s 
a KaAorvx« y^/Aa /3ovva kol 
KafXTTOL fi\oyqp£voi 
IIov x**/ 5 * &* v TO-VT€X €T€ > X**/ 5 * 

&V KapT€p€lT€." 

Ot crrlypi ovVot o/xotafowt 
wokv p% tov J£i}s <rrlx ov * K ™v 
Ncc^cAwv tov 'Apurrcxfrdvovs • 
" So^mototov; <ro<f><tiTaT6v y' €- 

K€tvov; 6> n(r ciirw!" 

'Ev T<£ OT*X<W TOVT(£>, 6V /iOt 

(Mr?7yy€fcAaT€, (rvpfiaivei vol crv/A- 

7Tl7TTy 6 TOVOS €7Tt Tt)s a/3O , €0>S, 

0>S KOU €V Tots €^?}s ortxots «* 


"'fis tf&opai Kat rcpiropai kol 
fiovkopai xopeuo-at 

me the favour to enlighten me 
on this point ? 

Musnrus says, in the preface 
to the translation, that he em- 
ployed the twelve-syllable metre 
ending in a paroxytone word, 
similar, in fact, to the Iambic, 
but without its rhythm of 
quantity. But this rhythm, 
as you know very well, was 
lost many centuries ago, and I 
fear lost beyond recovery. 

Which is the metre more 
usually employed in modern 
Greek poetry 1 

Our modern poets write their 
poems in almost every metre: 
but the more usual among us 
is the metre of fifteen syllables, 
in which the greater part of 
our national songs has been 
composed ; as for example, the 
following : 

"Fortunate are ye lofty hills, 
and blessed are ye plains, 
who expect not Charon's coming, 
nor have to wait for death." 

These verses are very similar 
to the following line from the 
Glovds of Aristophanes. 
" The wisest ? Do you say he is 
the wisest? 0, what shall I 
call you ! " 

Iu this line which you have re- 
cited to me it happens that the 
accent coincides with the arsis, 
just as in the following lines 
from the Plutus of the same poet, 
"How pleased and delighted I 
am, and I should like to dance, 

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Mifwvfjxvos /cat Totv iroSolv w8t 


*12ot€ Trp<xr<t>iX.ris <rri\os €ts 


8€Kcwr€iTa<rvAAa/?os, ocrrts vo- 
/u'fw /cat iroXiTucbs AfycTat. 

MdAarra, /cat uroSwapet p* 
tov dp\aiov lafxfiiKbv (rrt^ov, 

Evj\a8rj TOV T€Tpdfl€TpOV Kara- 

IIotowTat xpr)<riv rov oa/c- 
tvXucov k^afxkrpov ot trap 

STravtwrara. '& evSoKiparj- 
(ravrcs iv ry x/ 51 ? "* 6 T0 ^ perpov 
tovtov 0€O>povvTai 6 A. P. e Pay- 
Kafirjs, 6 6. 'Opc/wmfys, 6 'Av- 
Ta>vtd&/s /cat Ttvcs dAAot. 'A- 
kowutc oXtyovs crrtxovs €/c rrjs 
WXW ^^ 7rp<arris pa\f/<p8Cas 
T»j$ 'OoWcrctas /caTa t>)v /i€Ta- 
<\>paxrw rov 'FayKafifj. 

imitating [the Cyclops] and kick- 
ing up my heels in this way." 

So that the favourite metre 
with your poets is the one of 
fifteen syllables, which I believe 
is also called the political metre. 

Quite so, and it is equivalent 
to the ancient Iambic metre, 
that is to say, the tetrameter 

Do your poets make use of the 
dactylic hexameter ? 

Very rarely. Those who are re- 
garded as successful in the use of 
this metre are A. R Rangabes, 
Th. Orphanides, Antoniades, and 
a few others. Now listen to a 
few lines from the commence- 
ment of the first rhapsody of 
the Odyssey according to the 
translation of Rangabes. 

" ^FdAAc tov avSpa, ded, rov iroXvrpoTrov, oorts toctovtovs 
tottovs 8irj\0€, iropdrpas rrjs Tootas ttjv €v8o£ov 
Xw/oas 8k effkv avOpwtrtoV woAAas, k cfteAcTJ^rcv rj 0rj 9 
k €ts 0aAao-o~tas irXavrp-tis wrtcfxpt Xwras /zv/otas, 
Sektov avTbs va (rtaOy /cat tovs c/>tAovs tov Oikw va o-wry. 
HXrjv 8kv rovs «raxr€V, av k kiredvp.€i €/c fiddovs KapBias 
'AAA' c£ tStas avr(ov d<f>p<xrvvqs dVwAovro 7rdvT€S. ,, 

Tocrov? pjdvov ort^ovs €i>- I only recollect so many lines. 


'AAA,' o^Tot dpKovo-i va o^t^w- 
vw oTt to pkrpov tovto 8vvaTat 
KaAAtora va €v8oKip.rj&y kv rrj 
(rrjfiepivrj cos /cat iv rjj dp\ala 
EAAifVt/qJ. OcActc Tiopa va 
arayyct'Aco /cat £ya> tovs avrovs 
rn'xous ev ry yX.(aara"Q rov 

But these are sufficient to 
show that this metre can be 
most successfully employed in 
modern just as well as in ancient 
Greek. Would you like me 
now in my turn to recite the 
same lines in the language of 
Homer ? 

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9a /i€ viroxpeuxrrjTC xras 
7rapaKa\(D o/acos va tovs dwray- 
y€i\rjT€ /x€ 777 v 'EAAr/vt/c^v 

BepatoYaTa. Movov tov 

tovov Od fJLOt, hrtrp€}prjT€ va 
fUTa/3i/3d(u> €ts t^v apcrw oirov 
€?vat dvdyioj. 

Tovro 7rA^/()«rTaTa8t#catov<r0€ 
va Trpd£r)T€, 8toVt /cat ^/Jtcts 
7roAAa#as €V t# BrjfioTiKy irovq- 

<T€l /K€Ta/?l/?d£o/A€V TOV TOVOV €tS 

aAAiyv o~vAAa/?7/v xdpiv tov 
p&Tpov. € 12s 0€ty/*a tov TOtovrov 
fMTapiPaxr/JLOv eoraxrav ot c£i}s 
oriypi • 

"'Avot£av Ta ovpdvia, #cai /3yrj- 

#cav 8vo dyycAot 

ki 6 Mt\a^ A ' AoxdyycAos avra 

tovs waoayycAAct." 

*Ev t^ o/uAta at A^€ts avot- 

£av #cat dyycAot irpo<f>kpovrai. 

avot£av #cat dyycAot. Kat €ts 

Ta OTi\ovpyrifw.Ta tov fieoraiio- 

vos /?A«r€t Tts Totavras irapaX- 

Aayds, <os o-vfifiaivti kv T<j) k£rjs 

o-Ttx<w tov riTwxoTrooSod^tov, 

oorts €ts ttjv Ac£tv Troovotav 


7raoaA^yotxrav, Acywv 

"*Ev o~ot yap e/KaToUrjo-ev rj 


Kat Tavra pXv kv 7rap68<j) ir€pl 
ttjs Ka0* rjfias NcocAAr/vt/ojs 
o'Tiypvpyvas' kav ofuos dkXert 
va kd/3rjT€ Trkrjp€OT€pas irXrjpo- 
(f>op tas irepl avTrjs, dvdyvwTC to 


c A7rdvTa>v tov A. P. 'Pay/ca/ft}, 
Kat Tas fe Ypap.fjLaTLKas irapa- 
Trjprjo-as " tov E. A. 2o</k>kA€OVs 

You will oblige me : but I 
beg you to recite them with the 
Greek pronunciation. 

Most certainly. Only you 
will allow me to transfer the 
accent to the arsis whenever 

You are quite justified in 
doing this, for in popular poetry 
we ourselves often transfer .the 
accent to another syllable for 
the sake of the metre. Let the 
following lines serve as an ex- 
ample of such a transfer of 
accent : 

"The heavens opened and two 
angels came forth, 
and the Archangel Michael gives 
them these commands." 

In conversation, the words 
dvot£av and dyycAot are pro- 
nounced dvo t£av and dyycAot. 
And in the verses of the middle 
ages such changes may be 
noticed, as is the case in the 
following line of Ptochopro- 
dromos, who in the word 7roo- 
vota throws forward the accent 
to the penultimate, saying : 
"For in you abode the provi- 
dence of God." 

So much then for a passing 
description of our modern Greel^ 
versification"; but if you wish to 
obtain more complete informa- 
tion about it, read the preface 
to the fifth volume of the Com- 
plete Works of i R Kangabesy 
and the Grammatical Observation 
of E. A Sophocles in his intrcJ 

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€v ry eurayuryrj rov TZvfavrivov 
avrov Xe^iKOVy /cat 6a fidOr)T€ 
ovk oXCya c£ avrwv. 'AAA? 
dirayyeXXcre tw/mi to dpyaiov 

K€lfl€VOV KOLL 06. fl€ €Vp7)T€ <f>lXff- 

koov aKpoaTqv. 

duction to his Byzantine dic- 
tionary, and you will learn a 
great deal from them. But 
recite now the original text and 
you will find me an attentive 

'"Avopa fwi €W€7T€, fwv(ra, iroXvTpOTTov, 6s ftaAa TroAAa 
irXdyyO-q, eirei Tpotrjs Upov irToXUSpov hrtpatv, 
7roXXu>v 8' dvOpwnav ifev aorca koli voov lyvw, 
iroXXa 6° 6 y kv tt6vt<$ irdfev dXyca ov Kara dvphv, 

dpVV/X€VOS TjV T€ \^V\rjV KOU v6<rTOV €T<lip(t)V. 

aAA ouo (os crapovs cppvcaro ufxevos ir€p' 
avrol yap o-farkpyo-w drao-OaXiya-iv oAovro." 

" Tell me, Muse, of that man, so ready at need, who wandered 
far and wide, after he had sacked the sacred citadel of Troy, and 
many were the men whose towns he saw and whose mind he 
learned, yea, and many the woes he suffered in his heart upon the 
deep, striving to win his own life and the return of his company. 
Nay, but even so he saved not his company, though he desired it 
sore ; for through the blindness of their own hearts they perished." 
— S. H. Botcher and A. Lang. 

l H fJL€Td<f>pa(riS p>ol <£cUV€T<U 

o^ioAoyos Kal dTcpt/farrdYtyj koX 
&v dfufyt^aXXii) on ot kyicv- 
ttovtcs €ts ttjv pLeXkrrjv rov 
^firjpov "AyyXoi cvpurKowrw 
avrrjv xprp-iiuaraTqv. 

Tovto opjoXoyeirai trapd irdv- 
Ttov, Siori al p*xpt> tovSc y€vop.€- 

Vat €fJLfl€TpO(, fJL€Ta<f)pdo'€lS TOV 

'Ofxrjpov €ts ttjv 'AyyXucrjv 
6ktos oXlytav k£aipko-*(ov dirkrv- 

\0V. 'AXXd fiXklTii) €(f)6d(TafJL€V 

cts Hiorav, Kal dv dyairar* as 
c£eA0<o/A€V vd KajJAtifitv €va rj 
5vo yvpovs €ts to K/njTri&o/jia. 

The translation appears to me 
very good and most accurate, 
and I have no doubt that those 
Englishmen who devote them- 
selves to the study of Homer 
find it of the greatest use to 

This is acknowledged by all, 
for the metrical translations of 
Homer into English which have 
hitherto been made are, with a 
few exceptions, failures. But I 
see we have arrived at Pisa, and 
if you like, let us get out and 
take a turn or two on the plat- 

With pleasure. 

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tyjv kcnrkpav dirkpxopAu €ts 
'Pto/xrjv, o7rov 6d 8iaTpi\f/(o {nrkp 
rrjv fAiav k/3 80 pid8a. 

0, what a happy coincidence I 
I see a friend of mine, a clergy- 
man from Constantinople, who 
is looking for an empty carriage. 
Most reverend Archimandrite, 
come into this carriage, for there 
is a place for you. 

I am heartily glad to see you 
again after so many years. Your 
appearance has not changed at 
all, and so I recognised you at 

Allow me to introduce Mr. 
Wilson to you. He is professor 
of Greek at Cambridge; and 
he has a perfect knowledge of 
modern Greek. 

It is a great pleasure to me. 
And where are you going, God 
willing ? 

To Greece ; but we thought 
it would be right, on our road 
through Italy, to visit Florence 
and Rome, staying one day at 

I too am going to stay one 
day at Florence, and to-morrow 
evening I am off to Rome, 
where I shall spend more than ' 
a week. 

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pjoi. Kara rrjv kv Nt/cata 
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AiyvTTTOV do-K-qriKomfiTOS kiri- 


l Yirdp\ovo'L Trap* vp.Lv 7roXXol 
povayot wsevTp Avcrct ; 

S^ctiicw? 6 dpiOpJbs -avT&v 
Stv etvai pkyas, *at ol 7rA,€to~Tot 
/tovafotxrtv kv rois pavaarrrjpiois 
tov *A0a>, oo-Tts Sta tovto 

We shall have then the 
pleasure of travelling in your 
company as far as Rome. Have 
you ever been there before 1 

I visited it many years ago 
on my way back from Germany, 
where I had completed my 
studies ; but, as I was on that 
occasion anxious to reach Con- 
stantinople as soon as possible, 
I spent only a short time in 

We in England have confused 
ideas about your clergy, and, if 
you would allow me, I would 
beg you to give me some in- 
formation on the subject 

I am quite willing. 

I should like to learn whether 
those of your church who are in 
holy orders are married or un- 

The patriarchs, the bishops, 
and the monks are unmarried, 
but the priests are generally 
married. At the Council of 
Nice an attempt was made to 
prohibit the married state among 
the clergy, but it failed ; and 
it is very curious that the one 
who successfully fought against 
the proposal in the Council was 
the Aegyptian bishop Paph- 
noutios, a man of the most 
ascetic habits. 

Are there among you many 
monks, as in the West ? 

Comparatively their number 
is not great, and most of them 
pass their monastic life in the 
monasteries of Athos, which 

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on this account has received the 
name of the Holy Mountain. 
Convents for women may be 
said scarcely to exist, so small 
is the number of them. The 
monks are called by the people 
"calogeri" (good old men), but 
this epithet has now come to 
have a contemptuous significa- 
tion, and it is a good thing 
to know this, so as not to occa- 
sion unpleasantness with the 
monks. In addressing them,, 
one must employ the terms 
"father," "most holy," or "all- 
sanctified," according to their 
grade. The higher clergy 
have various designations. The 
honorific titles, " all - holy," 
"most beatified," "most vener- 
able," "all sacred" and "most 
beloved of God," were at first 
given indiscriminately to the 
bishops in general, but now 
their use is restricted. The 
title "all-holy" is only borne 
by the Oecumenical patriarch, 
who is also archbishop of Con- 
stantinople. The other three 
patriarchs, of Alexandria, of 
Jerusalem, and of Antioch, are 
entitled "most beatified." The 
archbishops or metropolitans are 
honoured with the epithet of 
" most venerable " ; the bishops 
are addressed as "all-sacred," and 
the suffragan bishops as "most 
beloved of God." 

What is the title of priests, 
and of deacons ? 

Priests, if married, have the 

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title of "most reverend," if 
unmarried, that of "all-sancti- 
fied." The deacons are called 
"sacred and most learned." 
The archimandrites "all-sancti- 
fied and most learned." 

I remember, when two years 
ago the archbishop of Cyprus 
visited England, the newspapers 
gave him the title of "most 
beatified " (his beatitude) : is 
this title correct ? 

Yes, and I will tell you why : 
the island of Cyprus, in regard 
to its ecclesiastical government, 
was at first subject to the 
patriarch of Antioch, but by 
the eighth canon of the Council 
of Ephesus, sanctioned by the 
Emperor Justinian, its arch- 
bishopric was made independent, 
and to the then archbishop of 
Cyprus, Anthemius, was granted 
the privilege of writing his 
signature to public documents 
in red ink ; and this privilege 
was afterwards confirmed by the 
Emperor Zenon, and is retained 
to this day. As being inde- 
pendent, the archbishop of the 
island is designated "most 

I am very much obliged to you 
for this information, and especi- 
ally for that which regards the 
Church in Cyprus : but if I am 
not giving you too much trouble, 
you will put me under great 
obligation if you will also tell 

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va KtoXvo-axrw ZttI eva auova 
rr)v 7rpbs rd Karw poirrjv rrjs 
avTOKparopias. "Ore opaas 

me a little about the Council of 

To be able to understand 
thoroughly the object of this 
Council and the reason why its 
decisions were not carried into 
effect, it is necessary to go 
through the political and eccle- 
siastical history of the Byzantine 
empire from the time of Photius 
the patriarch of Constantinople 
to the taking of that city by the 
Turks. The object of this 
Council was to unite the two 
churches, the Eastern and the 
Western. The motives however 
which actuated the Greeks in 
their endeavour to effect the 
union were not religious but 
political, for, being threatened 
with complete destruction by 
the daily increasing power of 
the Turks, they were compelled, 
against their will, to have re- 
course to the Pope, in order that 
through him they might secure 
assistance to avert the impend- 
ing danger. The Byzantine em- 
pire began to show signs of de- 
cay from the time of the Com- 
neni, yet three emperors of this 
dynasty, Alexius, Johannes, and 
Manuel (1081-1180), were en- 
abled, by their political capacity 
and their individual courage, to 
arrest for a century the down- 
ward tendency of the empire. 

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taTov Tpavpxx KarrjveyKOV Kara 

But wljen the incompetent and 
profligate Andronicus assumed 
the reins of the empire (1183- 
1185), its decline began to be 
apparent in every quarter : trade 
had passed into the hands of the 
Venetians and Genoese, the im- 
perial treasury was empty, the 
army without discipline, the sea 
rendered unsafe from being 
infested with pirates, and every- 
thing was going from bad to 
worse. At this time the empire 
was being attacked in Asia 
Minor by the Seljouks ; and in 
Europe by the Wallachians, 
who became masters of part of 
Thrace and Macedonia: more- 
over the Normans coming from 
Sicily often invaded and ravaged 
the provinces of the Byzantine 
empire. One of the most famous 
of these invasions was that which 
took place in 1185, when the 
Normans came with a large 
army and- besieged Thessalonica 
by land and sea and captured it, 
treating the inhabitants with 
great severity and inhumanity. 
A detailed account of the siege 
and capture of this wealthy city 
has been written by Eustathius, 
whose name is very familiar to 
every student of Greek litera- 
ture. But the most terrible blow 
to the Byzantine empire was 
inflicted by the Crusaders, who 

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under pretence of Christian 
.enthusiasm against the infidels 
destroyed the only bulwark 
there was in the East against 
the irreconcilable enemies of 
our religion. 

But many of the Western 
historians insist that the first 
Crusade owed its origin to the 
solicitations of the Greeks, and 
assert that Peter the Hermit 
went as a pilgrim to Jerusalem, 
and, returning to Europe, 
brought letters from the then 
patriarch of Jerusalem to the 
Pope and to the princes of the 
West, in which were described 
the terrible sufferings of the 
Christians and an appeal was j 
made for help. They also 
maintain that the Emperor 
Alexius Comnenus himself 
begged for aid against the Turks 
from the princes of Europe. 

I do not undertake to dispute 
the- letters of the patriarch of 
Jerusalem, though the way in 
which the Crusaders behaved to 
him renders their genuineness 
open to suspicion. But the 
letters which are ascribed to the 
Emperor Alexius are forged, 
for not only do the Byzantine 
historians make no mention 
whatever of them, but they 
represent the first Crusade as 
an event entirely unexpected 
and as of a hostile character : 

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a£ioAoy<£> urTOpiy. avrou, "ou 
ftovoi/ ov&kva KartTreiyovTOL X.6- 
yov €i)(€ va fy)Trj<ry ttjv kiri- 
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avrrjv ck tovtov 6* hrtTai 
avafjL(f>i(r/3rjTriT(as oti ra ircpl 
iK£rqpi<t)v kirurroXtov avrov kcu 
Trp€<rp€L<j)V 0pv\ovp,€va irapa 
rots Avtlkois dveirXcicrO'qcrav 
a7rAws iva Sakraxrt TrpocrxqpLci 
ti Sikoliov els ttjv kiriyjdpricriv 
Tavrrjv, tfris kykvero /xaAAov 
Kara rov 'AvarokiKov Kpdrovs rj 
Kara twv kv *2vpia Ma>a/z€#avwv. 
To fikya tovto KivrjpLa tt}s 
Awrcws Kara rrjs 'AvaroArJs, to 
wrotov 1/xeAAe va 8iapK€cry rpels 
irepiirov €KaTovra€Tr)pC8as, kcu 
aTTOTeAct €v T(uv cnrov8aioT€p<t)v 
yeyovoTtov tJJs irayKocrpiov 
urropCas, irap€<rK€vaxrdr), u>9 
Trpoc£r)yrj<rafA€v, 81a iroiKiXiav 
kcu irpoaiu>vi<ov ttoXltlk^v /cat 

6p7JCrK€VTLK(j}V CTVpL<t>€p6vT(t)V, 

l8t(OS 6*€ V7TO rrjs ir€LcrfAaT(o8ovs 
Twv dpx*>cpk<t)v rrjs 'Pw/^s 
a^takrcws tov va €7rtj8aAa)crt tt)v 
Kvpiapxiav avTisiv €ts ttjv ava- 
ToAtK^v'EKKA^o-iav. 'EvvoctTat 
OTt, kclOo>s TravTOTc crvfj,l3aiv€Ly 
crvverkkecrav els tovto 7roAAa 
Scirrc/ocvovTa airta* aAAot /3€- 
fiauas /jl€Tol£v twv Scvre/ocvov- 
twv tovtwv aiTitov ovSkva 
aTro^owvra Aoyov €\op.€v va 
ir€pt\d/3<0pL€V tols vwoTtdefxkvas 
kirurroXas koi TT/xo-jSctas tov 

" Alexius," says Constantine 
Paparregopoulos in his excellent 
history, "not only had no urgent 
reasons for seeking the assist- 
ance of the West, but he had 
many reasons for not asking 
for it ; from this it follows, 
beyond dispute, that the reports 
about the letters and embassies 
sent by him to procure help, 
which were current among the 
people of the West, were fabri- 
cated simply to afford some pre- 
text of justice for this enter- 
prise which was undertaken 
against the Eastern empire rather 
than against the Mahomedans in 
Syria. This great movement of 
the West against the East, which 
was to last for nearly three 
centuries, and which constitutes 
one of the principal events in 
the history of the world, owed 
its origin, as already explained, 
to various political and religious 
interests of long standing, and 
especially to the persistent 
claim of the Roman Pontiffs to 
impose their authority upon the 
Eastern Church. It may be 
readily understood that, as is 
always the case, many secondary 
causes contributed their influ- 
ence ; but among these secondary 
causes we have assuredly no 
sufficient reason to include the 
supposed letters and embassies 
of Alexius." However this may 
be, certainly no one can deny 
that the warriors of the first 
Crusade greatly contributed to 

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the expulsion of the Seljouks 
from the Byzantine provinces; 
but these pious soldiers of the 
cross thought it just and right 
to pillage the people whom they 
had come to help, and accord- 
ingly, when they returned from 
the pursuit of the enemy, they 
carried off whatever they could 
from the country which had 
hospitably entertained them. 
This conduct of the first 
Crusaders excited a feeling of 
hatred and indignation against 
them in the hearts of the people 
of the East, so that in the second 
and third Crusades, at every 
opportunity and in every 
manner, they showed their 
hostility to these Western 
robbers. About the so-called 
fourth Crusade what are we to 

Would you like me to tell 
you what opinion about it the 
Rev. H. F. Tozer expresses in 
his little work published two 
years ago, entitled The Church 
and the Eastern Empire ? 

You will oblige me very much. 

Here is what he says at page 
24. "The mutual animosity 
that was thus generated at last 
came to a head in the disgraceful 
buccaneering expedition, which 

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is dignified with the name of 
the fourth Crusade, when a 
force, which was assembled for 
the purpose of fighting the 
infidels, turned its arms against 
the most important Christian 
city of that time, and, after 
having stormed and captured it, 
partitioned its dominions be- 
tween the nations who took part 
in the attack (1204). From this 
blow Constantinople never re- 

The reverend author is de- 
serving of all praise for his 
impartiality, but unfortunately 
all the historians of the Crusades 
are not inspired with a sense of 
justice. But let us return to 
the narration of the events 
which preceded the Council of 
Florence. The Latin empire 
which was established in tthe 
East had but a short existence, 
for about sixty years after its 
foundation it was destroyed by 
Michael Palaeologus, the founder 
of the last dynasty which ruled 
over the Byzantine empire. 
But what an empire ! The 
north coast of Asia Minor 
constituted a separate kingdom 
under the sway of the Comneni 
in Trebizond : in Epirus and 
in Thessalonica independent 
principalities were formed : the 
islands of the Aegaean Sea were 
in the power of the Venetians 
and other Italian states : the 

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greater part of the Peloponnesus 
was held by the Franks ; Athens 
and the north of Greece was 
under the rule of the family of 
De la Roche. Afterwards others 
came to get a share of the 
plunder. The Catalans came 
as allies, but they pillaged those 
who expected help from them. 
The Knights of St John took 
possession of the island of 
Rhodes ; the Servians established 
a dominion of their own, under 
the government of Stephen 
Dushan, which lasted till the 
year 1389, when it was over- 
thrown by the Sultan Amurath. 

It is curious how the Palae- 
ologi succeeded in preserving 
for nearly two hundred years 
an empire which was in such a 
state of paralysis, especially 
when we take into consideration 
that all, except the last of them, 
Constantine VIII. who heroically 
fell at the taking of Constanti- 
nople, were selfish, despotic, and 

The Byzantine empire was 
certainly very feeble in the 
time of the Palaeologi, but its 
opponents also, at first, were 
not strong : when however 
the Turks had passed through 
Phrygia and established their 
authority at Brusa in Bithynia 
and afterwards crossing the 

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Hellespont had made 
selves masters of the 
part of Thrace, then it 
quite evident that the < 
pire of Byzantium ran < 
risk, and there is no doi 
it would have been over 
by the powerful Sultan 
if he had not been wors 
taken prisoner by Tim< 
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of Angora (1402). Whc 
Palaeologus ascended the 
in 1425, his dominions c< 
of his capital, Constan 
with the country surrc 
it, of Thessalonica and 
part of the Peloponnesi 
state so weak could no 
its ground before the d 
creasing power of the 
Seeing his empire in this 
condition, what could 1 
fortunate John VI. do 1 
only hope left to him w; 
brought into friendly r 
with the West throuj 
union of the Churches. 

But I am afraid tl 
situation was not all fa\ 
to a union of the tw 
Churches of Christend< 
cause a great eccle 
Council had been sit 
Basel since the year l< 
object of which was the 1 
tion of the Western Chu 

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the limitation of the power of 
the Pope, who was watching 
with great uneasiness the course 
of events, and proposed Bologna 
as a more suitable city for the 
Council. "If the fathers assemble 
in this city," he said, "it will 
be easy for representatives of 
the Eastern Church also to 
come to the Council, so that 
the much-desired union of the 
Churches may be effected : " but 
the fathers rejected the Pope's 
proposal, declaring that the 
Council had higher authority 
than the Pope. While, then, 
the Latin Church was thus 
divided into two conflicting 
authorities, do you not think 
that any attempt at a union 
with the Eastern Church was 
absurd ? 

You are right ; it appears to 
us absurd : but the state of 
affairs at that time was such 
that all were desirous of the 
union. So we see that the 
fathers of the Council of Basel 
sent ships and money to Con- 
stantinople to bring the repre- 
sentatives of the Eastern Church, 
but the Pope's ships arrived 
before them, for he wished by 
every means to attract the 
Greeks of Constantinople to his 
side. The Emperor John was 
undecided which of the two 
invitations to accept, but at 
last he determined to sail to 
Venice in the Papal ships, 
promising the delegate from 

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the Council of Basel that, when 
he arrived in Italy, he would 
wait till some kind of agreement 
had been effected between the 
Pope and the fathers in Basel. 
About the end then of the year 
1437, the Emperor, leaving his 
brother Constantine in Con- 
stantinople as regent, sailed for 
Italy, taking with him his other 
brother Demetrius and the aged 
Patriarch Joseph, with a numer- 
ous retinue of archbishops, 
bishops, priests and monks. 
Among these were many of the 
most distinguished prelates of 
the Eastern Church, of whom 
the most illustrious were Marcus 
of Ephesus, Dionysius of Sardes, 
and Bessarion of Nicaea. Isidore 
the metropolitan of Kieff also ac- 
companied them as a delegate of 
the Russian Church. There sailed 
with them moreover representa- 
tives of the patriarchs of Alex- 
andria, Antioch, and Jerusalem, 
and almost all the clergy who 
held important offices, among 
whom was the great ecclesiarch 
Sylvester Syropulus who wrote 
the history of the Council of 
Florence. Among those who 
went to the Council were also 
not a few laymen, of whom 
the most eminent were George 
Scholarius, afterwards called 
Gennadius, who was appointed 
the first (Ecumenical Patriarch 
after the capture of Constanti- 
nople by the Turks, and George 
Gemistos, better known by the 

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name of Plethon. This numer- 
ous and illustrious company 
sailed from Constantinople on 
the 27th of November, and after 
a long and fatiguing passage of 
seventy -seven days arrived at 
Parenzo not very far from 
Venice. Regarding the mag- 
nificent reception given to the 
Emperor and his companions at 
Venice, allow me to read to you 
the following description taken 
from the history of the Council 
of Florence. 

" On the seventh of February 
we sailed from Parenzo with all 
the triremes together, but the 
royal trireme, being swifter, 
went ahead of the others on 
its way to Venice, and ar- 
rived at the port of S. Nicolo 
del Lido on the eighth of the 
month about the second hour of 
the day, the rest about the 
fourth hour : then a crowd of 
boats came out from Venice to 
meet the king, so numerous 
that it might almost be said 
that the sea was hidden from 
view by the compact throng. 
A message was delivered from 
the senate for the king not to 
disembark till the morning, in 

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Kat. (apatorarov. fjXOov 8c /act* 
auTou Kat crc/oa /Aco-OKarcpya, 

order that the Doge might come 
with all the senate and pay fit- 
ting honour to the king : this 
arrangement was followed ; and 
after a short time the Doge 
arrived with the senators, and 
made obeisance to the king who 
remained seated, and in like 
manner the senators, all bare- 
headed. On the right of the 
king was seated his brother, 
his Highness Prince Demetrius, 
on a little lower level than the 
royal throne : then the Doge 
took his seat on the left of the 
king, and they greeted each other 
with complimentary speeches 
and held some private conversa- 
tion : after this, the Doge said 
to the king : * We shall come in 
the morning to pay becoming 
and due respect to your sacred 
majesty, and receive you with 
proper ceremony, and thus you 
will enter Venice : ' the Doge 
with his senators then took his 

On the morning of Sunday 
the ninth of February, at the 
fifth hour of the day, the Doge 
arrived in great pomp with his 
senators and councillors and a 
great many other noblemen, in 
his splendidly decorated state- 
barge which was shaded with 
scarlet awnings and had golden 
lions at the stern and gilded 
tracery, and was ornamented 
throughout with paintings, and 
variously decorated and most 
beautiful. With it there came 

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other boats of a smaller size 
called galions, about twelve in 
number, and these also were 
covered within and without 
with ornamentation and paint- 
ings, in all respects similar to 
the Doge's barge, and in which 
were many noblemen, and all 
round them they had golden 
standards, and innumerable 
trumpets and all kinds of 
musical instruments. And they 
had a particularly splendid 
galion, most marvellous, bearing, 
forsooth, the name of * the royal 
trireme,' and they had rendered 
it very beautiful with various 
decorations; for below, the 
sailors rowed in apparel of gold- 
mail and bearing on their heads 
the badge of St. Mark and be- 
hind it the emblem of royalty ; 
then the Jagratores had dresses 
and banners of a different ap- 
pearance : and that smaller 
vessel had royal standards all 
round it, and at the stern numer- 
ous golden flags, and four men 
wearing gold -embroidered gar- 
ments, with white and gold hair 
on their heads : in the midst of 
these four, a handsome man 
sometimes sat down and some- 
times stood up, arrayed in 
splendid robes woven of gold, 
and holding a sceptre in his 
hand as admiral : and other 
nobles could be seen, having 
the appearance of foreigners, 
wearing clothes of a different 
kind much variegated, as 

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though attending upon him 
with great deference. In 
front of the stern a man stood 
upright, like a lofty pillar, and 
on the top of that [human] 
pillar a sort of square table less 
than six feet, and on that table 
stood a man armed from head 
to foot, flashing like the sun, 
and holding in his hand a 
fearful weapon, and on his right 
and left were seated two boys 
dressed as angels, and having 
wings like angels, and these 
were not representations but 
really human beings who moved ; 
and at the stern it had appar- 
ently two golden lions and 
between them a golden two- 
headed eagle, and it had many 
other fantastic decorations which 
are impossible to commit to 
writing. It was very swift, 
and sometimes went in front of 
the royal trireme, and sometimes 
by the side of it, and circling 
round it with cheering and 
sounding of many trumpets : 
other vessels and boats also 
came, which could not be num- 
bered, for as no one can count 
the stars of heaven, or the 
leaves of the trees, or the sand 
of the sea, or the drops of the 
rain, so it was impossible to 
count the boats on that occasion. 
Not to be prolix then, the 
Doge, having arrived, approached 
the royal trireme, attended by 
the nobles of his senate, and 
went on board and made his 

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obeisance to the king who 
remained seated, having on his 
right, as was said before, his 
brother seated on a lower level 
than the royal throne : the king 
then seated the Doge on bis 
left, upon a seat on the same 
level as that of the prince, hold- 
ing him by the hand while they 
conversed in a very friendly 

After a little while, they began 
to make their entry with great 
pomp, to the sound of trumpets 
and all kinds of music, into 
brilliant and marvellous Venice ; 
and indeed wonderful and 
most wonderful, wealthy, pro- 
fusely ornamented and gilded, 
with every kind of carving and 
decoration, and worthy of never- 
ending praise is Venice, the 
most intellectual of cities. If 
any one were to call her another 
Land of Promise, he would not 
be wrong : for I believe that it 
is of her that the prophet says 
in the 23d Psalm [24th of 
English version], 'For God 
founded it upon the seas and 
established it upon the floods.' 
For what will any one seek 
and will not find there ? On 
this account she is worthy of 
the highest praise and honour. 
It was about the fifth hour of 
the day when we began to make 
our entry into Venice and we 
were sailing till sunset, when 
we arrived at the palace of the 
Marquis of Ferrara. 

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The whole city was in move- 
ment and came out to meet the 
king, and the applause and 
cheering was tremendous ; and ' 
on that day there was to be 
witnessed an entrancing spec- 
tacle, the marvellous church of 
St. Mark, the magnificent palace 
of the Doge, and the spacious 
mansions of the nobles, orna- 
mented with bright red colouring 
and profuse gilding, beautiful 
and more than beautiful : those 
who have not seen her will 
perhaps not believe, while we 
who have seen her are unable 
to describe in writing her beauty, 
her situation, her arrangement, 
the intelligence of the men and 
women, the immense crowd of 
people who all stood and 
witnessed with unanimous joy 
and delight the entry of the 
king : for we were perfectly 
lost in admiration when we 
beheld such magnificence, so 
that in our ecstasy we said : 
' To-day the land and the sea 
have become heaven/ For as 
no one can comprehend the 
creations and the works of God 
in heaven, but is only struck 
with amazement, so we were 
amazed at what we saw on that 
day. When we arrived at the 
great bridge which they call the 
Rialto, they raised it, and the 
trireme passed under it. There 
too a great mass of people was 
collected, and there were golden 
standards, and trumpets, and ap- 

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plause and cheering, and, in 
short, ability fails me to de- 
scribe in writing or in words 
the spectacle of that day, and 
the acclamations and the atti- 
tude of the people, and the 
deep respect and the hearty 
welcome with which they greeted 
the king. And we went, as I 
said before, to the palace of the 
Marquis of Ferrara, for it was 
there that they stationed the 
trireme : it was then sunset : 
and the Doge and his senators, 
taking their leave, went away 
home on Sunday the ninth of 
February in the year 1437." 

This extract from the History 
of the Council of Florence is ex- 
tremely interesting, not only 
from an historical but from a 
philological point of view, for 
it shows the state of the Greek 
language as it was written in 
the 15th century by educated 
men of that day, whenever they 
condescended to express their 
ideas in a simple and unstudied 
style : when I say a simple style, 
I do not mean the vulgar lan- 
guage spoken by the common 
people, but that which, to a 
certain extent, is written in ac- 
cordance with grammatical rules. 

If you would like to see in 
what condition the vernacular 
Greek language was at that time, 
allow me to read to you a letter 
attributed to Bessarion: he wrote 
it to the tutor of the sons of 
Thomas Palaeologus. 

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\<urBiov kirop€v€TO IpLirpoo-Oev 

You will much oblige me if 
you will defer the reading of 
the letter till to-morrow and 
continue your account of the 
Council of Florence. 

With pleasure : but I am 
afraid that my friend Mr. 
Androcles has no great inclina- 
tion to listen to religious ques- 
tions. — Is this not so ? 

Your conjecture is correct. 
But I do not see that there is any 
necessity for you to relate in de- 
tail all the doctrinal disputes of 
the fathers who attended the 
Council. A very concise account 
of them is enough. And you, 
Mr. Wilson, what do you say ? 

I entirely agree in your opin- 

I will do then according to 
your wish. The Emperor and 
those who were with him re- 
mained a fortnight in Venice, 
during which time every atten- 
tion and the highest honours 
were lavished upon them. After 
this they continued their journey 
to Ferrara, the inhabitants of 
which flocked in crowds to re- 
ceive them with much pomp. 
The Emperor rode a black horse 
with scarlet and gold trappings, 
another horse, a white one, with 
its appointments decorated with 
golden eagles, went in front of 
the Emperor without a rider. 
The Pope, seated in his palace 

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and surrounded by all his clergy, 
awaited his arrival. When he 
heard that the Emperor was near 
the gate, he rose and walked 
about till he entered. 

I should like to know if he 
knelt to the Pope. 

He wanted to kneel, but the 
Pope would not allow him ; but 
he embraced him and let him 
kiss his hand, and then seated 
him on his left side. 

But what became of the 
Patriarch ? 

He arrived later, and on 
being presented to the Pope 
kissed him on the cheek, and 
the prelates with him kissed his 
right hand. So far everything 
went welj ; but when all these 
forms and ceremonies of recep- 
tion were completed, and both 
sides began to consider the con- 
ditions under which the Council 
was to be opened, many difficul- 
ties arose ; about which it is not 
necessary for me to say anything 

On the 9th of April 1438, the 
Council was inaugurated with 
great ceremony, but the regular 
sittings commenced on the 6th 
of October. Sixteen sittings 
took place in Ferrara ; and on 
the 26th of February 1439 the 
Council was transferred to Flor- 

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ence, and after lengthened dis- 
cussion the union was effected, 
but the Eastern Church never 
acknowledged it as genuine. 
The decree by which the terms 
of the union were denned was 
drawn up in Latin, and, after 
being translated into Greek by 
Bessarion, was signed by our 
people on the 5th of July 1439. 
But Marcus the Archbishop of 
Ephesus refused to sign the 
decree ; and when the Pope 
heard of this, he exclaimed : " Tf 
this is so, we have done nothing." 

I was going also to ask you 
what happened in Constanti- 
nople after the Council, but I 
see that we have arrived at 
Florence. At what hotel do 
you intend to put up ? 

At the hotel Minerva. 

Then we too will come to the 
same hotel, so that we may all 
be together. To-morrow, after 
we have visited what is most 
worth seeing in the city, we 
will start for Rome. 

Yery good. 

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I am very glad that at last 
we are in the railway carriage 
and are on our road to Rome, 
for I am exhausted with fatigue. 
My friend Mr. Androcles, who 
is indefatigable, insisted on our 
seeing everything of interest in 
the city in one day. 

He got this habit, you see, 
from London, where the dis- 
tances are so great, and one is 
compelled to walk for many 
hours every day without feeling 
it But what did you think of 
Florence ? 

Its large buildings of solid 
stone and its narrow and gloomy 
streets at first made me melan- 
choly, but by degrees this feeling 
passed away, especially when 
there came to my recollection 
the Phanar quarter of Constanti- 
nople where I spent many years 
of my life. The streets of 
Florence, I said to myself, 
though narrow, are neverthe- 
less very clean, while those of 
the Phanar, and of many other 
parts of Constantinople, are ex- 

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cessively dirty, and in rainy 
weather impassable. 

But in Florence all the streets 
are not narrow, for since Italy 
has been united into one inde- 
pendent kingdom, many im- 
provements have been effected 
in all its cities, and especially 
in Florence when it became the 
capital of all Italy. Did you 
see the high-road, Viale dei 

Yes. It goes up-hill from the 
Porta San Niccolo to the historic 
church and cemetery of San 
Miniato, and then inclines down- 
wards to the Porta Romana. 
From the highest part of the 
main road the view is most charm- 
ing. The panorama of Florence, 
with the Arno and the surround- 
ing hills, and the Apennine 
mountains in the distance, form 
a unique and very lovely picture. 

What other places did you 
visit? Did you go to the 
cathedral ? 

Most certainly. But I do 
not remember by name all the 
places we saw to-day, for they 
were so many ; my friend Mr. 
Androcles however knows each 
and all of them, so that I leave 
to him the duty of explaining 
to you everything in detail 

Mr. Wilson knows Florence 
and everything in it much better 
than I do, so that it is super- 

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fluous to trouble him with 
a description of what we have 
seen. — But you, Mr. Wilson, have 
not told us how you passed the 

Very pleasantly. I went to 
visit some relations who live 
about four miles outside of the 
city, and stayed with them 
nearly all the day. When I 
returned to the hotel it was 
time to start, so I hastened at 
once to the station to meet you. 
You see then that I did not 
fatigue myself so much as you, 
and I am quite ready to listen 
to the letter of Bessarion to the 
tutor of the children of Thomas 
Palaeologus, if his reverence will 
take the trouble to read it 

Let us not incommode him, 
poor man. Do you not see how 
he is yawning every minute and 
blinking? While then he is 
taking his rest, I will read you 
the letter. 

Can you tell me a little about 
Bessarion ? 

With pleasure : but I beg you 
to allow me to do so after read- 
ing the letter. 

Very good. 

Here is the letter attributed 
to Bessarion. 

"Most noble, and dearest of 
my friends ; I have, on former 
occasions and at this present 

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time, received letters from your 
nobility through Hermitianos, to 
which I did not reply, as I was 
waiting till a settlement was 
made about a provision for the 
princes. But since this has now 
been effected, I now write to you. 
This is not the time for me 
to console you and the princes 
in your insupportable grief for 
the sacred prince [the brother 
of the Emperor Constantine 
Palaeologus] of happy memory, 
so I shall pass over this sub- 
ject for the present. Know 
then that his Holiness the Pope, 
at the solicitation of certain 
friends and from his own be- 
nevolence, has promised to give 
three hundred ducats a month 
to the princes, the same amount 
as he gave to the sacred prince. 
His Holiness the Pope wills and 
decrees that each month two 
hundred ducats intact are to be 
for the three children equally, 
and that they are to be expended 
on their own maintenance and 
that of their inferior dependents, 
six or seven for each, and upon 
the purchase and keep of four 
horses at least, and for the salar- 
ies of those dependents, and the 
apparel of the princes ; they are 
to have handsome clothes, and 
now and then something to re- 
main over for each of them, so 

1 This expression ^ evyevla <rov in the Greek of the present day is 
simply a polite paraphrase for you like the Italian vossignoria, and 
possibly it has the same meaning in this letter, although in the English 
translation it is literally rendered your nobility. 

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that they may have something to 
help them in sickness or for any 
other exigency : he wishes this 
to be done without fail, in this 
way and no other. The remain- 
ing hundred ducats a month or 
twelve hundred a year are to be 
expended upon the noblemen 
and gentlemen who are to be 
with them, and attend upon 
them, and bear them company 
and take care of them. When 
his Holiness the Pope heard how 
many people there are over 
here, he was astounded, and 
lays the blame upon us. For if 
they were astonished that the 
late prince, who was such a 
great man, had so many attend- 
ants here, and reproached him for 
maintaining, while in exile, so 
many persons on the money of 
others, and on hopes foreign to 
those others, how much more 
now, when many more have 
come over than were here be- 
fore, do they censure and blame 
them, especially in the case of 
princes who are young, and 
orphans, and have no official 
position nor name nor reputa- 

And not only do they censure 
them, but they are unwilling to 
spend a halfpenny more ; and 
would that they would com- 
pletely perform what they 
promised us and not change 
their minds as they have done 
at other times ! Consequently 
your nobility, with the dis- 

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rov KpiToirovkov rov iarpov 
tovto, onrov Kara to irapibv 

t\€T€ TTjV <f>pOVTlBa TWV OLvOeV- 


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dfkowi p€purdf}v p&ra fiovkfjs 

$UOJS fW.S CIS €K€lVOVS oirov 

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ws dvayicaioTaTOV ottov 8c v 
fjfiiropei va Actyy, irp&rov 6 
mit/dos, 8cvtc/30v 6 81800- Kakos 
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imvos. Ovtoi yovv cmtiv 
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va keixf/oxrcv. *Eti 8e Kal c?s 
fj 8vo irawdScs Aartvoi civat 
avayKOLuoraToi 81a vol xf/dkkwri 
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zaiSia AotivlkQs, wcnrcp kfiov- 
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dkkovcriv €urOai p*r c/cctvovs, 
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Sum dv favycww dirb rrjv 
eKKkrfo-iav, cfvai XP € * a va 
<f>vywri Kal dirb rrjv &payKiav. 
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otov tov ovo/*afa dirio'rov Kal 
(uperiKov Kal dwooTpkfaTai rov 


3 A<f> otov yovv TOVTOL 01 
avayKatoL, ovs cwra/Acv, Kara- 

tinguished physician Critopoulos, 
who at present have the care of 
the princes, must give heed to 
this matter. 

Let us settle who is to look 
after them, and who must 
necessarily be kept : afterwards, 
in consultation with us, this 
[money] will be divided among 
those who will remain. First 
of all it appears to me that those 
who on no account can be left 
out are, firstly, the physician ; 
secondly, the Greek master ; 
thirdly, the Latin master ; 
fourthly, the interpreter. These 
then are absolutely necessary 
and cannot be dispensed with. 
Further, one or two Latin priests 
are most essential, to chant the 
Latin service regularly. For 
the princes must adopt the 
Latin mode of life, as was the 
wish also of their late father. 
And the noblemen who will be 
with them must pay attention 
to this point, that they are not 
to leave the church at the men- 
tion of the Pope's name, as they 
did on your road here, for if 
they keep leaving the church, 
it will be necessary for them to 
leave also the land of the Franks. 
For no one likes a person who 
calls him an infidel and a heretic 
and openly detests him. 

When, then, these indis- 
pensable persons whom we have 

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OTaOakriy Kal ottjOq to ficpriKov 

Tto)V TZWTQV OkXei €?0"#at, (TOVTO 

&€ 0kX(o to kvtto^€lv £ya> cSco 
Kal OkXta Karaarrj^T€iv) totc 
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c?vat Kal irovov airopJkvti airo 
Ta a<r <f>Xo)pia. Kat tot€ Y/ 
cvycvta <ras oAot avrapja $kX*T€ 
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&ovXoarvvqv Kal 7rA,€iova rifirjv. 


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Troirjo'ew to KaXXiov. 

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irapov aknrcp 8tot#c^T^s tcov 
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ctvat yovv dvdyK-q 7roo 7ravTG)v 
va <f>povTi%€Te Trjv TratScwtv 
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KaAa Kat ireTraiSevfikva, av 

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€t8c /xij, 0eA,ovv Ta KaTa<f>po- 
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tov av^cvnyv tov irarkpa TOVS 

ko-VVTV\afl€V 7T€pl TOVTOV Kal 
€K€lVOS k/3ovX€TO VOL TO. kvBv\rQ 

Kal va iron/pry va fouv QpdyKiKa 
■n-avTcAws, rjyovv vaaKoXovOovo-t 
ttjv €KKXrjo-Cav Kara irdvTa 

mentioned are settled [as regards 
their number], and what their 
share [of the money] is to be 
has been fixed (I shall look 
after this here and arrange it), 
then you will see how much 
the balance is, and how much 
remains of the 1200 florins. 
And then your nobilities, all of 
you together, will decide who is 
to remain, and what each is, 
with our sanction, to receive. 
My opinion is that the more 
there are of those who have less 
pretensions and will be satisfied 
with a small salary each, but 
will also be useful, the better ; 
for the children will have more 
people about them and will be 
better attended upon and will 
receive more respect But we 
will see about this together and 
will do what may be best 

Your nobility at present is 
like a governor to the children, 
in conjunction with Critopoulos. 
It is necessary then before every- 
thing that you should take heed 
to their training and manners, 
so that they may be well-con- 
ducted and properly educated, 
if you wish them to be respected 
here ; otherwise, people here will 
despise both them and you, and 
will not even turn round to 
look at you. I had a conversa- 
tion with the late prince, their 
father, on this subject : he too 
wished to dress them and make 
them live altogether after the 
manner of the Franks, that is 

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wrav Aartvoi Kal ovyl dAAeojs, 
va ivSvvdivrai AaTivticcos, va 
fidOovv va yovari^ovv tovs 
vir€p€\ovraSy icai ILdirav Kal 
KapSivaXiovs Kal tovs aAAovs 
avdevras, va d7roo7C€7rd£covTafc to 
Ki<$>a\i rovs, Kal va Tt/Aaxrt 
tovs \aip€T(ovras avrovs. "Orav 
vrdyovv va ISovv KapSivdkiv rj 
aAAov avdkvTqv, va firjSw 
KaOifaw iroo-a>s, dfirf va yova- 
n(ow Kal dirkKti orav tovs 
dry €K€ivos va oyKuOovo-iv. 
c 0€ jioKapiTrjs €K€ivos ektytv 
oti Kal avrbs irokkaKis avrovs 
to €wr€ va firjSev KaOifywiv. 
Avra oflv oka kvdvfwxrdk ra va 

TOVS VOV0€Tl}<r€T€ Kai VO, TOVS 

iraiSaxrerc icaAd. 

"Eti iroirjareTe oti to /3d8urfid 
tovs va etvai <t€/avov icat ti/uov, 
•q ofiiXia tovs XP^ifUOTany Ka * 
"q <fxj)vrj tovs va efvat fieTpia Kal 

r)p€{JLr] y TO pXifJLfW. TOVS TTpOVC- 

ktucov, va firjSkv \do-K(jxriv €&u>* 
Otv KaKtfflev. *As Tifiovv 7rav- 
Tas, as ayaTrovv Travras, as 
owTV\aivwTi irdmras Kal tovs 
eSucovs tojv #cai tovs £cvovs 
fierd TifJLrjs' va firjv etvai dka- 
{ovucoi, as civai raTrcivot Kal 
^pe/iot* Kal firjSkv evOvfwvvTai 
oti civai fSaxrikeiDS cwrdyovoi, 
a/*»/ as ivOvfwvvrai oti €?vai 
Suoyfjbcvoi airb tov toVov tojv, 


av &v €\ovo-iv dp€Trjv, av 8*v 
etvai <f>p6vt,fJLOL, av 8kv eTvai 
rwrcivot, av 8cv rifuoo-i Travras, 

to say, attend church like the 
Latins in all respects without 
any deviation, dress in the 
Latin fashion, learn to kneel 
to their superiors, the Pope 
and the cardinals and the 
other princes, and bare their 
heads to them, and behave 
with respect to those who 
might greet them. When they 
pay a visit to a cardinal or 
other prince, they should on no 
account sit down, but should 
kneel, and rise from that posi- 
tion when he tells them. The 
deceased of happy memory used 
to say that he also himself often 
told them not to sit down. 
So bear all this in mind, in 
order that you may advise them 
and bring them up well. 

Again, take care that their 
way of walking is modest and 
dignified, their conversation 
sensible, their voice soft and 
quiet, their regard attentive, 
and that they do not look 
round about them with a vacant 
stare. Let them honour every 
one, like every one, and con- 
verse respectfully with all people, 
whether of their own household 
or strangers ; let them not be 
haughty but humble and gentle ; 
and let them not consider 
that they are of royal descent, 
but let them remember that 
they have been driven from 
their own country, that they 
are orphans, foreigners, and in 
utter poverty ; that if they have 

y Google 



ovSe tovs Oekovv Ti/J.rj<r€iv ol 
aXkoiy dfir) Oekovv tovs aVooroe- 
(fxcrOou Travrcs. Avra ovV oka 
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<rov fierd rod YLpiroirovkov^ 
€7T€t8^ to yofidpi €7rav(o <ras 

Upds tovtois as €irifi€kovvTau 
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elvai evyeviKoi* r) evyeveia 
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avrovs oVov t'xaxrav oka. Aid 
as oirovSdfavv vd /xdOwriv, as 
e\ovv evreideiav Kal viroTayrjv 
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crov, Kal els rbv larphv ottov 
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e8(o, Kal vd fxrjSev yevy akketas. 

"Orav Trepnrarovv els ttjv 
wrpaTav Kal ol dvSpwjroi diro- 
0"K€7ra{a>VTat tovs /cat ti/jlovv 
tovs, as d7roo7C€7rafa>i/Tai /cat 
avTot to Kairaxri tcov rj okoTeka 
rj irkeiov rj oktyioTepov a>s -n-pos 
tovs dvOputirovs. e O/xota>s Kal 

not talent, if they are not 
prudent, if they are not humble, 
if they do not pay respect to 
every one, neither will others 
respect them, but all men will 
dislike them. Your nobility 
will then, together with Crito- 
poulos, pay great attention to 
all these things, for the burthen 
rests upon you. 

Moreover, let them take care 
to prosecute their studies, that 
they may make progress in them 
and forget that they are of high 
birth : high birth without talent 
is worthless even in all those 
princes who have great power 
and authority, far more so in 
those who have lost everything. 
Therefore let them zealously 
apply themselves to their studies, 
let them show obedience, subor- 
dination and submission to your 
nobility, and to the physician 
who brought them up, and to 
their teacher, and let them obey 
you, and do what you tell them 
without fail : let each of them 
learn by heart an address to the 
Pope, one of the shortest, and 
let them recite it to him, kneeling 
and uncovered, when they come 
here, and let this be done in no 
other way. 

When they walk in the street 
and people take off their hats to 
them, and pay them respect, let 
them take off their hats in 
return, either completely, or a 
little more or less, in proportion 
to the person's grade. In the 

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av epxwvrai £cvoi els to oirrjri 
rifuoi dvOponroi vet tovs /?Xc- 
wovo-iv, as tovs TrpoovjKOvovvTai, 
as tovs d7roo7C€7ra£a>VTai, as 
tovs 7rap€Kf3dvov<ri Kara tovs 
aVfyxtfzrovs. *As (rvvrvyawwriv 
oXIya fuv, hrripja 8e Kal euxa- 
pixrnKa Kal rairuvd, va p.rjv 
ycAaxrt 7roo"<os, va p/qv 8ia\e- 
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kotos Kal croflapov <f>povfipjaros 
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to Tpairkft. tcov as KaBtavrai 
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aV OkXert va eTvai Treira&evp&voi 
«s tovs <f£a>, iroirpraTt va etvai 
varaiSevfjLtvoi els tovs cSikovs 
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pqydfes Kal fiacriXeis to ttoi- 
ovtrtv. "OTav orefiaivow els 
(kkXtjo-uiv AartviKrjvy as yova- 
Ttfow Kal as €v\it)vrai wnrep 
01 AaTtvot. 'Ynayevere tovs 
ow€\(os els Tas kKKXrprlas, 
€ts Tas AciTov/ryias, Kal as 
orcKiovTai p*rd evkafieias Kal 
Trpocro\rjs Xtopis yeXoyros, x<*Y>is 
AaAtas. "As yovaTifovv Kal 
as diroo-K€ird£(iiVTat &nrep ol 
Aarivoi Kal as /u/xovvrai 


Oekovai Po-qOrjOfjv, BeXovv 
*\€iv ripyv irapd iravras, BeXta 

same way if strangers, who are 
people of consideration, come to 
their house to see them, let 
them rise to them, let them 
uncover, let them accompany 
them to the door, according to 
their rank. Let them talk 
sparingly but in a becoming, 
pleasant, and modest manner, 
without any laughter, and not. 
be effusive, but converse with a 
calm and serious demeanour. 

At their meals let them be 
careful and moderate ; let them 
when sitting at table demean 
themselves with attention and 
propriety ; if you wish them to 
behave well to people outside, 
make them behave well to their 
people at home. Do not let 
them show impudence to any 
one, accustom them henceforth 
to elegant, subdued, and gentle 
manners. Let them learn for 
the future to kneel becomingly 
and gracefully, and not be 
ashamed to do so, for great 
kings and emperors do it. 
When they enter a Latin 
church, let them kneel down 
and say their prayers like the 
Latins. Take them frequently to 
church, to the services, and let 
them comport themselves with 
reverence and attention, without 
any laughing and talking. Let 
them kneel and uncover like 
the Latins, and let them imitate 
them. If they do this, they 
will receive help and meet with 
respect from all, and I too shall 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



SvvtjOtjv kolI eya> va, rovs 
<rvv€pyti). Ei 6c ravavrta 
iroiovviv, eya» 8cv Okkm SvvqOfjv 
va rovs f3orj0ri<r<ti ovoc oAa>s, ot 
dvOpwroi. Okkovv rovs diro- 
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rovs Tiji.rj<r€W ov8k 7rocra>s. 

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eiycviav <rov icai rovs aAAovs 
ftc Tocrrjv iroXvXoylav evKacpa 
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OkkijfJLa rov dyicjrdrov Hdira 
va firjv ZkOovv ra avOevroirovka 
cow Siot tov KtvSvvov. 'AAA' 
ov8' avrov €ts tov 'Ay/cwva va 
etvai, eirciorj ovoe avros o T07ros 
€tvat yepos, dfirj va 8iaj3fJT€ va 
v7rdyeT€ els dkkrjv \(opav rrjv 
Acyowt TfiicoAov, 07rov ctvai 
KaAos drjp, va o-tckctc €K€l ews 

TOV 2€7TT€/A^8/3tOV *} 'OKT0)f3piOV 

fji€ rovs avOevroirovkovs Kal rrjv 

be able to assist them. But if 
they take an opposite course, 
I shall not be able to be of any 
service to them, not any what- 
ever ; people will dislike them, 
and no one will pay them any 
respect, not the slightest 

In writing to your nobility 
and to the others at such great 
length, I do not utter idle re- 
marks without any object ; but 
that you may repeat them con- 
tinually to the princes, and that 
you may make their master 
constantly read them to them, 
so that they may thoroughly 
understand them in order to 
put them in practice. I would 
have written this to them, but 
since they, as they are as yet 
young, cannot well understand 
my remarks, I write them to 
your nobility so that you may 
exhort them, both on my part 
and your own, to do as I 

We have the plague here now: 
consequently, after consultation 
with the noblemen who are here, 
and with the concurrence of his 
Holiness the Pope, it appeared 
advisable that the princes should 
not come here on account of the 
danger. Neither should they 
remain in Ancona, since that 
place itself is not uninfected, but 
you must go to another town 
which they call Cigole, where 
there is a good climate, and re- 
main there till September or 
October with the princes and 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



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on etvai Svvarov, 

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fwi dvayvaxn/rc tt)v ircpUpyov 
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tov vd ypdify els ykbxrcrav toow 


Kat cts ttoAAovs dAAovs k<f>d- 
vr) tovto irapd8o£ov Kal vir(o- 

1 Thomas Palaeologas had also 
before he and his family took refuge 

the princess. Meanwhile con- 
sider whether it would not be 
a good thing for them to remain 
there altogether, as is the wish 
also of the nobles who are here. 
His Beatitude the Pope and I 
are writing to the legate of the 
Marches to help you and give 
you assistance in whatever you 
require : there is also a bishop 
there who is my suffragan, who 
belongs to Como and was more- 
over in the service of the sacred 
prince : Cigole is in his diocese, 
and he has a fine house and 
will give it to you for your 
residence, and he will render 
you every assistance in his 
Rome 9th August, 1465, 

Bessarion cardinal and patri- 
arch of Constantinople." 

I am very much obliged to 
you for the trouble you have 
taken in reading to me this 
curious letter. It is a valuable 
relic of the vernacular language of 
the 1 5th century : but it seems 
to me extraordinary how it was 
possible for a man like Bessarion, 
who had a profound knowledge 
of ancient Greek, to write in 
such a strange style. 

And to many others also this 
has appeared extraordinary, and 

another daughter who was married 
in Italy. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



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rqs. *l<T(os $€V civcu yeypa/xfuvrj 
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'EkkA^o-icis 7r/30(T€K0A.A.^r/ €ts 
avrrjv, 81 o /cat eriprjdrj inrb 
rov IIa7ra 81a ttJs dkovpyiSos 

they had doubts about its being 
genuine. Perhaps it was not 
written by himself, but beyond 
doubt it was sent by him to the 
tutor ; so I conjecture that he re- 
quested some one of his people 
to write it in the language spoken 
at the time, and that he simply 
put his signature to it 

Your conjecture is not an im- 
probable one : but whatever may 
be the case about the letter being 
genuine or not, its contents are 
very interesting. I wonder if 
the manuscript is still in exist- 

I do not know whether it is 
extant or not : I can only tell 
you that it is found in the 
Chronicles of George Phrantzes : 
this copy was made from the 
edition of M. Bekker. 

A little time ago you promised 
to give me a few particulars 
about Bessarion : may I ask you 
to give them to me now ? 

With pleasure. Bessarion was 
born in Trebizond in the year 
1395. He was, as you are aware, 
a man of great ability and highly 
educated. At the Council of 
Florence he worked energetically 
to bring about the union of the 
Churches, and he afterwards 
adopted the doctrines of the 
Latin Church and attached him- 
self to it, on which account he 
was honoured by the Pope with 
the purple robe of a cardinal. 

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Bes8arion was not only a learned 
man but also very charitable 
and liberal, willingly assisting 
those who had recourse to him. 
His palace on the Quirinal was 
the refuge of the helpless and 
the place of meeting of the 
most distinguished scholars of 
that day. It was with him that 
the brother of the last emperor 
of the Greeks, Thomas Palaeo- 
logus, sought shelter. When the 
latter died Bessarion took his 
children under his protection, 
as is evident from the letter 
which he wrote to their tutor. 

Do you know what became of 
the children of Thomas Palaeo- 
logus ? I think there were four, 
two boys, Andreas and Manuel, 
and two girls, Helena and Sophia. 

Yes, there were four : of these, 
Helena was married to Lazarus, 
prince of Servia, and Sophia to 
the grand duke of Muscovy, Ivan 
Basilovitch : of the male children, 
Manuel, after he grew up, unable 
to bear the annoyance caused by 
the Roman Catholics who in- 
sisted on converting him, went 
back to Constantinople and met 
with a gracious reception from 
Mahomet II : Andreas, who was 
a frivolous and peevish man, 
having embraced the doctrines 
of the Roman Catholics, re- 
mained in Italy. He died at 

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Rome and was buried in the 
church of St Peter. 

In a sepulchral inscription 
upon a brass tablet found in a 
tomb inside the parish church of 
the village of Landulph in Corn- 
wall in England, it is mentioned 
that Thomas Palaeologus had 
also a third son called John : 
how can one reconcile this with 
history ? 

And I too do not know what 
to tell you. But where did you 
see this inscription ? 

In the eighth volume of the 
Proceedings of the Society of Anti- 
quaries in London. I made a 
copy of it, as being very curious, 
and fortunately I have the copy 
with me. It is written with the 
old English spelling. Would 
you like me to read it to you ? 

I beg you to do so. 


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ktapdsj a A Act Kal 6 UXrjOiov, 6 

CLIFTON, YE 21ST JAN. 1636. 

This inscription is full of 
interest, and I thank you 
heartily for the trouble you 
have taken to read it to me. 
After that ill-omened day when 
Constantinople was taken by the 
Turks, a very great number of 
noble and learned Greeks took 
refuge in the West* and were 
scattered in almost all the more 
important cities there, gaining 
their bread by teaching the 
ancient Greek language, in 
which almost all the Greeks of 
that time, who had been well 
brought up, were proficient. In 
the most practical manner, to 
the fugitive Greeks of those 
days, the ancient Greek maxim 
applied : " In prosperity, educa- 
tion is an accomplishment, in 
misfortune, a refuge." Even 
before the taking of Constanti- 
nople, in Italy the road to the 
study of Greek was made smooth 
by learned Greeks, for not only 
Chrysoloras went there and 
taught, but also Plethon, Gazes, 
George of Trebizond and others : 
but those who went there after 
the capture were much more 

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numerous than those who went 
there before that event : among 
them Janus Lascaris of Rhyn- 
dacus in Phrygia holds a con- 
spicuous place, whose superior 
education was on a par with his 
pure patriotism. At the ex- 
pense of the great Lorenzo de' 
Medici, Lascaris preserved from 
destruction many Greek manu- 
scripts : he did not however 
confine himself only to this, 
but in the presence of emperors 
and kings he warmly advocated 
the cause of the liberty of the 
Greek nation. But allow me to 
continue the account of Lascaris 
and the other scholars of that 
day with a quotation from the 
Introduction of the learned 
Dionysius Thereianos to his life 
of Corais, about which we have 
already had some conversation : 
* When the most illustrious son 
of Lorenzo became Pope, one of 
his first cares was, at the instiga- 
tion of Lascaris, to establish a 
1 Hellenic College ' at the foot of 
the Quirinal hill, where studious 
Greek youths were to be taught 
their ancestral language and 
every branch of general educa- 
tion. With Lascaris as principal, 
this historical college became 
the home of real unadulterated 
Hellenic learning. Pope Leo 
X., a man holding lofty and 
liberal views regarding the arts 
and sciences, an irreconcilable 
enemy of the Turks, and a 
sincere lover of Greek learning, 

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which he had acquired in the 
Platonic Academy at Florence, 
intended to make this college 
a fertile nursery of Hellenism. 
As the first-fruits of this course 
of Hellenic education, the more 
prominent students of the college 
collected and published in 1517 
and 1518 the ancient scholia to 
Homer's Iliad, and to the 
tragedies of Sophocles, and the 
Homeric Questions of Por- 
phyrins; but unfortunately at 
this time Pope Leo died and 
Lascaris removed from Borne to 
Paris, where, with the famous 
Budaeus, he founded the library 
of Fontainebleau. . . . And in 
Venice, Lascaris (shortly before 
the establishment of the college 
in Kome) was the prime mover 
in the ever-memorable typo- 
graphical enterprises and achieve- 
ments of Aldus. The celebrated 
printing establishment of Aldo 
Manuzio, set up at Venice in 
the vicinity of the church of St 
Augustin at about the end of 
the fifteenth century, became a 
mighty armoury of Hellenism, 
and at the same time a place 
where all the learned Greek ex- 
iles met for consultation and for 
work. Greek critics took charge 
of those splendid and precious 
editions which even at this day 
command admiration as much' 

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coveted treasures of typographic 
art At the beginning of the 
sixteenth century Lascaris was 
ambassador of King Louis XII 
at Venice, but the Greek exile 
was as inexperienced in political 
affairs as he was acute and well- 
versed in Greek learning. . . . 

Imperishable monuments of 
the literary attainments of Las- 
caris are the edition of the Greek 
Anthology of Planudes printed 
in capital letters, which he dedi- 
cated to Pietro de* Medici, the 
Hyrnm of Callimachus with 
Greek scholia, four tragedies of 
Euripides, the ArgonaiUica of 
Apollonius Rhodius, and some 
other small works, among which 
are some maxims written in 
monostichs. The first edition of 
the tragedies of Sophocles Aldus 
gratefully dedicated to the great 
champion of the Greek race. At 
the head of the first volume of 
the Greek Writers on Rhetoric 
(published in November 1508), 
Aldus exclaims : ' Illustrious and 
learned Lascaris, I know with 
what delight you will see, 
printed at my establishment, 
the treatises on rhetoric ; for 

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thus, in accordance with your 
desires, the Greek language, 
almost destroyed by the incur- 
sions of the barbarians and the 
ravages of time, is gaining fresh 
life and is being disseminated 
for the benefit of the learned 
and the studious. But I must 
acknowledge that in my labori- 
ous and long career you afforded 
me support and assistance both 
by your advice and your contri- 
butions always and everywhere, 
and actually at this present 
moment at Venice, where with 
as much ability as integrity 
you are performing the duties 
of ambassador of the Most 
Christian king. Not only have 
you supplied me with manu- 
scripts, with which your library 
is loaded, but you unceasingly 
urge me to publish the more 
important ones. To you then I 
dedicate this book, containing a 
collection of your manuscripts. 
You derive your lineage from 
the nation of the Greeks which 
has given birth to the greatest 
of men, you are descended 
from the imperial house of the 
Lascares, and you are an object 
of reverence and an honour to 
Greece. Hail ! The Maecenas 
of our times I ' 

Marcus Musurus, the zealous 
admirer and the pupil of Las- 
caris, put into shape and de- 
veloped the suggestions of the 
patriot of Rhyndacus. Musurus 

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himself relates with pride that 
Lascaris cherished him in Lis 
tender years like a most beloved 
son, and pointed out to him the 
road which leads to the Achaean 
muse. Marcus, the son of a 
merchant of Rithymnos, leaving 
his native country and his par- 
ents, migrated in his earliest 
youth to Venice, where he 
studied the Latin language, and, 
in a manner surpassed by none, 
mastered the classic tongues. 
The most ardent love of erudi- 
tion joined to the loftiest patriot- 
ism fired the ambitious soul of 
the young Cretan. Acquiring, 
after a short time, the reputation 
of a Hellenist in great request, 
he succeeded Aldus in 1490 as 
tutor to prince Albert of Carpi, 
with whom he enjoyed a warm 
welcome and protection. The 
grateful pupil, who was after- 
wards surnamed 'the learned,' 
setting the highest value on the 
erudition of the Greek professor, 
endeavoured by every contriv- 
ance to persuade Musurus to re- 
main with him all his life, and 
he actually offered the worthy 
Rithymnian a small but pro- 
ductive property yielding wheat, 
oats, and oil. Here Musurus 
could have passed a tranquil 
and untroubled life, 'reclining 
on the bindweed, the thyme, 
and the sweet- smelling grass,' 
and engaged in the perusal and 
study of the Greek and Latin 
poets and prose authors ; he 

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would have been well off for 
excellent farmers who, to please 
him, would have brought him 
many rich presents, *at one 
time, well -grown asparagus, at 
another, curdled milk, at another, 
new-laid eggs/ But the in- 
dustrious Marcus had no love 
for this lazy kind of life. *I 
have not yet grown old,' he 
adds ; ' for the present I pro- 
pose to spend some time in Italy, 
and, if I cannot acquire glory 
for my country, nevertheless I 
will endeavour, as far as my 
power and my zeal permit, to 
observe Homer's precept, that is, 
not to disgrace the race of my 
fathers : at last I intend to re- 
turn home to support my parents 
in their old age and end my life 
on the soil that I so long for.' 

When, about the end of the 
fifteenth century, two great 
Cretan patriots, Nicholas Vlastos 
and Zacharias Callierges, estab- 
lished in Venice a press which 
was essentially Greek, in order 
that they might make evident 
to the inhabitants of Europe 
that the Greeks, even in their 
painful misfortunes, had so much 
proper pride as to print the 
immortal works of their an- 
cestors in a press of their own, 
Musurus was the principal sup- 
porter of this establishment so 
beneficial to the nation. Aldus 
and Callierges conducted them- 
selves towards each other with 
fraternal unanimity, for there 


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was no question of profit, but 
of a service to be rendered 
to the Greeks and to Greek 
literature. Musurus passed the 
day and often the night alter- 
nately in one or other of the 
printing-houses, with indefatig- 
able exertion copying, correct- 
ing, and rendering free from all 
imperfections the codices des- 
tined to be printed. Callierges 
was an. unrivalled artist : he 
himself with his own hand en- 
graved and cast Greek letters 
which in beauty were a match 
for those of Aldus. The My- 
mologicum Magnum, the first 
book printed by Callierges in 
1499 under the critical super- 
vision of Musurus is, as Didot 
says, a masterpiece of typo- 
graphy, tracing a new path 
in the annals of printing. The 
printing of the Etymologicum 
was executed at the expense of 
that lover of the Muses and un- 
ostentatiously and unobtrusively 
patriotic Nicholas Vlastos, of 
whom Musurus says that he 
was full of the Hellenic spirit 
and spent his wealth with a view 
to the general advantage of the 
nation. It was Crete which, after 
the disaster at Byzantium, became 
absolutely the Hellas of Hellas 
and the firm stronghold of Hel- 
lenism : far - famed scholars, 
skilled artists, muse - inspired 
bards, admirable heroes, who 
from there derived their nation- 
ality, came forward as the de- 

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fenders and allies of suffering 
Hellas. The press of Callierges 
at Venice was in name and in 
fact a Cretan workshop : Cretans 
executed the carving, Cretans 
fitted the brass work, Cretans 
cast the lead, Cretans examined, 
prepared and corrected the 
printers' proofs, Cretans took 
into their consideration the 
publications suitable for the 
enlightenment of the race, and 
Cretans contributed liberally 
the funds required for printing 
the Greek poets and prose 
writers. From* the press of 
Callierges, and by means of the 
lavish expenditure of Nicholas 
Vlastos, a great number of 
Greek authors were for the 
first time brought to light, and 
with them also some explana- 
tory commentaries. When the 
press of Callierges was removed 
to Rome, at the instigation of 
Lascaris, there too it did good 
service to Hellenism in many 
ways by publishing the Scholia 
to Pindar, the Idyls of Theocri- 
tus with the ancient Scholia, 
the Eclogues of Thomas Magister 
and of Phrynichus, and other 

This is enough of the valuable 
work of the learned Thereianos. 
I might have here mentioned 
to you the names of a very great 
number of other Greeks who 
laboured devotedly for the 
diffusion of Greek literature 
both in eastern and western 

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Europe, but I see it is late, 
and I think we should do well 
to imitate our friend there and 
abandon ourselves to the soft 
embrace of Morpheus. 

I entirely concur in your 
opinion, for if we pass the night 
in conversation, to-morrow we 
shall have neither the will nor 
the power to visit the more im- 
portant parts of Rome. 

Do not let us lose time then 
I wish you good-night. 

And I wish you the same. 

0, what a splendid morning ! 
See how cloudless the sky is ! 
The sweet light of dawn enchants 
my soul. 

Your exclamations remind 
me of a beautiful stanza of a 
charming poem by a favourite 
poet of modern Greece, Zalo- 
costas : 

" sweet hour of joyful dawn, 
when nature embalms 
the flowers, the leaves and the 
boughs ! 

Joy to that heart 
which no cares distress ! " 

Splendid poetry ! faithfully 
describing precisely this hour of 
the morning when "the rosy- 
fingered dawn brings sweet light 
both to mortals and immortals," 

But do you not think that 
the last line of the stanza may 
very well be applied to our still 

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sleeping friend ? See how free 
from care he sleeps ! 

And why should he have any 
anxieties ? Having devoted 
himself to the service of the 
Church, he has put away from 
him all the cares of life, and I 
think he has a right to sleep, if 
he likes, the sleep of Epimenides. 

But I will awaken him, for 
in a short time we shall arrive 
at Rome. — Will you not shake 
off the deep sweet sleep which 
holds you so fast in its bonds ? 
The sun has already risen, and 
we are not far from Rome. 
Wake up ! 

Thank you very much for 
waking me, for I wish to see 
the environs of the Eternal 

I recollect, when we were 
young, you used frequently to 
recite to me passages from the 
poems of Alexander Soutsos ; 
and his stanzas about Italy and 
especially those about Rome even 
now ring in my ears. I wonder 
now, do you still remember 
them % If so, I will ask you to 
repeat them to us, for they are 
really splendid. I am certain 
that Mr. Wilson too will be 
glad to hear them recited. 

Most certainly. 

But Soutsos' stanzas about 
Italy were written at the time 
when this beautiful country was 

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Tas xdpiras ofiota, 

groaning under a foreign yoke. 
Now everything is changed : 
for not only have the Italians 
been freed from the foreign 
masters who oppressed them, 
but they contemplate fettering 
the liberty of other nations, 
thus forgetting the principles 
with which they were inspired 
when they drove away the 
tyrants from their own father- 
land and so now enjoy the 
blessings of heavenly liberty. 

That is another question : we 
simply want to hear what the 
Greek poet said about enslaved 

But I beg you not to press 
me to recite poetry, for it is not 
fitting for a man in holy orders 
to do so. 

0, that does not matter : 
make an exception to-day : 
besides according to the common 
saying, " Invalids and travellers 
are not charged with sin." 

To please you then, let me 
repeat to you a few verses from 
" The Wanderer " of Alexander 
Soutsos : 

" Victor at Marengo, enamoured 
of her charms, 

the Frenchman carried off the 
Venus of Praxiteles ; 
and from his arms, as from a 
lover's embrace, 

the German Kaisar in his turn 
tore away the goddess. 
Possessing her beauty, with 
similar charms 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



"EAa/ks ofiotav tv\yjv k<u o~v 
Kvirpts 'LraAta, 
Kat aVo Ivos ets aAAov 

Wirreis Scoyztos rovs koAwovs, 

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'Eirpeirev dVd tt)»/ <f>v<riv vol 

wkacrOySy <S 'LraAta, 

OAtywrepov tbpaLOL, rj 7rAeto- 

repov dvSpela. 

Tas 6p€^€is tg>v rvpdvvuiv rj 8ev 

ydckes <f>koyi&i, 

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rjQeke <f>of3i£€i' 

AAAd ((oirvpov oipaiov aiWiW 

iroOinv €?o~at, 

Kat Kara rov £kvov ^evrjv Svvol- 

[XIV €7riKakci<rai. 

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kdcf>vpov artcnys/ 5 

At i^rjs T/0€ts (rTpotfxii, as 

pekku) va dVayyct'Ao) €ts v/ias, 

€trat lSi(i>s rrepl 'Ptofxrjs. 

"KoV/jtov fiiyav oVrts r)ro 

akkore Kat KaT€(TTpd<l>r} } 

^LaprvpovcTLV ol rrjs *Pa>/x^s 

irafifieyeOecs rocrot rdfou 

Tfi-qfiara fxap/xdpiav Keivrai €ts 

t^v yrjv aVcp/H/i/ACVO, 

e 12s ocrra Koifxrjrrjpiov els to 

\QtpLa €(T7rapfi€va. 

Ets 7rc8tov ftax 7 / 5 >JA0ov 6 Katpbs 

6 7rav8afidr(op 

Kat 6 VOUS 6 dp^lTCKTCOV, 6 t^s 

vAtjs zravTO/cpaTw/), 
Kat tt}s 7raA^s twv oTy/i€ta 
Td KokoptoOevra Tavra Kat 
rjfiid<nrTa fxvrj^la. 

you met a similar fate, you too, 

Italy the Venus, 

and from the embrace of one into 

that of another 

you fall, the prisoner of the 

Austrian or the Gaul. 

You ought to have been made 

by nature, Italy, 

less beautiful or more brave : 

you would not have inflamed 

the lust of tyrants, 

or your martial fury would 

have daunted them ; 

but you are a living spark of 

beauty kindling eternal desire ; 

and against the stranger you 

invite the stranger's power, 

and whether you conquer or are 


of your enemies or your allies 

you are equally the prey." 

The following three stanzas 
which I am going to repeat to 
you refer especially to Rome. 
"That there was once a big 
world which is now destroyed 
the tombs of Rome so numerous 
and so colossal testify : 
shattered blocks of marble lie 
dispersed upon the ground 
like bones scattered in the soil 
of a cemetery. 

There came upon the battle-field 
all-subduing Time, 
and Mind, the architect, the 
conqueror of matter ; 
and the signs of their contest are 
these mutilated and half-buried 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



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kas (rrrjcraau Tpoiraiuv, 

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T^s dAva"€ft)S rov Koa-fJiov rjiiir 

Opavcrrovs KpiKOVs <f>€pwv" 

'O/AoAoyaj vfiiv TrAcwrTas 
Xdpcras Bia rr]V kapirpav 
dirayyektav r&v wcpl 'IraAias 
u)pai<av arpo^tav rov ^ovrcrov. 
"Orav <f>6do-u> cts 'Kdrjvas 8ev 
6a kr]<rfwvrj<r<s> v* dyopdcru) ra 
TroirjfiaTa rov pova-okrjwTov rov- 
rov wotrjrov' a A Ad fikkina 
€<f>$dcrafi€v eis 'Pw/ztjv. Ets 

Covering his noble head with 
his toga, 

Caesar received all the stabs of 
his assassins, 

and Rome to-day wrapped in 

suffers one by one the wounds 
of time : 

she, who once as far as the Nile 
raised the pillars of her trophies, 
is now all reduced to a heap of 
ancient stones ; 
and a Niobe petrified, 
she stands in her attitude of woe, 
bereft of the nations who were 
her children. 

But from her buildings still 
preserved and her statues 
you discern that she was once a 
city of giants, 

and you judge from her vast 
forums and her gateways 
that once there lived in her a 
race of kings : 

from the Colosseum, you think, 
spreading his wide wings, 
the victory-bearing eagle of the 
legions fled 
to the starry heights, 
carrying with him the half- 
broken links of the chain that 
bound the world." 

Very many thanks for your 
splendid recitation of Soutsos' 
beautiful stanzas about Italy. 
When I arrive at Athens I will 
not forget to buy the works of 
this muse-inspired poet : but I 
see we have arrived at Rome. 
What hotel do you propose to 
go to? 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



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tov vaov tov 'Aytbv Ylkrpov /cat 
to KoAoomatbv / 

*As €7Tt/3(I)/Lt€V Aoi7TOV €tS 

ravrqv rrjv afm£av. — Ets to 
fi?€vo6ox€tov BpurroXrjs. 
IIoAv /caAa, Kvpioi, 

To the Continental Hotel I 
wish you good-bye then : I 
hope, if you ever visit Constan- 
tinople, that you will come and 
see me. Allow me to give you 
my card. 

Thank you very much. And 
here is mine. I shall be very 
glad to see you at Cambridge. 

Thank you. Good-bye then 

Au revoir. 

Now then, friend Androcles, 
let us leave our things at the 
station, and go at once and get 
some breakfast at the Hotel 
Bristol ; and from there we will 
go wherever you like. 

At what o'clock 
express start from 

does the 
here for 
Brindisi ? 

At ten minutes past one. 
Then we must not lose any 
time. Shall we have time, I 
wonder, to pay a visit to St. 
Peter's and the Colosseum 1 

Most certainly. 

Let us get then into this cab. 
— To the Hotel Bristol 

All right, gentlemen. 

i by Google 

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rot wpdypaTa /Aas. 


I was afraid that we should 
not catch the train, but fortun- 
ately we have not only arrived 
in time at the station, but we 
even have half an hour at our 

Now we must try to find 
an empty carriage again, so that 
we may be able to pursue at 
our ease our conversation about 
modern Greek literature till we 
arrive at Brindisi. 

I see one here ; but I must 
speak to the guard to keep it 
for us. 

And do not forget to put 
something into his hand, for 
"presents are acceptable even 
to the gods." 

Make your mind easy about 
that, for I know very well that 
without presents nothing that is 
wanted can be done. ... "0 
gold, the most welcome of all 
things to mortals !" How om- 
nipotent thou art! We shall 
have a carriage exclusively for 
our two selves ; not this one 
though, but that one, the 
last but one, into which, as 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



Xo/u£a> 6 oSrjybs fias Ka/xvei 
vevfia vd cwrcA&o/zcv cts rrjv 
api^ai/ fias' fias irzpipAvzi, u>s 
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ra irpdyfiara cvrds rrjs ap,d£r)s; 

No/u£a>, Stort Scv fiXkirto va 

i o>pa €tvat; 

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oTroo-as 6 Zct>s aVa^atvct,' xas 
'A&Jvas A^yto." 

you see, they are putting our 

I think the guard is making 
a sign to us to enter our carriage. 
He is waiting, it seems, for us 
to get in so that he may lock 
the door. 

Let us get in then. Now we 
are no longer afraid that any one 
will disturb us. Are all our 
things in the carriage ? 

I think so, for I do not see 
anything missing. 

What o'clock is it ? 

By the station clock it is 
nine minutes past one, so 
that in one minute we start. 
There goes the bell : the train 
is moving : we are off. 

Although we only stayed a 
few hours in Rome, I derived 
great pleasure from this visit. 
The history of many ages is 
unfolded to the mind of any- 
one who visits her magnificent 
monuments. There was a time 
when Rome was the queen of 
cities. Here is what Athenaeus 
says of her : " Not far from the 
mark would he be who should 
call the city of Rome an epitome 
of the inhabited world, for in 
her one may see all cities in a 
manner established, and especi- 
ally the celebrated ones, as golden 
Alexandria, beautiful Antioch, 
surpassingly lovely Nicomedia, 
and in addition to these 'the 
most splendid of all the cities 
which Zeus renders illustrious ' 
I mean Athens." 

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Although Athenaeus overdoes 
it a little, in his excessive praise 
of Rome, yet there is no doubt 
that its magnificence in ancient 
times was unique. Regarding 
the derivation of its name many 
controversies have arisen. Plu- 
tarch, in his life of Romulus, 
says: "The great name of Rome, 
which through its glory made 
its way among all men, whence 
and why it came to be given 
to the city historians are not 

Rome however was not only 
glorious in ancient times but 
also in subsequent ages. Most 
of the travellers who now visit 
it certainly go there not so 
much for the sake of the Colos- 
seum and its other ancient 
monuments, as for the sake of 
St. Peter's, the Vatican, and 
the numberless works of art 
which are stored there ; and 
the natives of the place, while 
they pass by the monuments of 
antiquity with great indifference, 
yet bend the knee before the 
magnificent church of St. Peter 
and gaze at it with open mouth. 

But let us leave the subject 
of Rome and let us see if there 
is in your collection of extracts 
anything worth reading. What 
is this ? 

It is an extract from a very 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



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tov €?vat y Avkov Kat dxfrkXipjov • 

curious book called Tfo Natural- 
ist. It was written in the year 
1568 by Dama8cenus Studites, 
bishop of Naupactus, in the 
vernacular language of his day. 

Let us go through it then, for 
thus after the letter of Bessarion 
we pass to the specimens of 
the language of the sixteenth 
century. "The spider is that 
animal which makes its web on 
the walla It is an ingenious 
animal, for it sends out a delicate 
web from its belly and constructs 
it artistically in the air in the 
form of a circle ; and it stretches 
other threads to the outer parts 
so as to make its web thoroughly 
firm. Then it sits in the midst 
of it and waits till a fly is caught, 
or any other small flying insect ; 
and then it goes and binds it 
round with its web, so that it 
cannot escape, and so eats it 
But when it gives birth to young 
ones, it dies; for its children 
devour it. The spider pro- 
duces two young ones, and 
the smaller one sits in the 
middle of the circle and hunts 
insects, because it is small and 
cannot be seen. The other, the 
larger one, sits at the extremity 
of the web that the insects may 
not observe him and take to 

The weever is a fish in the 
sea, and men call it the she- 
dragon, and its flesh is sweet 
and wholesome : but it has in 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 




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cts to /SdOos rrjs OaXdo-arjs' 
/cat 6Vav kyyurg koto) €ts tov 
a/i/iov, c£v7rv£ /cat 7raAtv dva- 
/?atvci €7rai/w, Kat 7raAtv axo- 
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direpvy, Svo rp€is fa>oat9, Kat 
avros €?vat 6 vVvos tov. " OTav 
6c acr^€V^OTy 7roos 0avaTov, rpia- 
y€i eva xf/dpi ottov Xky^rai 
■jrtOrjKos, Kat ctvat opx>iov rrjs 
fxa't fxovs f ottov €vpurK€rai cts 
rr)v yrjv, Kat Iro-t larp€V€rai. 
t O 8k OtjXvkos 8kX<f>ivas ycvva 

its fins a poisonous sting, with 
which if it stings a man, he dies. 
But it is a cure for it if you 
slit up the self-same weever and 
put its liver on the wound. On 
this account fishermen are care- 
ful, and do not take hold of it 
with their hand till it is dead. 
It is spotted like a viper, and 
long like a snake, but it is flat 

The dolphin is found in 
every sea, and is an animal 
which is fond of men. And 
when it hears people singing on 
board a ship, or playing instru- 
ments, it follows after it for a 
great distance : and if it finds 
a man drowned in the sea, 
it takes him out by rolling him 
to the land with its snout, 
so that people may find him and 
give him burial. Its sleep is in 
this fashion : it extends itself 
on the waves of the sea, and 
goes to sleep, and while thus 
asleep it descends into the 
depths of the sea, and when it 
touches the sand below, it wakes 
up and rises again to the surface, 
and again goes to sleep, and in 
this manner it passes two or 
three hours, and this is its sleep. 
When it is sick unto death, it 
eats a fish called the ' monkey/ 
and it is like the monkey which 
is found on land, and in this 
way it is cured. The female 
dolphin gives birth to only two 
young ones, and suckles them 

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\ t s n» 


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loou /cat €T€pov 6eiyp.a rrjs 
Tore SrffjjoriKrjs y k cooxnys. E fva t 
& fuerd^pao-is rrjs Barpa\Ofivo- 

like the quadrupeds. It is so 
fond of its young that if it happen 
that the fishermen strike one 
of its little ones with a harpoon 
or other lance of any kind, and 
if its mother chance to be 
present there, she does not make 
her escape but throws herself 
over her young, till they strike 
her also and kill her. When 
the dolphin is caught in the net, 
it remains quiet till the men 
drag the net, because in the 
depth of the water it eats as 
many fish as have been caught 
in the net. When it sees that 
it has reached shallow water, 
then it slits the net with its 
snout and escapes, and, owing 
to its not having gills, it leaps 
powerfully in the water, because 
it collects its breath and darts 
like an arrow. The dolphins 
have a custom, when many of 
them swim together, of putting 
their young ones in the front of 
them and the females behind, 
and the males follow last." 

Studites, I think, must have 
known by heart the prodigious 
tales about animals of Aelianus ; 
but he is deserving of praise for 
having written in a simple and 
popular style with a certain 
amount of elegance. 

Here is another specimen of 
the popular language of that 
time. It is a translation of the 

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fjLa\Cas €is rrjv XaXovfitvyv Battle of the Frogs and Mice into 

yXJaovav rov IS'atwvos. the vernacular language of the 

16th century. 

Ei^€vper€ xnrb rivos eyctvcv ij Do you know by whom the 

p4rd^>paxr is ; translation was made ? 

MdXurra • dXXd 6* d<f>rjo~(i> Yes : but I will leave the 

avrbv rov /i€ra<f>pcurrrjv vd o-ds translator himself to tell you 

cwrjy to ovo/ml rov iv rjj dyycXCa his name in the notice which 

rjvwpordmr€i€ls rrfv fi€rd<f>pacriv he prefixes to his translation. 

rov. Etvai 8k avrrj tv ctSct It is in the form of a dialogue 

Siakoyov fi€ra£v <f>i\o/3t/3Xov between a certain bibliophile 

rivos fir) ctooros rrjv dp\aiav unacquainted with ancient Greek 

'EXXrjviicyv, Kal f3ipkioir<o\av. and a bookseller. 

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/aoi rrfv dvay vuktt/tc, Sion dfuii to me, for I am impatient to 

dwirofwvos vd rrjv aKova-u). hear it. 

'A/coixraTc Xoiwov Listen, then. 

$iX4f3ijSXos. Mi) vd\ys rliror*. fti/SXib vko vd fwv irovXrjoys ; 
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Etvat diro t^v ZaKvvdov, ArjpLrjrpios 6 Zrjvos. 

Translation of the above Dialogue between a Bibliophile and a Bookseller 

Bibliophile. Have you any new book, I wonder, to sell me ? 
Bookseller, Yes, I have a nice one : have a look at it if you 

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Bibliophile. Tell me what they call it, for I have no leisure 

now : I haw pressing business and cannot stay to 

read it. 
Bookseller. It is the Battle of the Frogs and Mice of the most 

learned Homer. 
Bibliophile. This will not do for me, for his language is too 

deep for me. 
Bookseller. On the contrary, the language is most simple, for 

it has been translated ; and from metrical verse it 

has now been turned into rhyme. 
Bibliophile. Is it then in rhyme ? Give it to me : do not 

delay, and take from me whatever you want for it ; 

but I ask you this, and I beg you, tell me who 

put it into rhyme and translated it ? 
Bookseller. You know him and are acquainted with him, he 

is a friend of yours : it is Demetrius Zenos of 


Ev<£v«TTaTa 6 €K ZcLKVl/doV 

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6a TrpooiraOrjo-to orav </>#aa-a>- 
fi€V cts frjv c EAAa8a va €V/oa> 


The translator from Zante 
very cleverly makes his book 
known to people fond of reading. 
Have there been since then any 
other translations of the Battle 
of the Frogs and Mice into ver- 
nacular Greek ? 

Yes, there have been three 
others, the following : that by 
Antonius Strategus of Crete, 
printed at Venice by N. Glykys 
in 1745; that by George Osto- 
vitch, chief notary in the 
patriarchate of Constantinople, 
also printed at Venice by N. 
Glykys in 1746 ; and the one 
made by Johannes Belaras about 
the second decade of the present 

I will endeavour, when we 
arrive in Greece, to find these 
editions; but let us now go 


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8u\6u)fx€v Ttopa fJLepos rrjs through part of Zenos' transla- 

fMtTa<f>pdcr€0)$ tov Zrjvov. tion. 

Aw voixi£cTc on da. ijvai *aA- Do you not think that it 

Xlrepov v dvay vuktco/acv irpo- would be better for us to read 

repov to apxatov Ket/xevov ; first the ancient text ? 

Be/ftuoTaTct. 'Eyw Aomtov Most certainly. I will read 

0' dvayvuxno to apxatov K€i- then the ancient text and you 

/jbevov kolI vfxels tyjv p.€T<x<f>p<uriv. the translation. 

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Tts €tvat ttov p kykwrjore /cat ?rotavat r) p,rjrkpa m 
Urjkbv rov 6vopd(ovo-i /cat /c€tv*/v e Yy/Dao~ta, 
Ot 8vo p? dvadpkxf/axri pi akka rovs 7rat8ta. 30 

2tov 'P^oavov rov irorapav €/c€t kyvtopurrrJKav 
'AAA^Acds i<t>ik€vrrjO-av /cat rores €o-pi\0rjKav. 
'E/icva ror kykvvqo-av vrov irorap&v rd X^tkrj * 
EtTrc /cat cru to ycvos crov /cat va ycvovftc c/>t koi* 
Tiarl /cat o~u /aou c/>atv«rat /caTot Tiyv Oewpia 35 

'Atto pLOp<f>idv /cat Svvapiv va k^ys /Bacrikcia" 
Tot€ tou diroKptOrjKe 6 wovrtKos /cat cfTrc, 
t( Tt to f^T^ts to ycvos piov ; rb ovopA pov Acmtc • 
Tots 7racrt €tvat <j>avepbv 'Ao-ias /cat Ev/5(U7rr;s, 
Tots 7T€T€tvots rov ovpavov, $€ols /cat Tots avSpiairois* 40 

"Opus av Okkrjs /cat irodys cts Ovprjo'iv va €\ys 
To ovopua rov ykvovs pov /cat o-v va to /caTc^^Sj 
MctoI \apas va o~ou to '7rw, aKOVO"€ 7rws /caAov/zat, 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 


"¥ i\apiraya pk Aeyowrt /cat &v to dirapvovpai. 
Ylbs tov p^yaX6\f/v\ov cf/xat tov ^tapxxf>dyov 
'Ottovv to ylvct* tov punKpv irapopoiov rov rpdyov. 
*H fufrqp fxov €vy€ViKrj rrjv /codfovv Act^o/tvAif, 
Tdv irActov Koupbv €vpicTK€Tcu KaTaanrpr) el$ Tot X € ^V* 
Tov AapSo<l>dyov tov prjybs Aey€Tat dvyarkpa' 

'EkCIVT) fl €<f>€p€V €IS <£o>S K€LS TOV yAv/CVV dkpd. 

Kat 'ark KaXv/3-q p&KapA 6\i fi oAtyov /coVov, 
Kat pk rpo<f>ais p? dvkOptxpt oirovve t<3v dvOpwirw 
M^ crvKOy pk KapvSta /cat p.k rd X€<jyroKdpva J 
Kat pk /caAd d/tvyoaAa, €/c€tva Ta KaOdpia, 
Kat T<o/>a aAAa Trtpixrcrd ycplfro tt)v /cotAtd puov * 
Kat 7r<os «rv #wtyva#€ vd 2x# s T *? v <£*Atd /tov, 
IIov 8cv o/totd^et ^ </>vVt ftas €to-€ /caveva rpoirov ; 
*H cSt/oJ /tov 8/atTa 6/totdvat twv dvOptairiav 
'Eo-v to v8a>/o /caTot/c€ts /cat €?vat ij {any o~ov, 
'E/c tov vcpov rd /36rava ytv€Tat rj 6po<f>rj a-ov. 
'Eyw dVcxra fipUrKovrai or.a airiria tc3v dvdpwirtov, 
'Aw' oAa Towya) Oapperd \(apls /caveva kottov. 
Aev p* XavOdvet. to xpiapl to /caAo£v/ta>/t€Vo, 
Ov6° &pop<f>o <f>aXdyyiov /t€ /tcAt ycvauevo, 
OvSk /caAats avyoV^Tats y TroAwovo-a/taTais, 
OvSe e/cetvat? # Aev/cats oVovvat faxa/oaTats, 
OvSc vtoirqKTO rvpl ttov /cd/tvovv pk to ydAa, 
Ovo€ p.v^q$pais cwraAats #cat Ta Tvota TaAAa* 
Acv /w Aav#dv€t yAv/cvoyta ow oAot t' dyairovVt 
Kat ot ovpdvioi $€ol dVavres to 7ro#ovo"f 
Ov6° aAAa 6Vra c^ayr/To, 7rov jS/odfovv pk rfrvicdXia 
Ot pay ei pot. ttov ^tvpoxxri /cat /cdvoixrt tcl /cdAAta, 
Kat fico-a 0"' avrd /3dvoixrt Tats /cdAAtats pvpayS lolls 
Uov <f>kpvovv €K rrjv "Ivrta Kat Kapvovv donxrtats. 
'Eyw k €ts /id*x ats tTv^a, ocv €<f>vya irork pov 
Tov ddvarov ttov /tcAAcTat vdXOy Ik tov woAc/tov, 
Kat X/ *" 1 dvcvat ttovVctcs Scv rpk\aa vrrjv crKovrkXa, 
'AAAa KCtvovs €o-/ttyo/tai 6V cZvat o"n)v tt/ooo-tcAo, 
Kat va o-ov ttw iropcroTepo dvOpwrov ocv <j>of3ovpLaL 
Kat tovto lv' dA^^tvo /cat Scv to eirawovpai. 
^Ywdyu} €ts to cTpaJ/td tov €*€t owov /cot/tdrat, 
AayKWvw tov ctto 8d/cTvAo /cat 8cv dvavoaTat, 
Aay/cdva> Kat tt)v tfrOepva tov, tittotcs 6cv to XP*£ €l > 
3 Ap.r) /cot/tdrat voVri/ta toVo T€ po\a\C(€t. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 


'Airoara /3picrKOVTai o-ttjv yrjv riirora 8ev ra tcmto-u), 85 

Tdv ydrov /cat tov ycoa/ca irepuro-ia tovs too/acutco, 

Kat Ketvrjv rrjv £vkoyaTa okoi /xas ttjv p.urovpe t 

Me ooAov 8l8ei ddvarov yta rovro rrjv <f>o/3ovfJuii. 

Tr)v ydra ottov ttjv t8a> /cat /cet ttov Tr)v ypot/ojo-ct), 

'Atto tov <l>6/3ov fi crxeSbv vd ^eif/vx^o'^ 90 

Kat 8(o /cat K€t (TTO\d^opja.i to 7ra>s va rrjs yA.vraxra>, 

Kat vd/3p(D rpxnra net kovtol vol craxra) vet T/oov7roxra>, 

Mrjirws /cat KaTakd/3rj p.e /cat cruxry /cat pe ttvl^ 

K* els TOVTO T&fAOp<f>OV KOppX TO, VVX ia T ^5 VafXTTTJ^Y}. 

Avrd ra TpCa fipixTKOvrai ere /ca/xtfrovs /cat els oprj, 95 

'E^acva /cat tov yevous /iov e\0pol dava.Tr)<f>6poi. 

Ma or; </>o/?acrat drravTa ptKpd re /cat pLeydka y 

YvpvopLeva, Trerovpjeva, dvdpwirovs /cat Ta aAAa, 

Ktoxrav to Aiyet ^ irapoipud, rbv tbveto o~oi; <f>o/3axrai, 

Mov 17 (fxovrj arov r) cKkrjpr) (re 8ei)^vei /cart vaVrat. 100 

'Eyco 6c v Tpwyo) kd\ava, rrjs ktp.vr)S rd /3ordv 1a, 

Ov8e KpapLiria, ov o'ekwa, ov Trpdxra /cat pairavia* 

KvTqva oka rputyere e<reis /cat r aya7raT€, 

"Oo-ot €ts kip.vr)v arreKeo-Tev, /cat pecra /caTOt/caTC." 

Kat tot€ 6 4>wtyva^os ft€ Tavfxop<f>d tov rjdrj 105 

Tov ^i\apTrdKTqv eftkeTre, keyovras r diroKpldr] ' 
" IIoAAa Kav\axrat 9 <j>ike /xov, ecrv o~rr)v kai/xapyiav 
IIws dirb vooTiftoykvKa yep.l£eis rrjv /cotAtav. 
Kat els evpurKOVTcu <jxxytd yta, tt) fawy /*as, 
K' els Ta V€/aa icat €ts tt)v y^v yevvarat 17 0po<f>rj pas. 110 

Xaptv 8«rA^v ftas l&o/ccv 6 Zcvs va yaipopaxrOe 
Kat y^v yta va yppevdipev k v8u)p va Kpv/3op.da'0e, 
Kat /A€o*a k €^<u e\op.ev olkovs ttov KaroiKovfie, 
*Av Oekys v dkOys /cat e(rv avra/ia va ep,7rovp,e 
'Avefia els tyjv pd\t p.ov evKoka va o"€/A7rao"0), 115 

'AAiJ&ia KpaTei p* o-<f>iKTa pr) Trecrrfs /cat ae \da-(a^ 
Kat crdv ep.irovp.e TrixTTewov Oekeis X a PV Treplffcria, 
K* €ts To/3ya vdxjQS \dptcrpia, Kat epop(f>a /cavto-zcta." 
Tovs koyovs tovtovs hra^e^ ttjv pd\iv tov yvplfci, 
K't 6 ttovtlkos ekevOepa dndvov tov /ca^t^Ei, 120 

Ktairo/coTa Ta \epia tov o"Tov Tpd)(7jk6 t dirkiavei^ 
'O fiopOaKos dp\ivy)a-e v 3 airkwvy va £ap(tivrj, 
K't 6 ttovtikos eifrpaiveTov o-to irpu>Tov ottov d&pie, 
Ileus eKokvpura epopcfxi iOavpjafie Kiairopie. 
'Akkd oxrdv dpxtvr/crav ktyjv yrjv va gepxiKpevovv 125 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 


Kat crk V€pa fiaOvrara Ttjs Xlpvrjs va ipiraivovv, 

'EpXovrav pavpa Kv/iara /cat tov €KOVKOv\u>vav • 

Tore va rpkp.'Q oLpXW^ Ta * P&Tia. tov fiovpK&vav, 

McTavo/icvo* rjrav€ t 8kv €t\e rl va iroio-Q, 

Tiarl 8cv fjrov Svvarb oVto-a> va yvpury. 130 

Move ra ir68ia iro<r<f>iyy€ crrov /SopOaKOv tol irXdyrj, 

Svxva (rv\va ko-rkvafc &v fjftXeire ttov 7ray€t. 

*0<£t$ €<f>dvrj <f>o/3epbs para els to Trordpi, 

'O /3op0aKOS €Tp6pOL^€ 6*€V €?X € T * Va K^lfr 

Et$ TO V€/30 €J30VTL^€ VOL <f>Vyfl TOV dvpOV TOV, 135 

Tov ¥ txa/wra/cnjv a<f>r)K€ va irXeyy fuovayov tov. 

Ev#vs (fxrav tov a<j>rjK€, orb vh\op e^airXiaur), 

Kiairb tov <f>6/3ov tov ttoAvv oAos a7T€V€Kp<aOr] i 

Ta X^ ta €KaTaar<f>iyy€, €Tpi£c Kal to, SdvTia, 

Ti)v tov €xao-€ /cat Tpkpav tov toI 7rd8ta, 140 

IIoAAats <f>opais €/3v6i(€, Kal 7raAt avrpe/StTov 

KAorfcuvras orav rjparopie, Kiairdvov korTp€<j>€Tov * 


Ovo€ va </>vy2/ OdvaTov, va o-(xxry t^v fawy tov 

e 12o-aV KOVTTl €tS TO V€/0O €CT€pVC TYjV Opd TOV, 145 

Kat tovs 0€ovs iSieTOV va 4>vyy tov Oav&rov 

Tovs Adyovs tovtovs cAcyc /*€ X*^ 7 ] iriKpap&va • 

" Terotas Aoyijs ocv t/SaXe 6 ftopdaKas €fi€va 

2t^v pd\iv tov arav Z/SaXe 6 Zevs 6Vav lyivrj 

Tavpos Kal €<f>opT(^Or)K€ orovs vu>povs tov €K€ivrj 150 

Evpawnyv irov tyjv dpira^€ dirb tyjv 2t6ovtav, 

Kat 0aAao-orais kirkpaxr*. pcydXais Kal p* /3iav, 

K' €ts Tb vrprl tt)v l/SyaAc tt)s K/w/t^s 7rapavrt/ca, 

TtaTt 6 Zcvs 6 Qavpaxrrbs o-€/c€tvo €#caTOt/ca." 

Ta Adyta Tavra Ipra^e, ytaTt apyrpre va kXivq 155 

T^v /cc<£aA^v tov \aprjXa. k €ts to vcob va ttiv^* 
*]jl rpt\€S tov e/3pdxr)arav Kal ftdpos tov l/cavav, 
Kat koltov t6v erpa/fy^av, orra fiddr] Tbv l/?avav. 
&(ovrjv piKpa rjOeXrjo-c p* fiia vol l/SydXy, 
KtayaAt yaAt lAcyc, /cat Ta^rctva cAaAcf 160 

Tbv ftopOaKa eptpifxTO ottovtov 17 atTta 
Na tov€ ^8aA^ dvoA7rto-Ta o-€ Terotav d7ra>A€ia. 
" Acv ^cActs <j>vy€i," cAcy€, " ovSc 7roo-a>s va yAw^s, 
T ft kolkutt€ &vo-£yva0€, ov8c {cdt/ va ^o"j/s* 
'AAAa va Scxrys OdvaTov Ka/ca Kat iriKpap£va y 165 

TtaTt ft€ c^avaTOxrcs /*€ 7rovrjpta kpkva. 

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2t5v &/aov crov /*€ 1/JaAcs, kcis rb vepb e/xiriJKts 

Kia7T€K€t /A€ d7ToAlXT€S Kat VOt TTVtyW /A* d<f>fJK€S. 

Aev yjarow KaAAtos /jlov irork <rn\v yrjv va irokefirjoys 
Kat va 7ra\€\pys <rotv €/*€ K€t$ ftaX 7 ? va vikyio^jS) 
Ov8c va Bpdp,ys KaAAta fMOV, Kat va /JwvofM)(rjcrQ5 9 
'2 aAAo 8cv ijo-ovvc KaA&s /aov€ va ft€ Trkavrjo-gs. 
BAc7T€t 0€&s r»)v d8tKta /cat Kavet Sucaioavvr), 
Kat rifjuap€i tovs aSiKOvs X^P^ eXerjfio&vvrj. 
Tbv iSiKov fxov rbv dkXti €KBiKrj<r€i 
Tb <rrpaT€VfAa twv ttovtuc&v Kat Od crk TifMoprpry" 
Tovs Xoyovs tovtovs braver* ko1 \d$rjv fj <f><ovrj tov, 
Kat oAos i£a7r\.<667]K€ k e/3yfJK€v rj irvorj tov. 



'0 *E/u Atos AtypdvSos Aoyov 

?TOlOV/i€VOS 7T€0t TTJS fA€TOL<l>pd- 

(T€a>s Tavrqs tov Ziqvov vTT€p- 
aratvct avn)v /cat ttjv Otuypei 
OLpiwvLKwrdTqv /cat peorxrav 
8parTo/A€vos & tt}s ir€purrdcr€<i)S 

P«TT€t /Cat €V jScAoS " €X«T€VK€S" 

/caTa r»}s vvv ypaKfyopivqs 
'EAA^vtK^s dwoKaktav avrrjv 
TXaoTrjv yAaxro-av dAA' ij/icts 
Scv wp€JT€i v dvubp*da Bid ras 
rotavVas €/cc/>/od(T€ts tov dya0ov 
tovtov Kat <j>i\.07r6vov Aoytov, 
a<£ou Kat fJL€Ta£v tQv 'EAAijvcdv 


auTas tScas, av /cat 6Vav ypdtfxoo-i 
A-rp'fiovovcn va £<fxxpfi6<rwcriv 
avras. 'AAA' as €7rav€A0a>/i€v 
cts r^v fX€Ta(f>pa<Tiv tov /caAov 

/WS ZyjVOV. A€V V0ftlf€T€ OTt 

tfAivct dAtyov €ts TroAvAoytav; 
Ava/jw/>i/?oAct>s, StoTt tovs 

ttpX at0V K€Lfl€VOV 7]v£r)0~€V €V T^ 
l*£Ta<f>pdo-€l €tS €/CaTOV €/38ofJLTJ- 

Kovra o/ctw Sta irpoo-O&retov, 
tfapaAAaywv Kat /A€Ta0€orca>v • 
Totavny oc /A€Ta^>pa(rts, a>s /«y 

Emile Legrand, in speaking 
of this translation by Zenos, 
gives great praise to it, and 
considers it very harmonious 
and flowing : but he also seizes 
the opportunity to discharge a 
"bitter "shaft at the Greekasnow 
written, calling it an artificial 
language : but we ought not to 
be annoyed at such expressions 
from this excellent and laborious 
scholar, since even among the 
Greeks there are found some 
who hold similar opinions, 
although, when they write, they 
forget to put them into practice. 
But let us return to the transla- 
tion of our good friend Zenos. 
Do you not think that he is a 
little inclined to diffuseness ? 

Undoubtedly, for in the 
translation he has increased the 
ninety-eight lines of the ancient 
text to a hundred and seventy- 
eight, by additions, alterations, 
and transpositions : such a trans- 
lation, as it does not render 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



diro8l8ovara d/c/at/ftos ra. kv t<£ 

7T0(t)T0TV7r<tf, 0€1> €\€l WokkrjV 

d£iav. "Orav ojuos dvayivuxncy 
tis avrr)v ov\l u>s fJL€Td<j>paxriv, 
dkX dwktas ws yXdxnriKov 
fxekcT-qiia, tot€ rj dvaK pi fieia 
avrrjs Scv fikdirrti. 

"E^€T€ SlKOLlOV dkkd f3\ar(t> 
£<TVpaT€ 8vd TOV /JLo\v/38oKOv8v~ 

kov ypa/x/xas virb irkeiarras 
kkgcis tov dvriypd<f>ov irpbs 

TL €*a/Z€T€ TOVTO ; /AlJlTCDS 8kv 
TaS €VVO€4T€; 

1 tVaS fX€V €£ aVT(s)V 0€V 6VVOG), 

Ttvas &€ 0€(i)pu) prj opOws 
ycypafxpjevas, /cat Sta tovto rds 
€(ny/i€iaxra 6V<os o*as ipiarrja'o}, 

'H 6p0oypa<\>ta t<ov &7/A0- 

Tt/CWV l}/ACt>V Ac^CCDV 8cV €?Vat 

aTvx<3s *™ <j)pi(rp,€vr), /cat a>s €/c 
tovtov f/caoros ypd<fxi d>s 
/3ovA.€Tat* tt)v Xc£tv /*<*& 
irapaS^iy fjiaros \dpiv t ol fx€v 
ypafowi 8id tov uora a>s 
dva)T€/aa>, 01 8c Sta tov ijTa, 
dAAot 5c Sid tov $ \f/ikov> /cat 

OVTC0S €\0/l€V Tp€LS 8ia<j>6p0VS 

ypa<f>ds T7)S avTrjs Ac^ws — 
fJM& ^CVi H^ft' V 8* TTOlKlkia 

avrr) Trjs ypa<j>rjs TrpokpytTai ££ 
dyvolas Trjs irapaywyrjs rijs 

kk^€(i)S' TTpOCrkTl €TTLKpaT€L 0V)(l 

fUKpd arvyxvcris /cat €ts tyjv 
tKOkixf/iv, ttjv /cpaa-tv, tyjv 
d<j>aip€o~w /cat ttjv o"vvt^o"tv 
T(3v SrjfxoTiKiov kegtiov, /cat 81a 
tovto dvTkypaxpa ttjv /JL€Td<f>pa- 
o-lv tov Zrjvov o-x^Sov (US €*X €V 
iv Tots <e &ikokoyiKols dvaAc/c- 
tois" tov dp^emxTKoirov Za- 

exactly what is in the original, 
has not much value. When, 
however, any one reads it, not 
as a translation, but simply 
as a linguistic study, its inac- 
curacy does no harm. 

You are right, but I see you 
have drawn lines in pencil 
under many of the words of the 
copy : why did you do this ? 
Is it that you do not under- 
stand them ? 

Some of them I do not 
understand, and some I think 
are not rightly written, and on 
this account I marked them, so 
as to ask you about them. 

The orthography of our 
vernacular words is unfortun- 
ately not as yet fixed, and 
consequently every one writes 
as he likes : the word /xaft, for 
instance, some write with iota 
as above, others with eta, and 
others with y-psilon, and thus 
we have three different ways of 
writing the same word, /taft, 
/taf)}, p.a(v : this variety in the 
way of writing it proceeds from 
ignorance of the derivation of 
the word : besides, there prevails 
no little confusion also with 
regard to the elision, crasis, 
aphaeresis and synizesis of 
vernacular words, and for this 
reason I have copied Zenos* 
translation nearly as it was in 
the Philological Selections of 
Nicholas Catrames, bishop of 
Zante (Zante 1880). 

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kvvOov NiKoAaov Karpaprj ('Ev 
ZaicvvOy 1880). 

Ev\apuTT(o ' Ttopa 8e <ras Thank you. Now I beg you 

irapoLKakoj va px>i k^yrjorqTe to explain to me such words as 
ras kk£eis oVas kv t<£ ovti- I have marked in the copy with 
ypd<JHt) tcrrjfMLoxra 81a dnrXrjs a double line. 

ILpoOv/Mos. By all means. 

1-5. — (rrovTqv = els ravrrjVy in this. — oV = els to in the. — 
yum = 810™, because, for. 

6-10. — 7ra\iKapi or iraWutdpi = vcavias a yenrna man, also a 
6mw man. — vd\ere rrfv vyeid aras = va e^qre T ^ v vyiciav o-as, may 
yow fo*t« ^rood health ! Long life to you ! — <f>rid = avria = Sna ^ 
«ar». — cTTOiicav = €7roo^rav, Met/ 77iade. — (iopdaKos = fSdrpa^os, a 
frog. — ifnnJKav = kpf3fJKav = kvk/Srjo-av, they went into. 

11-15. — tous av6p€s = Tovs avSpas, £ta men. — kC $6Yrai = K<u 
p&rai, and it is currently reported. — riftped-qv = evpkOrj, he found 
himself he was. — k rjrove = Kal fJTo, and he was. — va fiydX-g = vol 
UfldXfr to drive away, to quench (his thirst). 

16-20. — mryovvi = yews, the chin. — Tov/3pe£e = Tov e/3pe£e, he 
wetted his (chin). — eStoira = &8k ttt], kvravda, here. — pAv* = kpkva = 
kpJk, me. — wotcre = iroirjarov, make. — tmtotcs = Ti7rox€, anything at 
<UL — to 7rofc<rav=o eTroirprav, what they did. — ol Sikol arov = ol 
l&ucoi o-ov, ol orvyyeveis crov, your relations. 

21-25. — #cta' = Kal av, and if — Oks — BkXeis, you will. — p.7rdxr<i> = 
epfldcru) = €/Aj8ij8<wra), subj. aor. I may make you go in. — l&fis = £877$, 
you may see. — yapurpuxTa^SGtpoL, presents. — toVcw = vwurxvovpuai 
I promise. — 7raA.1v opurpos oVaro) = 7rd\iv kpirpbs oirio-to, back home 
again. — Otapeis = Oetapeis = op$s, you see. — Kvpieva> = e^ovo-idfra, I 
am lord of. 

26-30. — o7rov V ed(o = ol oiroioi eTvai kvravda, who are here. — 
p* Kpdfioxxri = p* Kakova-i, they call me. — va ttw = va €i7ra>, that I 
may say. — woiavai = 7roia cfvai, who is. — Keivrjv = eKeivqv, her. 

31-35. — otov = €is rov, in the. — ky vmpurrrjKav = ky Vtopio-Orprav, 
they made each other's acquaintance. — kfakevTrjo-av = tyikevOrp-av, 
they regaled each other. — t6t€s = tot€, then. — kpeva = kp.k, me. — 
Ta \eiX.r] = Tas 6\Bas, the banks. — va yevovpL€ = va yeivmpjev, that 
we may become. 

36-40. — pop<f)idv = evpLOp<j>iav, beauty. — rl to (tjt^s ; = ri to 
(rjrets ; why do you inquire about it ? — \ehre = a<f>es, leave it alone. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 


41-45. — Ov/JLTpriv = evOvjjLTjo-w, p.vr\p.r\v > memory. — Karc^j/s = 
ci£cvpys, el&jjs, you may know. 

46-50. — owovv rb ykvei rov p.aKp-6 = 07rov €?vat to ykveiov tov 
fjMKpov, o5 rb ykveiov /xaicpov cart, whose beard is long. — irXeibv 
Kaipov = irXeiova \povov, the greater part of her time. — KdraxnTprj 
els rd \eCXrj = KardXevKos els rd \elXrj, very white about the lips 
(from eating flour). — AapSo<f>dyos, the lard-eater. — p ktyepev^p* 
e<f>ep€v, rjveyKe fie, she brought me. — kcis = /cat els, and into. 

51-55. — V€ = €ts, ev, in. — fxeKa/ne = fxe c/ca/x* = eykwrjcrk fxe, *fo 
<jKH» WrM to me. — oirovve = ottov €?vat = atTtvcs €?vai, which are. — 
XeifrroKapva = XeirroKapva, hazel-nuts. 

56-60. — €urk = €ts, in. — Kavkva = kolv eva, even <m«, any at all. 
— 6/widvai = ofioia. elvai, i* Zi&e. — c#c tov V€/oov to, fiorava = €/c t5v 
tov vSaros /foravwv, /rom water-herbs. 

61-65.-— diroo-a^dirb 6Va = €^ oo-a>v, o/ as many things as. — 
PpUrKovr ai = evpUrKovrai, are found. — orrd = els rd, in the. — 
Oapperd = Bappovvnas, boldly. — KaXo^vfxtofxkvo = /caAu>s €^v/jhi}/mvov, 
well kneaded. — &fxop<l>o = €Vfxop<f>ov, beautiful. — <£aA.dyytov = 7rA,a- 
kovvtiov, a cake. — avyorrqrais, nom. pi. of avyoirqra, a cake made 
with eggs in it. — y = at. — iroAvo-owa/AaTats, nom. pL fern, of 
7roA.ixrovo-a/zaTos, made with plenty of sesame in it. 

66-70. — faxapdrais, nom. pi. fern, of ^a\apdros, made with sugar 
in it. — Ka/Jivovv = Kafivoxxri, they make. — p,v£rjOpa, a kind of fresh 
cheese, cream-cheese. 

71-75. — T£ovKa\ia = xy T P ai > coohing pots, saucepans. — irov 
^evpotxri = ot otto tot el^evpovcn, who understand. — /cdVowt = 
/cd/Avotxrt, iroiovo-i, they make. — /cdAAta = /caAA to vcos, better. — pko'a 
or' avrd /3dvovo-i = puko-a els avra f3dXXo\xri, they put into them. — 
Tats /cdAAtats = rds icaAAtovs, the better, the superior. — p.vpb>8iais= 
fjivpevioSias = dptofwra, spices. — <f>kpvovv = <f>kpvovo~i = <f>kpovo~i, they 
bring. — "Ivrtass'IvStav, India. — dorwtats = dprvfiara, sauces. 

76-80. — vdXOy = va eXdy, to come.—dvkvai = dv rj, if there be. — 
irovTTores = nod rrore, ever anywhere. — o-KovrkXa = Ital. scodella = 
£vXlvY) Xoirds, a wooden bowl. — rrpoorrkXa — pknumov, in front. — 
tropa-orepo = irepurcrorepov, more. — ev — evi = co-Tt. 

81-85. — SayKtovo) or 8ay/cdva> = 8d/cva>, I bite. — aVavoaYat = 
aurOdverai, he perceives. — <f>0kpva = irrkpva, the heel. — Sev rb xp'ifa 
he cares nothing about it (dx/>t£a> = a£tf<b>, to be worth). — poxaMfa 
= pkyK€L, he snores. — riirora Sev rd raxro-u) = Oeupui avrd bra t£ 
firjSevt, I make no account of them. 

86-90. — rbv yctTov = the ItaL gatto, a tom-cat, rbv aiXovpov.— 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 


rbv ytpaKa = rbv IkpaKa, the hawk. — Tpofxacrio = rpofxd^u), fofiovpuai, 
I am afraid of. — £vX6yara = £vXlvr) yaXrj (a wooden cat) = tray is, a 
trap. — #c€?=€#c€t, there. — ypoiKto (ceo) = KaraXap.fidvta, aKovw, I 
perceive, I hear. — pf =/jlov. — £€\fsv\(o (cw, ao>) = sKirvkui, diroOvrp-Kta, 
I expire. 

91-95. — 8a> Kal Kct = €5a> Kal ckci, here and there. — yAi>T(ova> = 
(MraAAaoxro^tat,, to escape from. — vdfipo) = va €vp<o, to find. 
— owa> = irpotyddxria, I may be in time. — va Tpovir<Ao~<i) = va 
Tpwraxra) = va tlareXOto els rrjv ottyJv, to go into the hole. — rovro 
mp.op<f>ov Kopjjit = rovro to €Vfxop<f>ov (TujfxoL, this beautiful body. — 
ra vv\ia = tol 6vv\ia^ the claws. — vapLirrj^y = va tp-TrqfyQ) to force 
into. — o-€ Ka/jL7Tovs = €ts ireSidSas, eu irediois, in plains. 

96-100. — pud, ItaL but. — <£o/3a<rai = fofourai, you are afraid of. 
— (Tvpv6fi£va = €p7T€Ta, reptiles. — Tre.rovp.eva — ttctcivo, birds. — kiu>- 
<rav=Kal axrav, Kal a>s, and just as. — rbv io-Kio = rbv icnciov = t*)v 
o-Kiav, the shadow. — /xdv' = /xdvov, only. — kolti vacrat = /caTt ri va 
fyrai, that you are something, somebody. 

101-105. — ra f3ordvta = rds fiordvas, the herbs. — Kpap.Tud*= 
Kpapfiia = Kpdp,/3as, cabbages. — pairavia = pa<l>avC8as, radishes. — 
atrnyva = avrd, those things. — to~cts = vp.€is, you. — ctt€K€ot€v = 
ot€K€(t^€ = larracrdt, pkvtri, you stay. — KaroiKart = KaroiKtlrc, you 

106-1 10. — <f>ayi,d = k&arpara, eatables, dishes. — yid = 8id, for. — 
Spoifyrj =s rpo<f>rj, nourishment, food. 

111-115. — va \aipopLa\r6e = vd xat/xo/uv, va aVoAawo/icv, £/ta£ 
toe may «?yoy. — y ta, Va = 8ia va, in order that. — va KpvfiopacrOe = 
va KpvTTT(jiip.eOa, to hide ourselves. — p.ara = &ru), ivros, inside. — k l^w 
= Kal l£<i>, and outside. — KaroiKovp& = KaroiKovp^v, we inhabit. — v' 
a\(hr)s=vd ZXSys, to come. — dvrdp.a or ivrdp.a = opjov, together. — 
va kpnrovp* = va ip,/3(opL€V, £o ^ro in. — dv€/3a = dvd/3rj0c, get up. — r^v 
pa^i = t^v pdyiv, the back.—vd o-epurdxru) = va <r* e/x/^acrw = va o-' 
€aj8ij3ao-<o, Jfatf J may convey you in. 

116-120. — dAi}0€ia, fad rea%. — or<f>iKrd = o-<f>iyKrd, o-^iyKrm, 
tightly. — paj o-€ x*** 7 "* = f"? °"* cwroA&no, 2ert J lose you. — o~dv = 5Tav, 
as soon as. — irepUrcria = Trcpto-o-ws, cr<f>68pa, very much. — roftya = cv 
t<^ €K)8atv€tv, in aotna ow^. — vax2/ s==v ^ ^Xl/ S > ^ ou arg *° ^ w » — 
KavuTKLa = 8u)pa y presents. — hra\f/€ = hrava-€y he finished, ended. — 
y vpifci = (rrp€<f>€i, he turns. — /c't o = *cai o, and the. — dirdvov=- 
iiravd), upon. 

1 21-125. — KiOTTOKora = koI diroKora = /cat d(£o/3ws, and fearlessly. 
— v' da-Awl^ va £apu>vy = va tKTUvrjrai Kal va arva-reXX^Tac, to stretch 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 


himself out and draw himself in (in swimming). — €<f>paw€Tov = rjv- 
<f>paCvero f he was delighted. — Owpu = W€<ap€i, €<apa, he saw. — eieo- 
Xvfiira = €Kokvp,fla, kvq)(€To, he was swimming. — Kiairopu — Kai 
rjir6p€i, and he was at a loss. — ktyjv yrjv = ck -njs yfjs,from the land. 
— vol £tfJLaKp€Vovv = va. airofjLaKpvvu)vrai 9 to get far away. 

1 26- 1 30. — <r€ = €t$, into. — ip\6vrav = rip\ovro, came. — rbv 
€KovKovktovav = €KdkvTTTOv avrov, they covered him. — flovpK&vav = 
tayKovvTo Trkypy oa/c/nW, they were swelling with tears. — pxravopJkvos 
= fjL€Tav€vor)fjL€vos t repentant. — va iroury = va 7roirjo~y, to do. 

131-135. — fx6v€ = u6vov y only. — iro<r<t>iyy€ = ottov &r<f>iyy€, that 
he tightened. — ra irkayi] = ra rr Ady va, the sides. — kflovrigc = kflv- 
OurOrj, he dived. 

136-140. — va irkeyy = va irkky^ va v^x ? ? Ta S ^ *ww&. — pjova\6v 
= fiQvov, alone. — €Kardar<f>i,yy€ = Karkor<f>iyy€, fo c/encfod. 

141-145. — avTp€/3€Tov = f]v&p[(€To, he summoned up his courage. 
— KAorfwvras crav r/fxiropte Ktairavov koTp€<f>€Tov = Aa#cTifa>v 6Vov 
cSvvaTo *ai hrcarrpcfav ava>, ano! kicking out with all his might, he 
returned to the surface. — rjrovc = tJto, it was. — fiiropovfAcvov = Svvarov, 
possible. — va ykvo~y = va yAw-axr^, to set free, save. — to Kopfxi tov = 
to o-w/xa rov, his body. — er€pv€ = &rvpe, he dragged. — rrjv 6pd = 
rrfv ovpdv, the tail. 

1 46-1 50. — T€Totas koyrjs = ovtcds, in £to way. — Ipkva = €/w, me. 
— crav = (oo-av, ws, Ji&e a*. — orav kyivq == ore lycivc, tr/iew he became. 
— vco/iot/s = &jjbovs, the shoulders. 

151-155.-— apirafc = rjpirage, rj pirao-c, he carried off. — eflyak€ = 
k^k flake, fo brought ashore. — cr€#c€tvo kKaroUa = €is €*€ivo Kartpica, 
he dwelt in that place. — €fiira\f/€ = hrawe, he finished, ended. 

156-160. — €#cavav = €#ca/xov, kirotycrav, they made. — *aTov = 
Kara), down oefow. — krpdflrjgav = larvpav, they dragged. — kfldvav = 
eflakov, they cast. — va kflydky = va €K flaky, to send forth. — /aayaAi 
ydAi = *ai dydAia dydAia = flpahkias rrdw flpadkws, slowly very 

161-165. — ottovtov = oirov tJto, who was. — va rove flaky = va 
rbv flaky, to put him. — dvokirurra = dvek-rr lottos, unexpectedly. — 
T€Toiav = Totavn/v, such. — va yAvo7ys = va ykvnao~ys, va d^raA- 
Aay^s, to escape. — va Suxrys Odvarov, to pay the penalty of death. 

1 66-1 70. — irovypid = 7rovrjpla, cunning. — KtawcKci = #cai drb 
€K€i, and after that. — dVoAwcs = dwckvo-as = d<j>rJKas, you abandoned. 
— rjo-ovv =s ijo-o, 7}o-^a, you u?ere. — KaAAtos = KaAAtW, d/i€ivwv, 
Getter. — va TraAc^s = va TraAawr^s, to wrestle, to fight. 

171-175. — KaAAta fiov = /cdAAiov kpov, better than L — rjarovvi- 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 




tyro, f)<r6a, you were. — /xovc = fiavov, only. — Kavct = Kapvu, he does, 
exectUe^—ikeq/wcrvvrj = ekcos, pity. 

176-178. — \d6rjv = kxddrj, oVwActo, was lost — i£air\<odr]K€ 
= €^rj7r\ia6rj 9 he stretched himself out. — k k/3yrJK€v = Kal tKpfJKtv 
= #cat kgkfSrj, Kal kgfjkOcv, and it went out. 

^v\apurr(o iyKap8i<os. 
Tw/hx, iav 8kv cTcrde Kovpao-pkvos, 
as SieXOiOfxev Kal to k£rjs aVo- 
oTraoyxa to <f>kpov €iriypa<fyqv, 
(t ^TL\oi tjOtKOLj Kara. 7roAXa 
KarawKTiKoi, els rbv pdraiov 

KOO/tOV." El£eU/)€T€ V7TO TIVOS 

Kal 7tot€ kypd<f>rprav ; 


\j/as €ivat. 6 €K ZaKvvdov Up€vs 
I<txn/</> JZdpTO-tXrjs, aKpudvas 
T€pl tol rkkrj rov IS' altovos. To 
v<t>os avrov c?vat dirkovv Kal cv- 
hprrov, ot 0€ (rri\oi farjpol /cat 

p€OVT€S, <5oT€ k<XV 1TpOO~k£r]T€ 

KaXo)s orav cya) dvayivwrKia to 
volrifjLOy ufiat )3k/3aios 6d kv- 
vorjo~qT€ iraxrav kk£iv. 

" Tt davfxd^eis, c5 /3pork, 

Ets rbv filov o~ov irork ; 

Kal Kav\a\raL cis tov 7tA.o{>tov 


Kat optfcis Kaxrrpa, towovs, 
Zya, ^cupaes fat dvdpwirovs ; 
K* €^€is ro<rqv kgoxxriav, 
Kat peydkrjv avdtvriav ; 
AovAovs *s toL Ockrj/iaTa o~ov 
Kat 7roAAovs *s ti)v o~WTpo<f)id o~ov ; 
IIoAAa oTTtTta Kat dp.rrkkia, 
^Kkd fiovs, Sovkovs Kal Konkkkia; 
Kat dVdVawcs /x«yaA.ats, 
KaA.ooot£tKats /cat aAAats; 
E)(€is direipov <f>ovcraTov 
Kat 6 Koo-fws o*€ <f>o/3aTov ; 

Thank you very much. Now, 
if you are not tired, let us also 
go through the following extract 
entitled, "Moral verses, greatly 
conducive to contrition, about 
this vain world." Do you know 
by whom and when they were 
written ? 

The writer of these verses is 
Joseph Bartselis, a priest of 
Zante, who flourished about the 
end of the 16th century. His 
style is simple and intelligible, 
and the lines lively and flowing, 
so that if you listen attentively 
while I read the poem, I am 
certain that you will understand 
every word. 

" What see you to admire, 
mortal, ever in your life ? 
That you boast of the wealth 
which you have in this world ? 
That you are lord of castles, lands, 
animals, countries, and men ? 
And that you have such power, 
and great authority ? 
Servants at your bidding, 
and many in your retinue ? 
Many houses and vineyards, 
slaves, servants, and pages ? 
And great comfort, 
and every kind of good fortune ? 
That you have an immense army, 
and the world fears you ? 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



Kat 3Xo4 rp€fjx>xxnv kp.irp6s <rov, 
K' cfvat cis rbv opur/wv <rov, 
Kat ofiirpooTa crov 8«v toA/aovo-i, 
Aoyov k&v va cov ci7rouo-t. 

"OAot (T€ 7ToA.U;(/>OVt£oVV 

Kat 7roXAa <r€ pxtKaptfaw 
IIoAAovs XP ^ 01 * y*a va £707/5 
Ilatoas k' 2/cyova v' a<£iJo~#s, 
Tov dtbv 7ra/3aKaXakrt, 
Tctav, tlprjvrjv va <rov SdxrQ. 
*Q TrqXky koli ri Kav\axrai^ 
Hov <r oAtyov p^kXecs vaoai 
Xtofia yta va <rk irarown 
Kat va (re KaTa<f>povov<ri ; " 

2as fit/Saito 8kv €v6rj<ra 7ra>s 
o KOLtpbs iraprjk$€v, 3 18ov c- 
<f>Oacrafuv cis t^v NcaVoAtv. 
*H a»/3a c?vat a/cpt/?a>s c£ #cat 
rptavraovo. *H dpua^wrroiyia 
fi€V€L ivravda /xtav w/xxv, <&ot€ 
€\opAV Kcupbv va y€vp.aruro}p.€v 
iv dvecrtu *As d<f>rj<r<op.€V Aot7rdv 
ra irpdypxvrd /*as €ts to diro- 
a-K€vo<f>vka.KU>v Kat as V7raya>- 
ft€v va y€v6<ofJL€v ra ir€p(<f>r)p.a 
rrjs Nca7roAca)S fux/capovta, " Ta 
/cat fxaKapts iroOkovarw," 

And all tremble before you, 
and are under your command, 
and to your face they do not 
dare to say one word to you. 
All wish you a long life and 
shower on you every blessing, 
to live for many a year, to leave 
children and descendants : 
they offer prayers to God 
to give you health and peace. 
thing of clay, why do you 
boast> who in a little time will be 
earth for men to tread on 
and show you their contempt?" 
I assure you I did not notice 
how the time has gone by. Here 
we are at Naples. It is exactly 
thirty -two minutes past six. 
The train stops here for an 
hour, so we have time to dine 
at our ease. Let us leave our 
things in the cloak-room then, 
and go and taste the famous 
Neapolitan macaroni, " which 
even the Gods are eager to 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 


Ata ri ovt<i> /3pa8k<i>s irpo- 
\toptl fj a/ia^oaTOi\Ca ; ri 
<rv/z/?atv€t ipd y€ ; firjirvs 
hra0€ fiXdfirjv riva i) arpLop-q- 
\avrj ; 'H/xareta &pa irapr\\6€V 

d<f> orov d<f>rjKQLfUV TOV OTadflOV 
Kal OKOfXTj €lfJL€$a kvrbs TtJs 

Ta Tiov <rdh)po8po/JM>v kv 
TraAta &v cfvat cktcti toctov 
Kaktas TaKT07re7rotr//icva oarov kv 
'AyyAia, axrrc &v vo/xifw va 
(rvvkfir) ti els rr)v firjxavrjv 
unas r) ypajjL/jbrj Scv etvai kkev- 
Bkpa, Sioti okiyov irpo<r<iyrkp<a 
xnrdpx^ Kafiirq, Ivda <rvv€V0vv- 
Tat, Bvo ypafXfJLat, Kal iriOavbv r) 
apa^xrroi\ia pas dvay/ca^erat 
va vcpipAvy 8ia va. ircpdxry 
aXXrj irpo avrfjs. 

Tovro etvat iro\v irtdavov, 
Kal tSov fSXaru) piav kp\op,€vrfv 
€K tov avriOkrov pApovs* ISov 
iraprjkdw r) ypap,p.r) ctvai 
*\*vOkpa • ktrl rkXovs Ktvovp&Oa. 

KvTTa^aTC irpos ra &£td <ras, 
too-ov vpatos Kal pL€ya\oirpeirr)s 
€?vai 6 koXitos rrjs NcaTroXcws / 
Efvai fiovaSiKos kv T<j> Koo-pup' 
i) & T07ro$€0'Ca rrjs dp\aias Kal 
vtpufyrjpjov ravrqs iroX&os cfvat 


Why is the train going so 
slowly ? What is the matter, I 
wonder? Has anything gone 
wrong with the engine ? Half 
an hour has passed since we 
left the station and we are still 
inside the town. 

Railway matters in Italy are 
not yet so well arranged as in 
England, so I do not think 
anything has happened to the 
engine : perhaps the line is not 
clear, for a little farther on 
there is a curve where two lines 
join, and probably our train is 
obliged to wait for another to 
pass before it 

That is very likely, and 
there I see one coming from 
the opposite direction : there, it 
has gone by : the line is clear : 
at last we are moving. 

Look to your right, how 
beautiful and magnificent the 
gulf of Naples is I It is unique 
in the world : the situation of 
this ancient and celebrated city is 
unrivalled. Nature has lavished 

\ B R A p 

or Tn 



drapdpuXkos, *H </>wm are- 
8a\f/i\€v<r€v avrjj a</*ioa>s Kal 
d<f>66v<os irdvra avn/s rot dyadd, 
wore vofJLtfo art 6cv Ixovo-tv 
oSikov oi NccmtoAitcu Aryovrcs, 
"*I& rr)v NcaxoAtv #cat orctra 
axdtfavc. 1 " 

T^v yvtofirjv ravrqv r&v 
KaXtav /t*a$ NcaxoAtTwv 6«v cxw 
irpbs to jrapov iroAAi)v 6p€^tv 
va t^v wapa8€)(6to 9 oYoVt hn~ 
&vfjLW Kal dXXa fieprj rov Kocrfxov 


cZoov 6oL kcu irokv kol\<L *Av 
vurrewrg ns Sou Zypa\pav Kal 
ypd<fx>vcn. 7T€pl avrrjs ol ir€pti- 
rjyrjrai, to co-cotc/mkov avrrjs 
KakXos 6cv avra7roKptV€Tai ws 
hrp€K€ fjutra rov QwrepiKov 
fi€yaX.€iQV owep ir€pi/3d\X.€i 

Mr) oYoVrc rrpwro^v cts 6Va 
A.cyowii' ol ir€pvqyrjTai, Siori 
ol ir\€toTOi c£ avrwv irapa8o£o- 
koyowri ir€pi T&v x<i>p<t)v ay 
cirMTJccirTOKrat arava\afJL/3dv- 
ovtcs iroWaKis d/3aa-avioT(as 
iraAatas irpo\rj\f/€is Kal Aeyovrcs 
"6 T4 jccv or' dicaipi/jLav yXwrcrav 
ZXdy" oiruy? irkelovas kXKv&ww 
dvayvwrras €is rds€(o\ovs avrcov 
Kal dvovciovs 7T€piypa<f>ds. *H 
NcdVoAts vvv 8«v ciVai ota i}to 
cirl Bovp/36v<s)V ' SlOTl TOTC /X€V 
€W€Kpdr€i cv avr^ iy dp.ddua, r) 
ocurtoat/xovta Kal r) 8ia<f>6opd t 
vvv 8c xavraxov /Bkcirei ns iv 
avrjj (rrjfjLtia irpooSov Kal fok- 


Xat/cxu ZyKapSCays ori oi 

1 "VediNapoli 

upon her unsparingly and pro- 
fusely all her riches, so I think 
the Neapolitans are not wrong 
when they say "See Naples 
and then die. 71 

I have no great inclination 
for the present to adopt this 
opinion of our good friends the 
Neapolitans, for I want to see 
other parts of the world as well : 
besides after all I did not see it 
very well. If we are to believe all 
that travellers have written and 
still write about her, her internal 
beauty does not correspond, as 
it should, with the external 
magnificence which surrounds 

Do not pay attention to all that 
travellers say, for most of them 
relate strange things about the 
places they visit, often repeating 
old prejudices without testing 
them, and saying "whatever 
comes to the ill-timed tongue," 
in order to attract more readers 
to their stale and insipid descrip- 
tions. Naples is not now what she 
was in the time of the Bourbons ; 
for then there prevailed in her 
ignorance, superstition and cor- 
ruption, while now one sees in 
her everywhere signs of progress 
and improvement. 

I am heartily glad that the 
epoi mori." 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



KaTOiKOi rrjs (bpaias ravrqs 
\6pas evpurKOvrai cv 68<p 
vpooSov dkX rj Kara tov 
TapekOovra al&va dpdOeia av- 
tw Kal S€uriSai/JLov(a (fxiwerai 
tfyov <f>0oucry cis to KaraKopv<f>ov 
avriav crr^fJAiov. 'Ev^v/Aov/iat 
aVcyva>v irov irpb iroW&v craw 
dirocnrdcrpxiTa cVtoToA&v Tep- 
fiavov rivos Kdpk Mevtp kolXov- 
pJevov, ckttis Sirjyetrai irkeurra 
aoTCiOTara avcKOora ir€pl twv 


tfliws ir€pl Ao/uvtKavov twos 


arar£ ^ ^VM' wvoftafcTO 
Harc/> TprjyopiQS 'Pokkos* iJto 
5c iraxyxrapKos, irpoydtrnap, 
Ipvdpoirpoo-wros, faw/pos *at 
Ka0' v7T€pPo\r)V ckgwttikos #cai 
opyiAos. Ka0' eKaxmjv 7rcpt- 
^PX* 1 " T * ? ooovs St&ao'Kwv, 

VOV0€T<OV, €V47rA^TTO>V Kal CVfcOTC 

fuumy&v rovs prj Trpoa-cxovras 

» > Zl / » <■% CTT 

«s Tas vovc/cctas avrov. H 
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inhabitants of this beautiful 
country are in the path of pro- 
gress; but their ignorance and 
superstition in the last century- 
had reached, it appears, their 
culminating point I remember 
reading somewhere, many years 
ago, extracts from the letters of 
a German named Earl Meyer, 
who relates many very witty 
anecdotes about the inhabitants 
of Naples and especially about 
a certain Dominican monk whose 
name, unless my memory plays 
me false, was Father Gregorio 
Rocco: he was a burly and 
corpulent red-faced man, full of 
animation, excessively given to 
ridicule, and of a passionate 
temper. Every day he used to 
go about the streets teaching, 
warning, rebuking, and some- 
times whipping those who did 
not attend to his admonitions. 
His power over the crowd was 
absolute, and no one dared to 
contradict him. When he 
wished to abolish any abuse 
prevailing in the city, he used 
to go to one of the more 
frequented public squares, and 
mounting some handy platform, 
which was usually an old tub 
turned upside down, preach 
from that position in a voice of 
thunder to the gaping crowd, 
and often, by means of his 
exceedingly practical mode of 
teaching, cured what was evil. 

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Do you recollect any of the 
witty anecdotes about him ? 

Yes, and if you like, I am 
quite willing to relate to you 
one or two of them. 

You will find me an attentive 

One day he was preaching 
in the middle of the public 
market-place, and a great multi- 
tude of people flocked there to 
listen to his teaching. Suddenly 
casting a stern glance upon his 
hearers, he shouted in a sten- 
torian voice : "To-day I want to 
be assured whether you truly 
repent of your sins, or deceive 
me by falsely pretending to do 
so." After saying this, he began 
a very touching discourse upon 
repentance, and all, kneeling 
down before him, wept in the 
contrition of their hearts and 
beat their breasts. Seeing this, 
Father Rocco cried to the 
crowd : "As many of you as have 
truly repented, hold up your 
hands." All extended both arms. 
"Archangel Michael," then ex- 
claimed Father Rocco, looking 
up to heaven, " thou who hold- 
ing a flaming sword standest by 
the throne of God, come here 
this moment, and lop off every 
arm which is hypocritically 
raised." Immediately, as if by 
a single impulse, all of them 
lowered their arms, and they 
heard some hearty abuse from 
the austere preacher about their 
sham repentance. 

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A capital anecdote : and what 
is the other one about ? 

It is about a controversy 
between a Spanish monk and 
Father Rocco who persistently 
maintained that there were no 
Spanish saints in paradise. 

" That is not true," cried the 
Spanish monk indignantly, "it 
is a perversion of ecclesiastical 

" Not at all," calmly replied 
Father Rocco, " and if you want 
to learn the reason of the matter, 
listen : at first there were a few 
saints from Spain in paradise, 
but as they smoked incessantly, 
Our Lady and the other holy 
virgins made complaints to St. 
Peter, who, calling them to- 
gether, announced to them that 
henceforth smoking was pro* 
hibited in paradise. But our 
good friends the Spaniards, pay- 
ing no attention to what St. 
Peter said, went on with their 

I am curious to learn how 
they got rid of those dreadful 

In a very simple way. 
"Messengers were sent to every 
part of paradise," continued 
Father Rocco, " who proclaimed 
that without the gates of the 

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holy place there was going to 
be a bull-fight Hearing this, 
the Spanish saints ran in a 
crowd outside of paradise to 
witness their favourite spectacle ; 
but they had hardly gone away 
before the keeper of the keys 
shut the gates and locked them 
out, and from that time all the 
Spanish saints have been left 
out in the cold." 

Well done, Father Kocco ! 
Bravo! You gave it the 
Spaniard welL — But I see we 
are approaching Pompeii, which, 
after remaining for seventeen 
centuries under the ashes of 
Vesuvius, reappeared in order to 
attract to her the travellers of 
all the world. I have visited 
the magnificent ruins of 
Cyzicus: I have seen the 
remains of Assos on the gulf 
of Adramyti, in which such 
successful excavations were 
made not many years ago by the 
American Archaeological Society 
and there were discovered the 
market-place, the theatre and 
the senate-house of the city, and 
very many other public build- 
ings ; but nothing can be com- 
pared to the ruins of Pompeii. 
When any one wanders about 
the streets and squares of this 
famous city, and sees there the 
houses of its ancient citizens 
and the public buildings, he is 
seized with a strange feeling, 
and fancies that he is, not in 

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f XII 



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the midst of ruins, but in 
ancient Pompeii as it was before 
it was destroyed. 

That is to say, just as the 
proline imagination of Lord 
Lytton has so happily depicted 
it in his brilliant novel The Last 
Days of Pompeii. 

Quite so, for in fact the 
works of great writers serve in 
a way as guides to the human 
mind, directing its steps in the 
labyrinthine paths of imagina- 
tion. A reader of The Lad 
Days of Pompeii fancies that he 
is really living in the past, 
eating, drinking, enjoying him- 
self and revelling in the 
company of the ever luxurious 
inhabitants of Pompeii, who 
"like gods lived with no care 
upon their minds," and " beyond 
the reach of every ill take 
delight in the feast." 

But Jove, the Thunderer on 
high, " meditated for them 
grievous harm," for on the 23d 
of August, about one o'clock in 
the afternoon, in the seventy- 
ninth year after Christ, a 
fearful eruption of Vesuvius de- 
stroyed this prosperous city to- 
gether with Herculaneum and 
some adjacent villages. Did 
you ever read the letter of Pliny 
the younger to the historian 
Tacitus, in which he describes 

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most minutely the incidents of 
this great catastrophe ? 

Often : if my memory does 
not betray me, I think the 
letter was translated into the 
Greek language by J. Isidorides 
SkyMtzi, and was published in 
the sixth rolume of the Magazine 
of Useful Knowledge, issued at 
one time in Smyrna. In this 
frightful catastrophe Pliny the 
elder, who was the uncle of the 
younger, died from suffocation. 

He fell a victim to his, scien- 
tific curiosity ; for at the time 
when all were rushing off in 
their endeavour to get far away 
from the danger, he embarked 
in a trireme and sailed for 
Retinumand the other threatened 
suburbs, and was observing in 
close proximity what was taking 
place in the sky and on the 
earth ; but already dense ashes 
began to cover the deck of the 
ship and he was compelled to 
take refuge in Stabiae : the cata- 
strophe howeverextended farther 
and farther, and, while making 
his escape with many others from 
Stabiae, he perished on the road. 

Dion Cassius also relates this 
eruption of Vesuvius in a most 
graphic manner, giving ,to it 
moreover a somewhat mytho- 
logical tinge, for he says that 
before that terrible visitation, 
"many huge men, surpassing 

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all human nature, like the 
giants are painted," made their 
appearance, going about some- 
times on Vesuvius, sometimes 
in the country surrounding it, 
and occasionally they even ap- 
peared frequenting the air. 
u And after this, severe droughts 
and violent earthquakes suddenly 
took place, so that the whole of 
that plain heaved, and the 
heights leaped ; and noises 
occurred, some subterranean, 
like thunder, others above 
ground, like bellowings ; and 
the sea at the same time roared 
and the sky resounded ; and 
after this an ominous crash was 
all of a sudden heard, as if the 
mountains were falling one upon 
another ; and first enormous 
stones leaped up, so as even to 
reach the very heights ; then a 
great volume of fire and an 
immense cloud of smoke, so 
that the whole atmosphere was 
obscured, and the sun entirely 
hidden as if it were eclipsed. 
Night came out of day and 
darkness out of light : some 
thought that the giants had 
revolted (for many likenesses of 
these too were at that time dis- 
cerned in the smoke, and more- 
over a sort of sound of trumpets 
was also heard) : others that all the 
world was perishing in chaos or 
even in fire ; and on this account 
they fled, some from their houses 
into the streets, others from 
outside went inside ; others, in 

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dvayiv<tXTKy x^P' 5 v ^ KOvpd£y 
rovs 6<f>0aXpavs rov. Tt Trony- 
pa €?vai tovto; efyai 7T/o<ototv- 
7rov ^ p€rd<f>pa<ris ; 

their confusion, from the sea to 
the land and from that to the 
sea, thinking every place distant 
from them safer than the one 
near them : all this took place 
at the same time that an amount 
of ashes, impossible to describe, 
was blown about and took 
possession of all the land and 
the sea and the air and, amidst 
much other destruction of what- 
ever it came across, played havoc 
with men and countries and 
cattle, and destroyed the fish 
and all the birds ; and in ad- 
dition to this buried two entire 
cities, Herculaneum and Pom- 
peii, while the population of the 
latter were seated in the theatre ; 
for all the dust became so great 
in quantity, that part of it 
reached Africa and Syria and 
Egypt, and even arrived at Rome 
and filled the air above it, and 
obscured the sun, and here too 
great terror fell upon the people, 
who for many days neither 
knew nor could conjecture what 
had happened, but they also 
thought that everything was 
being turned upside down." 

An excellent description : but 
now I think it is time to return 
to our favourite readings : by 
good luck the lamps of the 
carriages give a bright light, 
and one can read without tiring 
one's eyes. What poem is this ? 
Is it original or a translation ? 

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Eivat fi,€Td<f}paxris tov "IIi- 
orov Troifiivos" tov Tovapivov 
ywofihrq ircpi Ta rkXrj rod IS' 
auovos vvb Mi\ar)X ^ovfJifiaKYj 


tricei to iarpucbv cVayycA/uia cv 
Bcverip kcu o-wcocer© </hAik(os 
/lera ra>v cVi^vcoraVttv cVi 
raiocip dvSpQv rrjs kiroxfjs tov 

€t\€ 0€ OTCV^V </>lAlW K<U /ACTflt 

tov Tovapivov. 'H fjL€rd<f}pturis 

avny av /cai cycivc wept to. tcAij 

tov IS' aiwvos, €&r)juxrL€vdr) 

o/ia>s Kara rb 1658 cv BcvcTip 

ws Aiyct o B/>ctos cv t# " NcocX- 

1 Xrjvucjj <f>iXoXoyCa n tov. To 

i Tapov dvriypa<f>ov eycivcv ck to>v 

I u $iAoAoy iKtov dvakcKTiav Za- 

kwOov" vrrb tov ' KpyuirtxTKO- 

tov ZolkvvOov N. Karpaftfj. 

! To ovofia tov 'Iwavvov Ba^r- 
Tarrov Tovapivov Kara rbv IS' 
*ai IZ' ai&va €\aip€ p&ydX-qv 
(jffjfjL-qv a7r<£oci£is 8c tovtov 
c?vai oVt 6 "IIiotos woi- 
fnyv w avrov TeccapaKOVTaKis 
irvTrtadrj fwvros €Ti tov o~vy- 
yoa^ccos. Tb v<f>os avrov cTvai 
yXa<f>vpbv Kal \apUv i iroXXaKis 
o/ia>s ai woiiyriKai avrov cikovcs 
8ev (fxtivovrai <f>vcriKaL Hrjfxepov 
oXiyurroi tcrcos avayivaxr/cowji 
to 7roL7)fxa tovto, cis ttAcio-tovs 
8c ov6c rb ovopxi avrov c?vdi y va>- 
orov. "As 8icA0o)/acv irp&rov 
rb 'IraAiK&v kci/acvov /cat /xcra 
Tavra avayivoxTKo/iev t^v /acto- 
<t>paxriv rov ' jxtOtp- 
prjv€vovT€S avrr)v kv Tavry Kara 
Ac£iv cis rb 'AyyXiKov, Sioti 

It is a translation of Guarini's 
Faithful Swain, which was made 
at about the end of the 1 6th 
century by Michael Summakes 
of Zante, who successfully prac- 
tised the profession of a phy- 
sician in Venice, and was con- 
nected by ties of friendship with 
the men of his day who were 
most distinguished for their 
learning, and was on terms of 
intimacy with Guarini. This 
translation, although it was made 
at about the end of the 1 6th cen- 
tury, was published in Venice in 
1 658, as Vretos states in his Neo- 
heUenic Literature. The copy 
I have here was made from 
the Literary Selections of Zante, 
by N. Catrame8, Archbishop of 

The name of Giovanni Bat- 
tista Guarini enjoyed great 
celebrity in the 16 th and 17 th 
centuries, and a proof of it is that 
his Faithful Swain was printed 
forty times while the author 
was yet living. His style is 
elegant and graceful, but his 
poetical similes often seem un- 
natural. In these days very 
few perhaps read this poem, 
and to most people even its 
name is unknown. Let us first 
go through the Italian text and 
after that we will read the 
translation of Summakes, ren- 
dering it at the same time 
word for word into English, 
for here it is not a question 
of the language of Guarini, 

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ivravda &v -irpoKtirat. v€pl rfjs but of that of the Greek trans- 
yktooxrqs rov Tovapivov, dXXa lator. 
vepl rvjs rov 'EAAqvos fiera- 



Silvio. Linco. 

Silvio. Ite voi, che chiudeste 

L' horribil fera, a dar P usato segno 

De la futura caccia. Ite svegliando 

Gli occhi col corno, e con la voce i cori. 

Se fa mai ne P Arcadia 

Pastor di Cintia, e de* suoi studi amico, 

Cui stimolasse il generoso petto 

Cura, o gloria di selve, 

Hoggi il mostri, e mi segua, 

La dove in picciol giro, 

Ma largo campo al valor nostfo, e chiuso 

Quel terribil Cinghiale ; 

Quel mostro di natura, e de le selve ; 

Quel si vasto, e si fiero, 

E per le piaghe altrui 

Si noto habitator de P Erimanto, 

Strage de le campagne, 

E terror de i bifolchi. Ite voi dunque, 

E non sol precorrete, 

Ma provocate ancora 

Co' 1 rauco suon la sonnachiosa Aurora. 

Noi, Linco, andiamo a venerar gli Dei, 

Con piu sicura scorta 

Seguirem poi la destinata caccia, 

" Chi ben comincia, ha la meta de P opra j 

Ne si comincia ben, se non dal Cielo." 

Linco. Lodo ben, Silvio, il venerar gli Dei ; 

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Ma il dar noia a coloro, 

Che son ministri de gli Dei, non lodo. 

Tutti dormono ancora 

I custodi del Tempio, i quai non hanno, 

Piu tempestivo, o lucido Orizonte 

De la cima del monte. 

Silvio. A te, che forse non se desto ancora, 
Par, ch* ogni cosa addormentata sia. 

IAnco. Silvio, Silvio, a che ti die natura 
Ne* piu begli anni tuoi 
Fior di belta si delicato, e vago, 
Se tu se tanto a calpestario intento ? 
Che s* havess' io cotesta tua si bella, 
E si fiorita guancia, 
Adio, selve, direi ; 
E seguendo altre fere, 
E la vita passando in festa, e 'n gioco, 
Farei la state a 1' ombra, e 1 verno al foco. 

Silvio. Cosi fatti consigli 
Non mi desti mai piu : come se hora 
Tanto da te diverso ! 

Linco. " Altri tempi, altre cure." 
Cosi certo farei se Silvio fussi 

Silvio. Ed io se fussi Linco ; 
Ma perche Silvio sono, 
Oprar da Silvio, e non da Linco M voglio. 

Linco. garzon folle : a che cercar lontana, 
E perigliosa fera, 
Se T hai via piu d* ogni altra, 
E vicina, e domestica, e sicura ? 

Silvio. Parli tu da dovero, o pur vanneggi ? 

Linco. Vaneggi tu, non io. 

Silvio. Ed e cosi vicina ? 

Linco. Quanto tu di te stesso. 

Silvio. In qual selva s' annida ? 

IAnco. La selva se tu, Silvio : 
E la fera crudel, che vi s' annida, 
E la tua feritate. 

Silvio. Com ben m' awisai, che 

IAnco. Una Ninfa si bella, e si ] 
Ma che dissi una Ninfa ? anzi una 

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Piii fresca, e piii vezzosa 

Di mattutina roea ; 

E piii molle, e piii Candida del cigno ; 

Per cui non e si degno 

Pastor hoggi tra noi, che non sospiri, 

E non sospiri in vano ; 

A te solo da gli huomini, e <Jal Cielo 

Destinata si serba, 

Ed hoggi tu, senza sospira, e pianti 

troppo indegnamente 

Qarzon aventuroso ! haver la puoi 

Ne le tue braccia, e tu la fuggi, Silvio : 

E tu la sprezzi ? e non dir6, che 1 core 

Habbia di fera, anzi di fero il petto 1 

Modern Greek Version of the above. 

Ilpaf ts irpwrq. — ^Krjvrj uyxony. 

2IABI02. AirKOS. 

SiX. * Aper etms, a£ioi /Scktkol, w&\€T€ <r<j>akio'fJL€vo 

To foPtpwraTO $€pio, to ttoAA' ayp«o/z€vo, 

Kat icarot to vvvvfiC /t*as 8uxr€T€ to o"t)\xa&i 

Tov Kvvrjyiov w&\€L vdpOy, kol Ka/JLer 1 okoi 6/xaSt 

To /Sovklvo va KTV/njOjfr rd 'fxarta va '^vttvmtovv, 

Kat Tats KapSials /t« Tats tjxavats Kafxert v* ay pvTrvrj<rovv. 

Kat av etv' k' €vpurK€Tai f$<xrKbs fi&ra 3 s ttjv 'ApKaSCa 

'Hov vavat <f>i\os ti}s 0€as #cat vd^Q irpoBv/jLia, 

K* hridvpq va So^wrry Kat dvSpeid va $€i£y, 

'2rj/A€pov as dpfMTttiOjj k' ifiev' as aKXavfrrjoy 

'E^l's TOV KVKkoV TOV <TT€v6v, 6lTO$V€ O*^KxAtO'/t€V0, 

Ma 's t^v 'Sucrjv /tas rrfv dvSpeidv ki/3d8t. irkarvfiaro, 

To dypwoTaTO $€pi,6, Vov yvibpurfikv' kyivi] 

'2 t^v 'JLpvpdvO* €To-i iroWa yid Tais £ty/tta?s Vov Stvct, 

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$>6/3os 9 Tpofxdpa r<av /3<ktku)v koI tQv (evyCr' ofid&i 15 

Tov Ka$€ kol/jlitov ^aXao'pbs koi Spocrtpov At/?o6*t. 

2v/>T€ irplv Ttjs dvaro\rjs to p&pos va poSury 

Tov KOi/JLurficv' avyepivbv KapxTf. va 'gvirvury 

M« -rijs Ppfixrfs T0 ^ fiovKivov AaAtas yia, va, <nrov8d£'Q 

To <fxos r's rffikpas yprqyopa 's tov koct/xo va X a P°4V' 2° 

*M«ts, AiyK€, as irr}yaiv<ap,€v irp&rov €ts tovs Oeovs /xas, 

Net tovs hrpoa-Kwrja-uy/JLCV k €\u)p€v fiorjOovs pas. 

'Attokcis OtXopev 8ia/3rj oAot /*as *s to Kwrjyi' 

'Q&rjyrjfievoi l£ avrovs eireira 's &pa 'Xiyrj. r , t 

"Oirotos dp\i(€i [i€ Kakbv €ts rrjv vwqpeo-tdv tov 25 .| I 

'Mirop€t va 'irjj '/Atcrd^Ttacm/v iraJs fyet t^v SovAaav tov. \[ 

Mrjr€ icavcts 0€v eipiropct irork /caAa v' dp\ury 9 

*Av 8cv fyjTrjoy Tovpavov opurphs va tov j3orj$i^rQ. 

Ai^k. 'llama va Tra/AC 's tovs 0«>vs yta va irpoo-€v\TqdovpL€V 

Mot avrovs Vov tovs XaTpeuowri va tovs j3apvyofiov/x€v 80 

Aev to Vatvto, ov8c irpeirbv €?vat, ytaTt #cot/xovvrat 

Tovrrjv Trjv <apav o'Aot tovs, ic'i ov&€ iroo~a>s '^wvovvrat 

Ilapa t^v <bpav fJLova\a oirov '^vrrvovViv o$Aa, 

K't oVav tov rjXiov ftXeirovo-iv €ts tov /Jovvov t^v tovoAo. 

SiX. TiaT* (as 0(apQ \ Ta 7***™* crov jcac?a>s «rv vvorafcis, 85 

To 7ra>s oAa Tot irpdy/JLOLTa #cot/xovvrat Aoyapta^cts. 

A*yk. *I2 2tA/?te, 2tA/?t€ /aov, ytaTt *s tovs x/ e>< ' V0V5 tov $ 

'8t#covs crov 
Tovs Tpv<f>€povs ttjs vqorqs crov iccts tovs 7roAAa yAvicovs crov 
Na /3aAr/ too*' eirt/ucActa t»}s iponias rj ^vcrt, 
2 to 7rpocrciwro too*' €vpLop<f>ta va 0c' va crov xapury, 40 

'Av^v icai crv /*€ irpoBv/jua \afxov *s t^v yijv t^v pi\v€ts, 
K't d\dpurros T€toiov kolXov 's tov Koarpjov oXov Sct^^*? ; 
flX ^ ' *'* ^5 ^^cA' Ix* cyw avTvvo t' dvQurpkvov 
To irpoVowrov crov rco/JLOp<fx) to poSoirXov/JLurpcvov I 
H&Aa Vet /A€ t^v KapSidvy u 'ycta eras d<j>iv<a Sdxrr), 45 

Kwijyia o~vpT€ *s to /caAo, icai eras aAAos as iridxry" 
K't aAAa c^c/ota. ' fwp<fyirJT€pa iJ&Aa irpoairaOrjo-g 
'2 ra St^Tva ftov vet '/iirepScvrovVy k\ av T^x a KVWIYfoy 
Ilacra Koupbv ^€<f>dvT(txriv p* oavr' iJc^cAa 'iraipvto, 
Kat tov ytipJava *s t^v ifxariav kolXyj ({arj vol <fxpva), 50 

^ tovs «rictovs iraAc twv Scvfywv, oAov to KaXoKaipc, 
Aoocrtats icai V€pi8id/3ao , ais vovpvb Kat pxcrqpkpi. 
2*X. AiyK€ y 8cv pov8<j)K€$ work Terotats fiovXats itotc crov, 
Kat rcapa irws aAAa^acrt 2) yvw/iats ^ 'StKats crov / 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 


Ai*yic. "AAAot Kaipol aAAats ytvvovv (iovXats k lyvotats 
dvrdfit, 55 

M* dv rjfiow 2tA/)tos cya>, Vdv crofora 'tfeAa #cd/A€t. 
2iX. Atyicos ay rjfjiovv #cat cyw, *T\a ,0 ~dv *' ccrcva, 

Kai Ka.T€\€ TO Tb AoMTOV T* €YO> Vo<£aO~tOyA€VO, 

'2av 2iA/3tos vol Kv/Scpvy/OiOy #c t <os Atyicos va piqv k<£v<d 
K't ws 2t'A/?to$ ot€k<o oraOtpos <5ot€ Vov v' diroOdvct*. 60 

Ai^ic KoircAAt ttcAcAov, ytaTt toVov iroAAd yvpcvcts 
Septa ^ toVov #ctV6vvov 's ret Sewn/ va fovevys, 

'Av€V K* €VpUTK€TCU CTifMO. *S CO"€ TOV tStOV CVtt 

0€/ot* aypto K't dvrjjJLtpo wapa Oeptb icaveva / 
SiX. To Aeycts, Atyic', dAi/0tvd, ^ Ta^a /Kcr/udfcis ; 65 

Ai*yK. Iltcrr*^' a\r)$€ia Acya> o~ou, act o~u 8cv to Vcuca^cts. 
SiX. 'lies /aov t' ay i}v' enrt o-t/*d, va $7077$ airaTOS (rov. 
Aiyic. Efvat #covra ws eKrat cv ctua 's tov l/xavrov <rov. 

SlX. '2 TTOtOV 6\mTOS €?Vat &t£€ /AOV 7TOV Vat KaTOlKtJfJL€VOV. 

Avyic. 2t'A/?t€, to oao-os cSra* o~v, 'icetvo t' dypufikvov 70 

0cpto cfrat rj ao^rAay^vta #c' 17 dwovta cr' 17 TrA^a-ta. 

SiX. IlaJs /^ ycAps #cat Tracts /*€, to Adytao*a 7T€pLcrcriou 

AiyK. Mtd ko/37/ too-' cvyevtici/, vcpdtoa irkovpLurfievrj^ 

"Avrts 'fiiropta va ttjv eiww Ota ^apLnapAvq^ 

Mta Avycpi) wov 7rA€tOT€pov irapa to X tov ' doTrptfet, 75 

K't cwrd to po6W t^s avyijs irActo tov opoo-ouvptfet, 

Tia ttjv OTrotav &V cfv' icavcts fiocrKos 's t^v 'ApicaStav 

Too-' d£to? #c' cvyevticos va ui)v /3acrT$ /capStdv 

Mavprjv /cat irA^ta <f>koy€pr)V /cat va p.rj Sky OprjvaTOLt, 

N' dvaorcvdffl T0 o~vx vo f 1 ^ St^ws va '<j>e\aTaiy 80 

Kat fiovov €is «T€vav€ vSvat /xcAct^/xcvt;, 

K't o^ tov 0cov yvvaiKa cov 's tov ovpavbv ypayLpAvrj^ 

Kat ot5, icoTrlAAt ttcAcAov, dva^to TCTOtas \dpis 9 

H€pi<l>pov€LS, 8kv rrjs ^i<f>^Sy 6cv ^cActs va t^v irdpys. 

IIws ^cActs va a^ 8€v €t7rovv 7rws /cdpoY dyptcouevov 85 

0€ptOV /3aOT$S ft€ 0"K€7TaO~tV VoS 0*Tl}^OVS O"tO€/0€VtOV / 

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English Translation of the modern G-reek Version. 

Act I. — Scene I. 

Silviw. Linens. 

SUvius. Go, you worthy shepherds, who have shut in 

the most fearful wild beast and most savage, 

and according to our custom give the signal 

for the hunt that is to come, and all together make 

the horn to sound, and eyes to wake from sleep, 5 

and the hearts with your shouts make to keep on the alert. 

And if there is and can be found a shepherd in Arcadia 

who may be a friend of the goddess and have zeal, 

and desires to be made glorious and display his courage, 

this day let him arm and follow me 10 

there into the narrow circle where is enclosed, 

(but for our valour a wide meadow,) 

the most savage beast who has become notorious 

on Erymanthos so greatly by the damage that he does, 

the fear and dread of the shepherds, and the ploughmen too, 15 

the destruction of every field and dewy meadow. 

Go before the eastern quarter puts on a rosy hue, 

awake the drowsy morning star, 

with the hoarse voice of the horn, that she may hurry 

the light of day quickly to dawn upon the world. 20 

We, Lincus, let us first go to our gods, 

to adore them and have them for our allies. 

From there we will go, all of us, to the hunt, 

conducted by them, after a little while. 

He who begins with a pious act his business 25 

can say that he has his work half-done ; 

nor can any one ever make a good beginning, 

unless he first begs Heaven to help him. 

Lincus. I approve that we should go to the Gods to pray to 

them ; 
but that we should annoy those who serve them 30 


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I do not approve, neither is it seemly, for they are asleep 
at this hour, all of them, and do not awake at all 
except only at that hour when all things wake, 
and when they see the sun on the crest of the hill. 
Silvius. Because, as I see from your eyes, you are sleepy, 35 
you conclude that all things are asleep. 
Lincus. O Silvius, my Silvius, why, at your years, 
in the tender, very sweet years of your youth, 
should nature take such care of your attractiveness 
to wish to bestow on you so much beauty in your face, 40 
if you with readiness throw it down upon the ground, 
and show yourself to all the world ungrateful for such a boon ? 
Ah ! would that I had in all its bloom 
your lovely face adorned with roses ! 

I would say with all my heart : " Woods, I bid you farewell ! 45 
Game, go where you will, and let some one else catch you." 
And I would attempt other more beautiful animals of the chase 
to entangle in my nets, and, if I had caught them, 
all the time I would make revel with them, 
and in the winter by the fire I would lead a happy life, 50 
and in the shade of the trees again all the summer 
in coolness and pleasant walks, at morning and midday. 
Silvius. Lincus, you never before gave me such advice, 
and now how your ideas have changed ! 
Lincus. Other times bring other counsels, and also other cares, 65 
but had I been Silvius, I should have done as I told yon. 
Silvius. And had I been Lincus, I should have done as you, 
and know this then, what I have decided, 
to conduct myself as Silvius, and not to do as Lincus, 
and as Silvius I stand firm till I die. 60 

Lincus. Foolish youth, why do you want to kill 
so many wild beasts in the woods with so much danger, 
while there is quite close to yourself one 
wild beast, savage and untamed, beyond any beast 1 
Silvius. Do you mean what you say, Lincus, in truth, or are 
you joking ? 65 

Lincus. Believe me, I speak the truth, but you do not guess 

my meaning. 
Silvius. Tell me if it is so near, please do (lit. that you your- 
self may live long). 
Lincus. It is close by, as near as you are to yourself. 

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Silvius. Show me in what forest it is, where it lives. 
Lincus. Silvius, you are the forest, that savage '70 

beast is your inhumanity and your great cruelty. 
Silvius. I understand very well that you are laughing at me 

and joking with me. 
IAncus. A maiden so noble, a nymph adorned with many charms 
whom surely I may call a graceful goddess, 
a dear girl who is whiter than the snow, 75 

and has a fresh perfume more than the rose of the morning, 
for whom not a single shepherd in Arcadia 
is so worthy and so noble that he should not carry a heart 
distressed and all in flames, and should not weep, 
and sigh continually, without it helping him, 80 

and she is intended to be only for you, 
and by God inscribed in heaven as your wife, 
and you, foolish youth, unworthy of such favour, 
despise, care nothing for her, and do not wish to take her. 
How do you want people not to say you carry 85 

under the cover of an iron breast the heart of a wild beast ? 

Taura vofiiija apKovvw €K t^s 
fUTa<f>pdar€(as tov a TLuttov 
HoifLevos" rjris /*>€$' o\o)V twv 
cAarrw/iaTcuv avrrjs cfvat d£io- 
AoycaraTov yAaKnri/cov Seiy/ia 
tov IS' atwvos. 2KaA.araT€ 
Tupa va €vpr)T€ t more d£iavd- 
yvwrrov dvrJKOv els ttjv IZ' l/ca- 


"Ex* *" dirocnracr/JLa i/c rrjs 
u 'YrjTopucfjs " <&payKUTKov 

(£c86$ri TO 7T/H0TOV CV BcVCT^t 

vofiifr) Kara rb Itos 1 68 1, /ecu 
8vo €K twv SiSax&v 'HAiov 
M^vtarov tov €K Kec/xiAAr/vias. 

At SlSaX^U TOV 7T€pl(l>rjfJLOV 
tovtov prqTOpos €TV7Tto6r]0-aV 
voXXaKis' dpCorrf o/JLios 7rao~a>v 
twv ZkSoo-cwv eTvai f) yevo/JLtvr] 
Kara to eros 1849 V7ro 'Av^t/xov 

I think that is enough of the 
translation of The Faithful 
Swain, which, with all its 
defects, is an excellent specimen 
of the language of the 16th 
century. Now make a search 
and find something worth read- 
ing which belongs to the 1 7th 

I have an extract from the 
Rhetoric of Francisco Scouphos 
of Crete, which was first pub- 
lished in Venice, I think in 
1681, and two from the sermons 
of Elias Meniates of Cephallonia. 
The sermons of this celebrated 
orator have often been printed ; 
but the best of all the editions 
is the one brought out in 1849 
by Anthimus Mazarakes. It is 
from this edition that I have 

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tov ay tov * #ccu avKappiav <f>opdv 
oXiyov <f)OvcTK<ap€Vov vwcpr]- 
<f>avcv€T0 9 to cicavc povov Siarl 

copied the extracts in my note- 
book. Both these men were 
highly educated, knowing Latin 
and Italian in addition to Greek ; 
and they wrote in the Greek 
language spoken at that time, so 
that their writings might be in- 
telligible to every one. The 
following extract is from the 
Rhetoric of Scouphos : it relates 
to St. Nicholas when he was 
making a sea-voyage ; but, that 
you may thoroughly understand 
its contents, I must tell you that 
this miracle-working saint holds 
among the Greeks of the present 
day the same place as Neptune 
held among the ancients, that is 
to say, that he is lord of the sea, 
so that in the hour of danger 
sailors address more prayers to 
him than to God, the creator of 
the universe. See with what 
grace and eloquence Scouphos 
describes the calm at sea and 
the frightful tempest that suc- 
ceeded it 

" The sky was serene, the air 
smiled without a cloud, the 
zephyr blew gentle and friendly, 
not a wave was heaving, no 
foam was to be seen, and the 
whole ocean in humility dis- 
played the reverence which it 
felt for the saint ; and if now 
and then by heaving a little it 
showed its pride, it did so only 

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because it carried on its shoulders 
such a hero. But though there 
was calm upon the sea, there 
was turmoil and riot down in 
hell ; and though the waves were 
sporting round a ship, down in 
the caverns the demons and all 
the Satanic Cyclopes who live in 
that abyss were foaming with 
rage. * And what shall we do V 
said Lucifer : ' What determina- 
tion shall we come to, my com- 
rades? Shall we let Nicholas 
have a prosperous voyage and 
arrive safely at the harbour of 
his wish, the port of Jerusalem 1 
I want him on his road to lose 
his way, without hope of reach- 
ing any other haven than ship- 
wreck and destruction. In every 
current I will open chasms, but 
so deep, that all will fall into 
them only from giddiness ; and 
in the clouds I will create 
thunder, lightning, and such 
rain that I shall make another 
sea to sink him, if one is not 
enough, at least the two to- 
gether. ' 

Thus spoke Lucifer, breathing 
smoke and flames from his 
mouth : and in a moment the 
sky is obscured with all the 
darkness of hell, which carrying 
away the light and the sun, 
wraps the brilliant day in one 
entire midnight : dense black 
clouds collect, whose entrails 

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the lightning -flashes and the 
thunderbolts rending asunder, 
blind the eyes of every one 
with their glare, and with their 
crash terrify every brave heart, 
as when these, striking him with 
their magic arrows of death, 
change a whole man into a 
cinder : there fall showers of 
rain, enough to drown a world, 
not merely to sink a ship, and 
these, in the midst of such 
thunder and such lightning, 
chilled with fear reach the 
ground in the form of snow or 
hail : from every quarter wild 
winds are blowing, all hostile 
and opposed to each other, and 
only friendly and united in the 
sole intent to sink the ship and 
plunge it down into the depths. 
At last the sea too swells, and 
in swelling becomes enraged : 
foams with passion and in foam- 
ing lifts up gigantic waves : with 
these as with engines of war it 
attacks the vessel, strikes it, 
lashes it, raises it up to the 
stars, lowers it down to hell, 
twists it round, incessantly gap- 
ing and opening thousands of 
chasms to ingulf it ; and then 
you might have heard the masts 
crash against each other : yon 
might have seen the sails torn 
by the wind and, soaked with the 
spray of the savage sea, weep- 

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ing over the common calamity, 
the cables cut, the anchors lost, 
the waves swallowing some of the 
men and disgorging them again, 
some struck down and dazed with 
giddiness, others with groans 
and tears beseeching help from 
heaven, for fear had tied their 
tongues, and robbed them of all 
power of speech : the sailors 
quivering as much in their hearts 
as in their feet, and bearing death 
pictured on their faces. Alone 
Nicholas, for whom arose all this 
turmoil of the elements, in the 
midst of all this terror and con- 
sternation, stood fearless and un- 
daunted, for, armed with hope in 
God, he laughed at all the powers 
of hell, and to enrage it still 
more, the saint humbly raises his 
hands and utters a short but 
fervent prayer, and with this, as 
with a divine spell, disperses its 
darkness, scatters its clouds, 
extinguishes its lightning, and 
changes the storm into a calm, 
the riot into peace, the cruel 
wind into a gentle breeze : the 
elements are silent, the waves 
cease, the zephyrs blow, the 
stars glitter in the sky, every 
one wipes away his tears, another 
recovers from his dizziness, and 
the ship, which was given up 
for lost, comes safe and unharmed 
into port, victorious over two 

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*As ycivj/ Aowrov a>s XcycTc. 

huge monsters, the sea and 

Scouphos, although he wrote 
in the vulgar tongue, must be 
acknowledged to have succeeded 
in imparting to his language no 
little grace and elegance ; and 
as he had been educated in 
Italy there is nothing strange 
in his style having a season- 
ing of rhetorical phrases and 
forms derived from Italian 

Such also is the style of 
Meniates, for he too was edu- 
cated in Italy. At that time 
the Greek nation was groaning 
under a heavy yoke of slavery, 
and if any one wanted to receive 
a superior education, he went to 
Italy where hundreds of Greeks 
were receiving instruction. 
Would you like me now to read 
to you the two extracts from the 
sermons of Meniates 1 

Do not go to this trouble 
this evening, for it is late : I 
see too that the light of the 
lamps has become dim, so let 
us rest now a little, and in the 
morning we shall read with a 
fresh appetite not only these but 
others also, for, from what I 
see, the extracts in your note- 
book are inexhaustible. 

Be it as you say. 

'EykpdrjTc, <f>lk€, kykpdr)T€ v Wake up, my friend, wake 

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ra/oaKaAca vd /tot to c£r)yrjoir)T€. 

up, to inhale the fragrant morn- 
ing-breeze which revives the 
body and fills the heart with 
inexpressible delight ! The sun 
has not yet risen, but the birds 
have already left their nests and 
are chirping pleasantly as they 
fly about. 

You have awakened me very 
poetically from sleep, and I 
return you very many thanks. 
It is really a most lovely morn- 
ing. At this period of the year 
in England the east winds freeze 
and parch everything, while here 
true spring prevails. 

Listen to a pretty verse by 
Zalocostas, who very gracefully 
describes the month of April in 
Greece : 

" It is April : around us 
the swallows are flying, 
and flowers and leaves and 
boughs all shed their fragrance : 
the nightingales warble sweetly 
and the partridge takes its mate 
and the cuckoos are singing." 

Although cuckoos do not sing 
but cry "cuckoo," I must con- 
fess that this stanza of Zalo- 
costas* is pretty and suited to 
the occasion ; but how the 
descendants of the old classic 
KOKKvyes changed their name 
and in Greece are now called 
kovkkoi, I do not understand, 
and beg you to explain to me. 

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If I attempt to explain to you 
how coccyx became couccos I 
shall call up the question of 
the pronunciation of the Greek 
letters ; to avoid this then, let 
me read to you a passage from 
the very witty poem of Theo- 
dore Orphanides, which is called 
Tiri-Liri, and has for its sub- 
ject a cuckoo which has become 
famous in modern Greek litera- 
ture : I am sure it will please 
you, for the poet, while making 
fun of the endless disputes about 
little words among silly pedants, 
very cleverly explains how coccyx 
becomes couccos. ' Here is the 
extract : 

"You bad tailors of phrases and 
builders of sentences 
and nailers of colons, you sweep- 
ings of the streets, 
did the coccyx turn to an ass or 
a pig 

like you, if it changed into a 
couccos harmlessly and readily ? 
Did it alter its form, its feet and 
its feathers, 
its beak, its colour or its song ? 

But is it because you want to 
learn how it became couccos 
that you rage over it and stutter 
and splutter disgracefully ? 
That you may dismiss, you 
wretched pedant, your erroneous 

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crvvtTa (rov p,krpa 

*Ev8c;(€tcu va ycivaxri piKpa 

o~Kav8d\.ov irkrpa, 

Na o-vvra/oa£ftxri to irav va 

evpys Trap !A.7rt6a 

'Am irrrjvov cAc^avTa /j ovpav 

Kal wpo/So&KiSa, 

E?vcu <f>povipov tSlOV /i€ TTJV 

K07ri8a 7raXtv, 

T^v K€(f>a\r]v Kal rrjv ovpav va 

KOipys rrjv pLcydXrjv 

Tov TTtXtopiOV TOVTOV £v, VOL 

TpexfqjS Sc to pkvov 

Mepos €ts ciypa tcAikov orpoy- 


Htoi to £v Kadb SiirXovv, to 

Kamra ^avci povov 

Awa/xct ' AttootoXikijv ypapr 

/xaTtKWV Kavdvwv, 

M17 vvyx<apovvTij)v iva /*>) 

mjydcrQ K<XKrj c£is, 

take a wedge in your hands, a 
chopper and a mattock : 
drive with the wedge into the 
first syllable 

of coccyx an y-psilon : coccyx with 

will become couccyx : take away 
again with the chopper 
the y-psilon of the last syllable, 
and with great skill 
wedge into its place an o-micron ; 
then will 

coccyx become couccox, in perfect 
love and peacefulness : 
without losing time turn your 

against the xi ; but since its 
balls, with all 

your precautions and wise meas- 
ures in every respect, 
are capable of becoming small 
rocks of offence 

to upset everything, so that you 
may unexpectedly find 
instead of a bird an elephant 
with a tail and a trunk, 
it is the part of a prudent man 
with the chopper again 
to cut off the head and the big 

of this monstrous xi, so that you 
may turn the remaining 
part into a round-curved final 
sigma : 

that is to say, as xi is a com- 
pound letter it loses only the 
cappa by force of Apostolical 
grammatical rules, 
which do not allow the evil 
custom to arise 

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Na 1\-q Kownra reaxrapa SurvX- 
Xaflos rts Aifis. 

'ISov €X$pol T<av yv(o<r€<i>v } ISov 
fte icolov rpoirov 

'O kokkv£, kovkkos ytVCTCU 
X<apls peydXov icoirov, 

Xuyph 7ro\€fiovs Kparepovs, 
\<apls poas at/xdrwv, 

*H k rj d£i07rp€ir(ia va ird&y 
twv ypa/jL/jLaTtoV. 

E&ye / Mera, 7roXXrjs t<£ ovrt 
^uXov/yyiK^s T€^vrys #cat Sc^io- 

T^TOS fM€T€pAp<f>UXr€V 6 ITOll/TT/S 

tov KOKKvya els kovkkov, *Av 
ayairarc as dvayvdxru)/JLev napa 
rot Suo airooTrdxrpjara c#c tQv 6V 
Sa^wv tov Miyvtarov. 

'I6oi> to irp&rov. 

"JUpopatvei dwo ttjv Xapwpav 
TrvXrjv rrjs iapaiordrrfs dvaroXrjs 

€KeiVl] lj \€VKOfXOp<f>0$ fJLTJVVTpia 

rod rjXlov, i) po8o8aKTvXos y 
Xey<o, Kal <f>aeo-<f>6pos avyrj. 
Kai evOvs oirov dpyurQ «s to 
dpyvpo\pv<ro(rvv6€TOv irpoo-<&- 
irov tov ovpavov va fwyocN^tfz? 
tov kpyopjbv tov £av$ov 'AttoX- 
Xtovos, totc Br) tot€ 6 iroXv- 
fjLOp<f>os x°P° s ™ v dxrrkpw 
o"irovBd£ei to oyX-qyopwrepov va 
<f>vyy. 'A<£avtf€T<u 7ravreX(as 

T7JS 0-KOT€lVYJS VVKTOS TO £6<^>€0(O- 

rarov ctkotos. *H aowraros 
Kal KepaTioBrjs o-eXrjvr), fir) vrro- 
<j>€povca reroiav dyXaopx)p<j>ov 
Xdp.\pW) oXyj dirb ttjv evrpoirqv 
rrjs 0"#c€7raf€T<u. 'J&vappjovios 
povcriKY) p,e to, fxtXipSiKa opyava 
8ia<f>6pb)v 7TTrjv<i)v orvvOep.evrj els 
ra xpwroirpdo- iva Bdxrq ypot/ca- 

of any word of two syllables 
having four cappa-a. 
Behold, you enemies of know- 
ledge, behold in what fashion 
coccyx becomes cvticcos without 
great labour, 

without long- continued wars, 
without streams of blood, 
or the respectability of letters 
suffering any loss." 

Bravo ! Really with great 
skill and dexterity in carpentry 
the poet changed coccyx into 
C0UCC08. If you like, let us 
now read the two extracts from 
the sermons of Meniates. 

Here is the first one. 

" From the bright gate of the 
beautiful East comes forth the 
fair herald of the sun, I mean 
the rosy -fingered and light- 
bearing dawn. And as soon as 
she begins to paint upon the 
gold-and-silver face of heaven 
the coming of the fair-haired 
Apollo, it is then that. the troop 
of stars of many forms hurries 
with all speed to take its flight 
The murky darkness of the 
gloomy night is entirely dis- 
pelled. The fickle and horned 
moon, unable to bear so bright 
a light, completely covers herself 
through her bashfulness. Har- 
monious music composed of the 
melodious voices of the various 
birds is heard in the gold-green 
woods. Human beings, who 
have been immersed in deep 

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rat. 01 avdpbnroi, /3vdicrfj,€voi 
cis ftadvrarov wvov, eycioovTai 
cis 8ia<f>6povs cVayycAias, kclI 
t«Aos, ws xapikcTTaros firjvvrrjs 

CIS 0A0V TOV T€Tpa7T€paTOV K6<7- 

fwv cvayycAicVrai • <s I8ov ^ 
ij/xcpa ^yyiicev, i&ov igeka/iif/e.' 

Tctomis Aoyi}s, tt)v oifjfiepov 
rjfiepav, wpofiaivti otto €K€tvrjv 
ttjv rjX.iocrrdkaKTOV Trvkrjv tov 
ovpavov 6 dy\.aoirvpo-6fwp<f>os 
rov 0€ov 3 Ap\dyy€kos y 6 Aa/A- 
irpos, Aeyco, kcu Kadapbs 

TaPplYjX, KCU €V$VS 07TOV /X€ 

tov \aip€rurpu6v y c X a ^P € ^€- 
\apiT<i)fjL€vr) 6 Kvpiof fiera 
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yaxrrepa ttjs 0€O7rcu6os Maptafx 
tov ipxofwv tov dSvrov TYJS 
Bucauxrvvrjs* HAiov, tot€ dpyifa 
to 6y\rjyop(oT€pov vd favyy fj 
avriOtos iroXvOtta tcov SoAitov 
ei6\t)A(ov. 'A<£avi£ovTcu irav- 
tcAws tov iraXaiov vofiov tol 
CTKOTcivoTara o-vjJifio Aa. C H 
aoTxrraTos xopsia twv airiorcov, 
/mj viro<t>€povo-a to T^Aavycora- 
tov r^s dXrjdeCas <£<os, icpvirTti 
/t€ tjjv criawr*)v to do-cjSccrraTov 
nyxxrowrov. Td (TTo/AaTa tgjv 
tepcuv 8i8ao"#caAa>v 8cv 7rai5oixri 
to KekdSrjfia /xias dfcaTcwraixrroi; 
oo£oAoyias. To yevos, /SvOiafie- 
vov €ts tov vttvov ttjs ay vcxrias, 

ty€ip€Tai CIS T»)v XpUTTtoWfJLOV 

ToXiT€iav ttjs 6p0o86£ov 7rio-- 

TCIOS* Kal TcAo$ /AC T>)v 0CO7TVCV- 

otov o^aATTtyya cvos \apuord- 
tov cvayycAtcr/iov, cis tov #c<xr- 
/xov oAov cuayycAifovrai • * 'Ioov 
(rvAAi}^|; cv yaoTpi.' " 

sleep, awake to their different 
pursuits, and at last, like a most 
gracipus herald, she proclaims 
the glad tidings to the four- 
quartered world : ' Behold the 
day is at hand, behold, the light 
has come.' 

In the same manner on this 
very day there comes forth from 
that sun-stalactite gate of heaven 
the bright-flaming archangel of 
God, I mean the lustrous and 
pure Gabriel, and as soon as, 
with the greeting * Hail ! thou 
that art highly favoured, the 
Lord is with thee,' he marks on 
the chaste bosom of the God- 
bearing Mary the coming of the 
never-setting Sun of Righteous- 
ness, then the sacrilegious poly- 
theism of the deceitful idols 
begins with all speed to take to 
flight. The dark symbols of 
the old law completely disappear. 
The fickle band of infidels, 
unable to bear the far-shining 
light of truth, in silence hides 
its impious face. The mouths 
of the sacred teachers never 
cease to sing one endless song of 
praise to God. Our race, sunk 
in the sleep of ignorance, wakes 
up to join the community which 
holds the orthodox faith and takes 
its name from Christ ; and at last, 
by the trumpet sounded from 
heaven, giving a most gracious 
message of welcome news, to all 
the world are announced the 
glad tidings : * Behold thou shalt 
conceive in thy womb. 

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To Sevrepov awooTrao'fJui «ri- 
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" t, Yif/urr€ iraft/fouriAev t<Sv 
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t8tOS, *K/5aT6rs TOV $8oV TOt 

jcAci&'a, 80s fie ra ttjv &pav 
Tavrrjv va dvoi£co rrjv £o<f>epav 

€K€IV1]V <f>v\aKlflVy OTTOV etvai 

aTTO<f>axrur)j*voi, els cucovtov 
Sdvarov ol irapaftaTai t<Sv 
cvtoAcov o-ov. 'Eyu» o^v €X<«> 
yvwfirjv va <£€pu> r) /3d\<ra/wv 
els Tas TrAryyds tovs, ?} vepbv 
els Tas </>Aoyas tovs, ox** ftovov 
0€Aco vet €pwrrj<r<o fiiav dirb 
€K€ivas Tas 8voTvxto-/x€vas 
\frv\ds #cai va tt/s ciVto* Bao-- 
avurpjevq faxr), dtrdyyeikov fwi 
ri eiroirjcras. Ti €Ka/4€S /cal 
/3a<ravi£e(rai enri <f>o/3epd; Ti 
hrraures #cal KoAafco-at erort 
a ico via ; Tt o~€ r^^epev €is tocov 

OTKOTOS; Tl 0"€ eppixj/ev CtS 

TCTOtav #cd/uvov ; Tt evoi-qcras ; 
Tiirores aAAo 7ra/oa 7ra>s yewd- 
/xevos eyevo-dfxrjv fie\t (Spa^y* 
fita yeva-ts /uas ony/A?/s eTvat 
oAov to TTTatVt/xov ftov, /xa 
€6 vat Kat oA^ ?J d<f>opfirj twv 
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rkpif/iS) o7rov khoKipuaxra els 
KpaiTrdkrjv kcu pxOrjv, els rpa- 

7T€fta KCU XppOVS, €tS ^Cc/mXVTOKTCS 

/cat xapaiSy els TraiyviSia #cai 
Scarpa, ttoctt) fjrov; /xeAi f3pa\v. 
C H X a /°* o^rov e\a/3a orav 
€KOLflOL €K€lVr)V ttjv €/c8iKiyo~tv, 
oTav €ioa tov irXrjcriov ttjv 
8ixTTux*av, #cai €KaTr)y6pt]<ra t^v 
Tipn\v Slol vol ev\apumj(r(o to 

Allow me to read the other 
extract myself. 

With pleasure. 

"Most High, Supreme Lord 
of Eternity, who according to 
Thine own word holdest the 
keys of hell, give them to me at 
this hour, that I may open 
that gloomy prison where those 
who transgress Thy commands 
are condemned to eternal death. 
I have no thought to carry 
balm to their wounds, or water 
to their flames : no, I only wish 
to put a question to one of those 
wretched souls and say to it: 
'Soul in torture, tell me what 
thou didst What didst thou do 
to suffer such fearful torments ? 
What sin didst thou commit, and 
art thus punished for eternity ? 
What brought thee into such 
darkness ? What cast thee into 
such a furnace? What didst thou 
do?' — *I did nothing else but 
taste, just taste, a little drop of 
honey : one taste for one 
moment is all my sin, yet it is 
the whole source of my tor- 
ments. — That pleasure which I 
experienced in revelry and 
drunkenness, in feasts and 
dances, in amusements and 
pleasures, in sports and theatres : 
— what was it ? — A little drop 
of honey. The joy I felt when 
I took that revenge, when I 
saw my neighbour's distress and 
attacked his honour to gratify 
my evil passions and my envy : 
— what was it ? — A little drop 

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irddos fwv Kal tov <f>66vov p.ov, 
iroorrj t)tov ; plkki fipayy. Ma 
€K€iva ra K€p8rj oirov cicavcv r) 
<j>iX.dpyvpos pov iiridvpia^ 8ia 
ttjv oiroiav kjSdpvva tyjv ovv- 
el&rjO'iv pk to <f>oprtov diretpwv 
aSiKLwv Kal irpayfxdriav irapa- 
vofuov, 7ro<rrj y)tov; pkXi /3pa\v. 
at €K€ivrj r) oo£a, r) ti/a*), r) 
dvdiravo~is oirov i\dprjKa els 
c^owtas, els d^tw/xaTa, €ts 
irAovny, fxe ro\rqv vireprjcfadveLav, 
tt€ toot/v dirwXeiav, p.e toVov 
oXCyov <f>6/3ov €IS tov 0cdv, 
7rooTy tJtov ; p.kXi f$pa\v. *0 Aa, 
oAa j/iAi /Spa^y, Kal eKeivo 

<jXLpfiaK€VfJL€VOV /A€ TOO"OVS Ko- 
irovs, /*€ ToVas </)/0OVTt8aS, /*€ 
toVovs </x>/?ovs, /ac Tooras ao-0€- 
vctas. . . . "12ofcft€, TOVTO cv0u- 
fwvfxai Kal ooKifjidfo /uav 
| <£Aoya, o7rov /xou f3ao~avi(et tyjv 
kvdvp.rjo-iv, p,eyaXyTkpav dirb 

€K€tV7fV OITOV jJLOV KdUl TO oQipa, 

Mia? o-Ti.yp.rjs dpaprriav €#ca/xa 
icai KoXaigopai cucovia / "Ax / 
KaTqpapAvov pkXi irpoo-Kaipwv 
tjSovwv I co*v /aov €wrai cfxippaKL 
atwvicov /3aodv<ov ! Ziarj irepao- 
pkvr\ irpoo"(t)piV7J ! kerb puov €i<rai 
dfoppr) dTeXevrrjrov KoXdxreias! 
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Acyw PpayyTaTqv ; kov p,ov 
korddrjs paKpd, Kal iroXXa 
paKpa 8ta t^v orbirrjplav pov, 
"Efiio-a too-ovs x/°^ voi;s kirdvia 
els ttjv yrjv, Kal €?x a € * s T ^ 
\kpid pjov ra jcAetoYa tov 
TlapaSeCo-ov. *H£evpa 7ra>$ elvat 
KoXaxris 8ia €va afta/orcoAov 
wrav kpk* r)£evpa ri va Kapo) 

of honey. But those gains 
which my covetous desires 
brought me, through which I 
weighed down my conscience 
with the burthen of endless 
wrong and injustice : — what 
was it ? — A little drop of honey. 
And the glory, the honour, the 
luxury I enjoyed in power and 
authority and wealth, with such 
arrogance and such profligacy, 
with so little fear of God : — 
what was it ? — A little drop of 
honey. All of it, all of it, a 
little drop of honey, and that 
poisoned with so many troubles, 
with so many anxieties, with so 
many fears, with so many in- 
firmities. . . . Alas ! I recollect 
this, and I feel a flame which 
tortures my memory greater 
than that which burns my body. 
For a single moment I sinned 
and I am punished for all 
eternity ! O ! The cursed honey 
of fleeting pleasures ! Thou art 
to me the poison which gives 
eternal torment ! my transi- 
tory life now past ! Thou art 
the cause of my never-ending 
punishment ! O life so short ! 
But why do I call thee so short? 
Thou wert long enough, and 
amply long enough, for my 
salvation. I lived so many 
years upon the earth and held 
in my hands the keys of 
Paradise. I knew that there 
was punishment for a sinner 
like me : I knew what I had to 
do to escape it : I could easily 

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8ia va rr)v </>vyo>* r)fAiropovo , a 
€VKo\a va TO KafJ*) kcu ocv to 
tKafia. "Hfwvv eyu> avfyxiwros, 

7J/AOVV €X.€V$€pOS, i]flOVV AoytKOS. 
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cTrAdvcccv / * Ax / fw>7 irtpao-- 
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Ttjrd (rov, rj (rvWoyurOw to 
fxaKpos o~ov, ura fxov ctvai wiKpa 
rj €vOvfj,rj<rk (rov. "A.\ I \p6voi 
Xpvcroi, r)pjkpai TroAvTt/AOt ottov 
€8ia/3rJKaT€ ! 'Eyu» cas l\axra 
teal €\axra oAa. Hotbs /x€ St&t 
Tco/oa /uav a7ro ciceivas Tas <5/oas 
ojtou /aov €<jyalvovro rovov 
fiaKpai; Tt's /*€ Stoct dAtyov 

aTTO €/C€?VOV TOV KCLlpOV oirov rj 

€^w8tao"a €is dftaortas, ?} d<£tva 
va rp€\rf cis fMTaioTrjTas ; 
Ilotos /xov 5i&€i /xt'av /Aova^v 
OTiyfiYjv va fieravorp-w ; Ma 
ocv €?vat ttAcov tcaupos. c O 
Kaipbs tSiafiri, kou €ya> pjovov 
rov €7ri6vfi(a /idrata, #cat e^co vol 
tov €7ri0vfi.riO'tti atcovta. i2 
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atcovtog 17 Ti/xcooia /mov/ T 12 
evSv/nrjo-LS rriKpordrrj ! *12 
/xcTavota dvax^A^s / " 

II ws o*as <£atverai 1J 7rpo<f>opd 
fwv ; eficXTLioOrj 6\iyqv ; 

IIoAu • Kat dv fi€tvqT€ Zv'Adiq- 
vats oAtyas €/38op,d8as da. rrpo- 
<f>€p7JT€ tol 'EAA^vticd ws'EAA^v. 

ToVTO 7ToAt> /*€ KoAa#C€V€t* 

a A Ad /3A€7ra> €<f>Qdxran*v els 

M.€Ta7TOVTLOV. *A$ tgikOiOfJLtV 

va, 7rdpiofJL€v oXiyov 7rpoy€Vfxa. 

have done it and I did not do it. 
I was a man, I was free, I had 
my reason. Who blinded me ? 
Who led me astray ? Ah ! my 
life that is past ! whether I 
reflect upon thy shortness, or 
consider thy length, equally 
bitter is my recollection of 
thee. Ah ! ye golden years, ye 
precious days, that have gone by ! 
I have lost you, and I have lost 
all. Who will now give me 
one of those hours which seemed 
to me so long ? Who will give 
me a little of that time which I 
either spent in sin, or allowed 
to pass in vain pursuits ? Who 
will give me one single moment 
for repentance? But there is 
no longer time for it now. The 
time is past, and it is but in vain 
that I long for it, and have to 
long for it to eternity. spear 
that pricks my memory ! My 
sin a little drop of honey, and 
eternal hell my punishment ! 
most bitter memory ! use- 
less repentance P " 

What do you think of my 
pronunciation ? Has it improved 
a little 1 

Very much : and if you stay 
in Athens a few weeks, you will 
pronounce Greek like a Greek. 

That is very flattering to me ; 
but I see we have arrived at 
Metapontum. Let us get out 
and take a little breakfast 

By all means. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 

'Ev ry araOfxip rov Mera- 

TOVTLOV, fj dKpl/3c<TT€pOV UTTtlv 

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Kal €LKO<rL&VO. *EX€T€ TTp6\<U- 

pov rov xpovoirivaKa ; Kirrra- 
£arc TrapaKaXd Kara iroiav 
&pav <f>6dvofX€V cis Bpevrrja-iov. 

Ets ras o#ct<w #cai rpiavrakg. 

Sra/Aarp fj ap.a£ocrroixla lead' 
68bv cts Kaveva aAAov (rraO/wv, 
rj irr)yaCv€i Kar' ev$€iav €#c€? 
X<opls va kyyury irovdtvd ; 

Ets €va pjovov oradfjibv kyyi- 
fci, €ts tov rov Ta/oavros, 6Vov 
/*€V€t 8*Ka Xeirrd. Elvoll f) 
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8ia r£>v fJ.€po)V tovtcov fj ra 
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dfxriv /aov Kal ovna va &wr)6u> 
va W€pik\0(i> SkrfV rrjv ft€0*rj/A- 


At the station of Metapontum, 
or, to speak more correctly, of 
Torremare, the train did not 
stay even one minute more than 
the fixed time, for, as you see, 
we are starting exactly at five 
twenty-two. Have you got the 
time-table handy? Look and 
see, please, at what o'clock we 
arrive at Brindisi. 

At eight thirty-six. 

Does the train stop at any 
other station on the road, or 
does it go straight there with- 
out pulling up anywhere ? 

It stops only at one station, 
at that of Taranto, where it stays 
ten minutes. Is this the first time 
you have been through these 
parts, or did you ever visit 
them before ? 

I have never before visited 
these parts, which in ancient 
times constituted Magna Graecia, 
so celebrated in Greek history. 
What I want is to have two or 
three months at my disposal 
and so to be able to go through 
all southern Italy and Sicily at 
my leisure, for when any one 

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<£o>V Tot iv 'OAv/Airip dva&j/xaTa 
t£)v *EAAr/vtKwv ttoAccov Acyci* 
"IIoocA^ovTt 0€ oAtyov Zevs 
«rrt irpbs dvio")(0VTa T€Toa/*- 

fJL€VOS TOV tfklOV, aCTOl' €}(ft>V TOV 

opvida Kal Tjj €T€pa twv xeipiiov 
Kipavvov • hriK€iTat, oe avry ctti 
t# K€<l>aky ork<f>avos, avdrj Ta 

KpLVa. M€Ta7TOVTtVO)V 0€ €OTlV 

avdfrqpa." 'Ev & t^ htvrkpa 
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8c t<£ M6Ta7rovTtva)v drpravpip, 
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«TTtv ovros, Iv tovt<j> Treiroirj- 
pkvos ko-Tlv 'EvSvfuW • 7r A^v & 

eO-07/TOS €0"Tt Ta Aowra t<£ 'Ev- 
8vfXi(j)VL kkkcf>aVTOS. McTaTTOVTfc- 
VOVS 8c ^TIS fl€V €7T€Aa/?CV 

a7roA«r0tti irpo<f>acr is, ovk oJSa* 
Itf* €/*ov 8c OTi /^ OkaTpov Kal 

goes through a country in a 
hurry by rail, he sees only the 
stations and the suburbs of the 
cities and nothing else. A little 
while ago we passed through 
Torremare where we stopped 
only ten minutes, but what did 
we see ? Nothing. But if we 
had had more time at our 
disposal we could have visited 
the ruins of Metapontum, a city 
of renown in olden days. 

This city must have been a 
place of no little importance in 
bygone times, for it is frequently 
mentioned by the ancient Greek 
writers. Pausanias, in the first 
book of his Eliaca, describing 
the offerings of the Greek cities 
at Olympia, says : " As you go a 
little farther, there is a Jupiter 
facing the rising sun, holding 
an eagle, his bird, and with a 
thunderbolt in the other hand ; 
on his head there is a garland, 
the flowers of which are lilies. 
It is an offering of the people of 
J^^tapo^um." In the second 
book of the Eliaca he says as 
follows : " In the treasury of 
the Metapontians, for it is next 
to that of the Selinuntians, there 
is constructed a statue of Endy- 
mion : except the clothes the 
rest of the Endymion is of ivory. 
But what happened to the 
Metapontians to cause their 
destruction I do not know: in 

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T€plf3o\oi T€l)(OVS aAAo k\€L7T€T0 

Toiavrq virrjpgtv rj rv\y] Kal 
iroAAwv aAAcov 'EAA^vikwv 
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Kal kv aAAais \wpais. IIoAcis 
airives ^K/xao-avTTOTc cVi irkovTip 
KaX 8vvdfA€i, irpb aitaviav kolt€- 
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aiKpd riva Aci^ava avraJv fikv- 
ovcri a»9 fiaprvpta rod dpyaiov 
avrcSv fieyakeLOV nvh Be Kal 
tcAccos igrjKfxivio-drjO'av a>s 
o^vvk/3-q els ty)v *2v/3apiv yjris, 
ws Acyct 6 2t/o(£/?<dv, " T€TT<£/oa>v 
fwv Wvitiv T(ov irXrprlov hrrjpge, 

TT€VT€ 8c Kat tlKOCTl 7ToA€tS 1^- 

koous «rx € > TpiaKovra 6c p,vpid- 
<rw dv&pujv €7rl KpoT(i)Viaras 


oraStcov kvkAov o-vvcttAiJ/oouv 


pkvroi Tpvcf>rjs Kal v/3p€U)s owra- 
(rav r^v ev8aifwviav d<f>Yjp€$Yjcrav 
virb KpOTtoviarwv kv rffikpais 
kp8ofirJKovTa* cAovtcs yap rrjv 
ttoXlv kwrjyayov rbv 
Kal KaTc/cAwav," 

*Av Kal rj rrokis rwv *2v/3api- 
twv KaT€(rrpd<f>rj cVtcAws, to 
ovojm o/Atos avrwv SiaTcAc? 
dOdvaTOV, Sloti ov puovov at 
aperai, dAAa Kal at /ca/aat 
Tiov Wvwv 8iat,(avi£ovTai kv rrj 
urropCa. To ovofia rQtv dp\a[o)v 
^irapriarCiv Karko'Trj 7r€pi<f>rjfwv 
ev€Ka rrjs cwra/xx/ztAAou dvSpecas 
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tos irtpl Tf\v oYaiTay, to 8k tQv 
2v^a/)tT<ov cvc/ca tov a/3po8iai~ 

my time, except the theatre and 
the circuit of the wall nothing 
else was left of Metapontum." 

Such was the fate also of 
many other Greek cities in 
Magna Graecia and elsewhere. 
Cities which were once at the 
height of wealth- and power 
were ages ago destroyed, and 
to-day only some scanty remains 
of them are left as evidence of 
their ancient magnificence : some 
even completely disappeared, as 
was the case with Sybaris, which, 
as Strabo says, " ruled over four 
neighbouring nations, possessed 
twenty - five dependent cities, 
sent an expedition of three 
hundred thousand men against 
the Crotonians, and the inhabi- 
, tants of which living on the river 
Crathis occupied a circle of fifty 
stadia. Owing however to their 
luxury and arrogance they were 
deprived of all their affluence 
in the space of seventy days by 
the Crotonians, for these, after 
capturing their city, turned the 
river into it and inundated it." 

Although the city of the 
Sybarites was entirely destroyed, 
still their name continues im- 
perishable, for not only the 
virtues but the vices of nations 
are perpetuated in history. The 
name of the ancient Spartans 
became famous on account of 
their unrivalled courage, and 
the unique simplicity of their 
way of life, and that of the 
Sybarites owing to their luxuri- 

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rov Kal rrjs v7T€p/3a\kov\rrjs 
avriav aKoXaxrCas, 

Acv vo/u£a> o/xo>5 otl cTvai 81- 
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7rapaf3a.W6p.evot, ot 2v/?a/)ira* 
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Ta evaurdrjTa vevpa tcov 2v/?a/n- 
tQv 8ev €ir€T/0€7T€To va SiaTapaxr- 
cwvrat ovo" V7ro tov IAa;(Krrov 
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/cat €<£' dfid£r}S Tropevopevos, 
TTjv r\pe.pnyriav wopeiav els Tpets 
ripApas Sirjwev woXXal 8k twv 
els tovs dypovs <f>€povo-(av oowv 

ous mode of living and their 
excessive licentiousness. 

I do not think however that 
it is just for the Sybarites alone 
to be accused of luxury and 
licentiousness, for both in ancient 
and more recent times there 
have been luxurious and licen- 
tious nations compared with 
whom the Sybarites appear 
frugal and temperate. 

This no one can deny, for 
even in our own times there are 
very many people who think 
of nothing else but how to go 
through life in luxury and 
licentiousness ; the Sybarites, 
however, will always hold the 
first place, for with them luxury 
was not individual but general ; 
it was an institution of the city. 
The highly sensitive nerves of 
the Sybarites were not allowed 
to be agitated even by the least 
noise, and for this reason all the 
coppersmiths, blacksmiths, and 
carpenters were compelled to 
have their workshops far away 
from the city. In order that 
their morning sleep might not 
be disturbed by the crowing of 
the cocks, no citizen was per- 
mitted to keep such troublesome 
creatures inside the city. The 
well-to-do Sybarite, when he 
went to his estate, although' 
conveyed in a carriage, took 
three days to accomplish the one 
day's journey ; and many of the 
roads leading to the fields were 
roofed in. In Sybaris public 

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fyrav KaTourreyou 'Ev *2v/3dp€i 
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to 8ia .ypvo-QiV o-T€<f>dv<ov wro 
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ot€ ovt€ aT/AoVAoia v7n/p;(ov 
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lavrwv /?iov cv tt/ ttoAci tcdv 
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itoAitwv r^s 2v/3dp€(os cAa/fe 
to Bdppos irork va Tagetfievo-y 
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Ta (nxraiTid twv oi 2?ra/0TiaTai. 

IIc/H TOVTOV /A?) d/A<£l/?dAA€T€, 

8ioTi ot dirkpirroi <rvp,wo\.iTai 

Tfl AlT# aVT(OV BiaiTQj KOI OT€ 

dinners frequently took place, 
and they who defrayed the ex- 
pense of the entertainment were 
honoured by the city with golden 
crowns and their names were pro- 
claimed at the public games. 

In those times when there* 
were no steamboats nor railways, * 
and the discomforts of travelling • 
were many, going on a journey 
must have been an important 
question with the effeminate 

Most assuredly : but our good 
friends the Sybarites found a 
very simple way of avoiding • 
the inconveniences of travel- 
ling, that is to say, they never 
travelled at all : they used to 
laugh at people who left their 
native land to go abroad, and 
prided themselves on passing 
their lives in their own city 
without ever going far away 
from it. 

But since there is no rule 
without an exception, it is said 
that one of these happy citizens 
of Sybaris once took courage to 
travel to another country. And 
where do you think he went? 
To Sparta ! 

Oh, the contrast ! I hope the 
Spartans invited him to their 
general mess. 

Do not have any doubt about 
that, for the frugal fellow-citizens 
of Lycurgus took pride in their 
simple mode of life, and when 

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rrjv Trokiv to>v €</>tAo£cvovv av- 
tov Kal rbv iraptXapfiavov 07na>s 
(rvvS€tirvrj<rQ fi€T avrtov kv rots 

€$p€V €K€l OVT€ TpCLTTtfas 7To\vT€- 

Ac?s, ovre Kkivas /*aXa#cas, ovrc 
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TToAvTcAciaV • &€V dfJL<f>ll3a\\(0 

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Kal tov d<f>r}Kav va K\aly ttjv 
rv\rjv tov. 

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fiaXkov v drroOdvy rj va £rj 
8idy<i)V /3Cov €0"T€priiJL€vov irdorfS 

KaAa tt)V €7ra0ev 6 2v/?aoi- 
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d<f>rjoig tcls Tpvcf>as ttjs 7raTpi8os 
tov Kal va £r}TQ va 8oKifido"rj 
tov ftcAava fofibv twv ^irapTia- 
tcov ; 'AAA* as d(f>rjo'ia/j>€V 7rpbs 
o"TLyfJLrjv to. 7rap€X66vra Kal as 
Z8<i)fX€v dv €ir\rja'ido'afi€V els 

A€V VOfJLlfyl) V a7T€X<«>/XCV 7TO- 

\v y Slotl at oiKiai Trjs 7roA€<os 
tfSrj SwLKpivovTai. 

KvTTa£aT€ wocrov wpaia ctvat 

any distinguished stranger came 
to their city, they received him 
hospitably and took him to dine 
with them at their public meals. 

The Sybarite certainly did 
not find there either costly 
tables, or soft couches, or a 
crowd of attendants, or flute- 
playing girls, or anything else 
betraying extravagance : I have 
no doubt that they seated him 
on some sort of wooden stool 
and offered him a plate full of 
black broth, and left him to 
bewail his fate. 

This is what must have 
happened, for after dinner the 
dainty Sybarite was heard to 
say : " Formerly I used to be 
astonished when I heard that 
the Spartans despised death, and 
attributed this to their courage, 
but now I am convinced that 
the most cowardly of men would 
prefer dying to living a life de- 
prived of all luxury." 

The Sybarite got what he 
deserved, for what business had 
he to give up the luxuries of 
his native land and want to try 
the black broth of the Spartans ? 
But let us put aside the past for 
a moment, and see if we have 
come near to Taranto. 

I do not think we are far off, 
for the houses of the city can 
already be distinguished. 

See how beautiful that 

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€K€ivtf rj aravkis irpbs tol dpi- 
OTepd' to TrvKvbv £k€ivo 8do-os 

0€V OLfJL<f)l/3dW<J) dvTjK€t CIS OLV- 

Tqv. Hocov yapikvTios pkowi 


rj X**>pa 6Y i}s 8i€p\6fjLe6a Ttopa 
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wvas tt}s irokews. Etfi€0a kv 
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kkyeTe, Okkere vd k^kkdvpiev ; 

No/itfa> 0a ijvat KakkiTepov 

VOL pLYJ k£kkd(l)pL€V, 8tOTt fikkirU) 

irokv irkfjdos Ta^ctSaoTwv 
kv t^ o-TaOpAp Kal <f>o/3ovpou 
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IIoAv /caAa* a A A' as <fxovd- 
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Ev^aptOTCOS KVplOL. . . . 0€- 

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"0\t^ Tavra ap/covVt. 

Acv 0a dyopdcrrjTt okiya 
dvOrj ; KVTTa£aT€ irovov o>pata 
Kal Tpwf>€pa eTvai ravra ra la / 
frpo piKpov at d8ek<f>aC px>v to. 


&urovs ' ctvat Spocrcpd Kal evto&rj ' 
ayopdxraTe KvpiOL Kal 8ev 6a 

Aos ftas avras Tas 8vo av- 
Oobeo-pas, Kal ehrk pas Tt vd 
o*€ irkr)puxr<j)p,ev. 

country-house is on the left : 
that thick wood, I have no 
doubt, belongs to it. How 
gracefully the water of that 
brook flows ! The country 
through which we are now 
passing appears entirely un- 
cultivated, for it is overgrown 
with junipers, tamarisks, and 
oleander. Here we have come to 
the fields, the vineyards, and 
the olive -groves belonging to 
the city. We are in the station 
of Taranto. What do you say, 
shall we get out ? 

I think it would be better 
for us not to get out, for I 
see a great number of travellers 
in the station, and I am afraid 
that in our absence they may 
come and take our places. 

Very good ; but let us call 
that boy who is selling milk, 
for I am thirsty. 

Give us two glasses of milk. 

With pleasure, gentlemen. . . . 
Would you like two more ? . . . 

No, these are enough. 

Will you not buy a few 
flowers? See how beautiful 
and delicate these violets are ! 
A little while ago my sisters 
gathered them in the neigh- 
bouring wood : they are fresh 
and fragrant : buy them, gentle- 
men, and you will not repent it. 

Give us those two bouquets, 
and tell us what we have to 
pay you. 

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"O Tt aycwraTf Kvpiot. 

'Apicct tv <f>pdyKov Si oka ; 

"Q 9 apicci Kvpiot, jccm px to 
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wokv. m Qpa Kakrj <ra$ Kvpwu 

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do~vkov aov rotrov, 

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5 EA0c, IA0€ av#os 0"€pVOV, #c€ya> 

#ca#€ irpanav 

Whatever you like, gentlemen. 

Is one franc enough for the lot? 

0, enough, and more, gentle- 
men. Thank you very much. A 
pleasant journey to you, gentle- 
men ! 

I am passionately fond of 
violets : they are the sweet 
messengers of spring. See what 
a charming colour they have: 
their perfume produces in me a 
feeling of calm enjoyment 

Would you like to hear a 
pretty little poem about these 
favourite flowers ? 

Recite it, I beg, and you will 
find me an eager listener. 

This is the little poem : 

" Thee I address, violet, fore- 
runner of the spring, who makest 
thy choice in the thickets of a 
home safe from harm, 
and under the bare bushes 
sheddest thy heavenly perfume, 
and like a maid, in thy humility, 
dost shun men's admiration. 
Like a noble benefactor who in 
all directions scatters 
secret benefits and no one knows 

thou too offerest as a gift thy fra- 
grance, and dost forget that thou 
art the boast of the woods and 
the crown of the flowers. 
Come and be the king of my 
garden, violet ! 
O, leave the monotonous solitude 
of the wood. 

Come, bashful flower, come, and 
every morning 

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9a <r€ iroTifra p* V€pov Kpwrrdk- 
Atvov /cat dtlov. 

3 Ek$€ . . . TrA^V K7J1T0S T€\VTf- 

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Kat €ts KakvfBrjv d<fxivfj octlov 

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koXXuttov v&u>p, cTvai €pya twv 

I will give thee water like crystal 

and fresh from heaven. Come . . . 

but a garden made by art in 

no way gives thee pleasure : 

stay then in thy forest, my 

beloved violet 

Happy whoever like thee pours 

forth his gifts 

and in a cabin hides unseen his 

holy life." 

A pretty little poem : but 
you did not tell me the poet's 

His name is G. Staurides, and 
he has written many other 
elegant poems about flowers : 
but I see we are leaving Taranto. 
Did you ever visit this city ? 

Yes, but I must tell you that 
it did not please me much. 
The city, which has about forty 
thousand inhabitants, is built 
upon a small island and occupies 
the site of the ancient acropolis : 
its streets are narrow and dirty : 
it is connected with the main- 
land on the north and south 
sides by two ancient bridges. 
The inner harbour of the city is 
called Mare Piccolo, and the 
outer one Mare Grande : both of 
them produce abundance of fish * 
and oysters. Not many of the 
ancient ruins are preserved. 
The bridge on the north side, 
and the great aqueduct which 
conveys into the city abundant 
and excellent water, are works 
of the Byzantine times. In the 

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year 967 aj>. the Emperor 
Nicephorus Phocas wishing to 
protect these parts from the 
inroads of the Saracens sent 
Nicephorus Magister to Taranto 
who not only renewed the walls 
of the city but also constructed 
the bridges and the great aque- 

Of the ruins of ancient Taren- 
tum, what is there now existing ? 

Only one column of the 
Doric order, which very pro- 
bably belonged to the temple 
of Neptune, the guardian-god of 

It is curious that there have 
not been preserved more remains 
of the ancient magnificence of 
this famous city, which once 
possessed very great power and 
was especially renowned in the 
time of Archytas, the celebrated 
disciple of Pythagoras. 

Archytas was an excellent 
mathematician and expert in 
mechanics, and moreover a pro- 
found philosopher and a great 
statesman. He flourished in 
the four hundredth year before 
Christ His public life was a 
glorious one : seven times he 
was selected to be the general 
of the state, and from every 
campaign he returned victorious 
and triumphant He was not 
only distinguished for political 
capacity and for courage, but also 
for prudence, moderation, and 
benevolence. He wrote several 

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'IraAtas otVtvcs ofjukovcrt, tri 

works, but unfortunately only a 
few fragments of them have 
been preserved, treating of logic, 
ethics, and metaphysics. 

It is curious how things 
change in this world. In the 
times of Pythagoras and Archy- 
tas, Tarentum was a focus of 
philosophy and letters, but now, 
as Janet Ross says in her 
excellent work The Land of 
Manfred, there is not even a 
bookseller's shop in it. In the 
three great sections, into which 
the present city is divided by 
three long streets, three dialects 
quite different from each other 
are spoken. Those who live 
along the outer sea speak a 
dialect which is a medley of all 
kinds of foreign and Italian 
words. Those who occupy the 
central street speak a vulgar 
idiom of Naples. Those who 
reside in the Strada Garibaldi 
opposite to the Mare Piccolo 
speak a dialect in which very 
many Greek words and phrases 
crop up. I wonder now, are 
they relics of the most ancient 
times or of the Byzantine epoch ? 

This question is not one of 
those which are easy to solve ; 
it is not only a question of the 
words and phrases employed by 
the Tarentines living in the 
Strada Garibaldi, but regarding 
many thousands of the inhabi- 
tants of southern Italy who 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



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kdviKbv alcrdrjfxa €?vai lar\vp6- 
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tovtov ol kv Ty p.eovjp.Ppivy 

even now speak Greek as their 
mother-tongue. Of course you 
have heard that in the south- 
eastern parts of the peninsula 
which we are at this moment 
traversing, in the neighbourhood 
of Otranto, and in Calabria 
about Cape Spartivento, there 
are many localities inhabited by 
Greeks who do not appear to be 
remnants of the ancient inhabi- 
tants of Magna Graecia, but 
later colonists who came from 
various parts of Greece, some 
before and some after the cap- 
ture of Constantinople. 

Two years ago I read in the 
London journal of the " Society 
for the promotion of Hellenic 
Studies" an excellent paper 
upon these Greek - speaking 
inhabitants of southern Italy, 
written by the Rev. H. F. Tozer, 
which, I recollect, made a great 
impression upon me. It is 
really a wonder how these 
settlers were able to preserve 
their national language for so 
many centuries in a foreign 
country with a foreign tongue. 

You are right, it is a wonder; 
but among the Greeks the 
national sentiment is very 
strong, and, in whatever part 
of the world they find them- 
selves, they try with all 
their might not to forget their 
national language ; besides, the 

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'Irakiy. "EAA^vcs airoiKOt, ot- 
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yXtoaxrav' ypdfovres 8c irpbs 
dXXrjXovs fi€Ta)(€ip[£ovTat, rovs 
AariviKovs \apaKTrjpas' tovto 

Greek settlers in southern Italy, 
living as they did in their own 
villages and in out-of-the-way 
parts, and not holding continual 
intercourse with the native 
inhabitants, and not intermarry- 
ing with them, managed with 
less difficulty to preserve in some 
measure the language of their 
fathers up to the present time. 

I fear however that in the 
future it will be difficult for 
them to do this, for communi- 
cation by railways, which has 
revolutionised everything, will 
also have its effect upon them, 
and will soon amalgamate them 
with the surrounding inhabi- 
tants. Do you know what 
their total population is now 1 

Mr. Tozer, who visited their 
villages in the autumn of 1887, 
says that their whole population 
does not exceed twenty thousand. 
Five thousand of them live in 
Calabria and fifteen thousand in 
the province of Otranto. The 
latter, though more numerous 
than those in Calabria, will 
perhaps be sooner Italianised, 
because the railway has already 
invaded their country. 

The worst is that they have 
no communication with Greece, 
and they do not at all study the 
Greek language, and in writing 
to each other use the Latin 
characters, a benefaction for 
which they are indebted to the 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



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p.eo-r]pfSpivr)s 'LraAias* irodev rd 
dvT€ypd\f/aT€ ; 

Tivd /xcv €k tt}s d£ioAoyov 

Church of Rome, which, actuated 
by maternal affection, imposed 
upon them the employment of 
the Latin instead of the Greek 
letters which they used up to the 
beginning of the present century. 
The Greek emigrants who took 
refuge in southern Italy in the 
15 th and 16th centuries enjoyed 
certain ecclesiastical privileges 
granted them by the kings and 
governments for the time being of 
Naples ; but these privileges, by 
which both the religion and the 
language of the Greek emigrants 
were protected, were gradually 
abolished little by little, and 
they were no longer permitted 
to invite priests from Greece, but 
were compelled to have Italian 
ministers belonging to the 
Roman Church, who performed 
all the religious ceremonies in 
the Latin language. They thus 
lost the faith of their fathers, 
and their language has been 
corrupted to such a degree that 
its complete disappearance is 
only a question of time. 

The day before yesterday, 
when I was looking over the 
extracts in your note -book, I 
saw that among them there are 
several songs of these Greeks of 
southern Italy. Where did you 
copy them from ? 

Some from the excellent 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



ovkkoyfjs ^vo <ro<f>bs KaOrjyq- 

TT/S AofirjVLKOS Ko/X7rap€TTT)S 

i&rjfWO'Uvo'ev kv Htcry Kara rb 
Itos 1866, akka 8c €K rrjs 
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ravra rpayovSta. At k£rjs rpets 
or/xx^al etvai elkrjfifikvai, c#c rrjs 
crvkkoyrjs rov Ko/nraoern/ * 
curt 8k yeypa/xfikvai, Sirrdk, 
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r£>v KaroiKtov rrjs kv KakafJpta 

"* irov yia oko rb koo-/jlo 


'Air' to levanti 's rb ponenti 


'Ekcivi; irov 'ycwraa> €ya> av <rv 

rr) Oiopy 

Xat/XTa fwv Tq Kal /3pe av (rov 

*Av eKeivrj yia *pkva o~' kpioTqary 
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*Av €K€LV7J TTOV 8k O"' kpwrrj&y 

collection which the learned 
Professor Domenico Compare tti 2 
published at Pisa in the year 
1866, others from the paper 
of Mr. Tozer that I mentioned. 
From the latter I have also 
copied the English translation, 
so that we shall be able without 
much trouble to understand 
these difficult songs. The fol- 
lowing three stanzas are taken 
from Comparetti's collection : 
they are written in two ways, 
that is, in Greek and in Roman 
characters : by the latter the 
pronunciation of the words, as 
it is now, is represented. I 
copied also, as you see, Com- 
paretti's Italian translation, 
which is of great use for the 
accurate comprehension of this 
song of the inhabitants of Bova 
in Calabria. 

" Ilio pu ja olo to cosmo parpatl, 

An do levanti 'sto ponenti pai, 

Ecini pu gapao ego essu ti ghori, 

Ieretamuti ce vre a su jelai. 

An ecini ja 'minena s' arotisi 
Peti ti ego pateguo podda guai ; 

An ecini pu de s* arotisi 

1 Saggi dei dialetti Greci del Italia meridionale, raccolti ed illustrati da 
Domenico Comparetti. Pisa, 1866. 

* This distinguished Italian scholar, so well known for his extensive 
erudition, was lately raised to the rank of a senator. 

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Consulamento vet /mtj tyv mai - 

Son, who wanderest oyer all 

the world, 
who goest from the east to the 
if you see her whom I love, 
greet her from me and see if she 
smiles at thee. 
If she asks thee about me, 
tell her that I suffer many woes ; 
but if she never asks you, 
may she never have comfort ! 

'Ev to irurT€v<i> Vt fi d\rj- 


Manco Vt /caret tovvtj rrj 
Malucrianza cwr' c/xc lv rjipe mai 
Manco 8cv r)$pe /uav ayapo 
Mov dispiacevet Vt patcvct guai, 

M« TO ykpO 1 K€p8aiV€t. VTTO- 

Kat 0A0 tovvo to spasso akrf- 


Ta suspirta 'vraoxrcvow to. 

1 do not believe that you will 

forget me, 
nor yet that you exercise this 

tyranny ; 
you never met with rudeness 
from me 
nor yet any ungracious act. 

I do not like you to suffer woes, 

with old age you will acquire 



Consulamento na mi echi mai. 

Sole che per tutto il mondo 


Da levante a ponente vai, 

Quella che amo io se la vedi 
Salutamela e vedi se ti ride ; 

Se quella per me ti domanda, 
Dille che io soffro molti guai ; 
Se quella non ti domanda, 
Consolazione non abbia mai. 

En do pisteguo ti me addis- 


Manco ti canni tundi tirannia, 

Malucrianza a ze me en ivre mai 

Manco den ivre mian acharo 


Mu dispiacegui ti pategui guai ; 

Me tu jeru jendonni apocondria 

Ce olo tundo spasso addismonai. 

Ta suspiria (a)ntasseguo ta dichia. 

Non lo credo che mi dimenti- 


Neanche che fai questa tirannia, 

Malacreanza di me non vedesti 


Neanche vedesti mai cattiva 


Mi dispiace che soffri guai, 

Colla vecchiaja acquisti malin- 


& rb yipo should probably be fit rb Koup6. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 


and will forget all this sport. E tutto questo spasso dimenti- 


Sighs burst open walls. I sospiri schiantano le mura. 

*Av rj£*pa y to, ri 8kv /m 'yaira€i> An izzera jati demme gapai 

Tt (T&KafMw cyw kcu Iv fiov Ti socama n'ego ce en mu 

platcwt / plategui ! 

ScXtD vet fiov 'njj yict ri 8kv /ax Thelo na mupi jati demme 

'yairact, gapai, 

Kcu senza tmtotc €<tv fi f abban- Ce senza tipote esu m' abban- 

donevct. donegui, 

Ma lv to curcvo) vol pateua-cu Ma endi cureguo na patezo guai, 


Kdfj* nxus OeXci 'ti 8cv /u>v Came po theli ti den mumpor- 

'mportevet, tegui, 

Kcu yia r^ ^x*? vo ^ °"* 'yawaet Ce ja tin zichi pu se gapai 

Via wotro tt) Kairg oXa support- Ja posso ti canni ola support- 

€V€u egui 

If I but knew why you do not Sapessi perche non mi ami, 

love me, 

what I have done to you that Che ti ho fatto che non mi 

you do not speak to me ! parli ! 

I wish you would tell me why Voglio tu mi dica perche non 

you do not love me mi ami 

and without any cause abandon E senza niente (senza cagione) mi 

me. abbandoni, 

Bat I make no account of suffer- Ma non euro di soffrir guai, 

ing woes, 

do as you will, for it is of no Fa come vuoi, che non m' im- 

moment to me ; porta ; 

and as to the one who loves E per 1' anima che ti ama 

whatever you do to him, he Per quanto gli fai tutto sup- 
bears it all." porta." 

Tot tgrjs rpayovSia etvcu twv The following are soogs of 

'EAAi/vo^wvcdv KaroUoiv rrjs the Greek-speaking inhabitants 

trap^las rov 'Orpdvrov * dvre- of the province of Otranto : I 

ypaij/a & avrd, u>s elirov vpiv copied them, as I told you a 

vpo okiyov, €K rrjs vpayfmreias little while ago, from the paper 

R _ - 1 

r - ,-TiK 

Digitized by V^OCWtc 



rov Kvptov Tofleo, 6Vrris fcrra- by Mr. Tozer, who gleaned 

XvoXayrprtv avra €K rrjs d£to- them from the excellent collec- 

Xoyov <rv\Xoyr}$ rov KaOrjyrrrov tion of Professor Morosi pub- 

Mo/wxn/ eKSofcUrrjs Kara to lished at Lecce in the year 1870. 

ctos 1870 €v ArJKKy. To too- This song which we are now 

yovSiov rovro oVco fuWofuv v' going to read is very pathetic. 

avaywixrctf/Acv r<apa ctVcu Atav A lamenting mother is convers- 

ira&vjrucov. Mrjrrjp 6\o<f>vpo- ing with her departed daughter. 
pivr\ aw&iaXtyerai. /xera rijs 
diroOavowrqs avrrjs 0vyarp6s. 

Translation by the Rev. H. F. Tozer. 

"*A/jtc Vov o-€ x^°" a> > ch^ccia "Now that they have buried 
/aov, thee, my darling, 
T4S a-ov oTptovvei o Kpofi- who will make thy little bed ? " 
/?ara#ct ; 
Mov to orociWct 6 pavpo " My bed, dark death makes it 

for me, 
yia /ua vv<fyra zro86v pAXrj. for a long, long night" 
Tas o-ov (frrtdfa a capetaAia " Who will arrange thy pillows, 

va 'jj va Trkwry rpvtfxpd ; that thou mayst be able to sleep 

Mov rot ifyridQu 6 pavpo rdvaro " Dark death arranges them for 

p. 9 a kurdpia ra <fxrrjpd. with the bare stones." 

"Ex^t vd fi€ KkavarQy checcia /u>v, " Thou must weep for me, my 

€\€t vd p.€ 'vofiarury • thou must call me by my 

name ; 
'2 r abbesogna o-ov fi' ^fo-cAc, in thy troubles thou wert wont 

to desire me, 
'rov *s rb petto /xov v* that thou mightst lean here 
dKovp./3rjo"Q. upon my breast 
XvaTeocSoa, x vaT€ P^^ a /*° v > ^7 dear daughter, my dear 

roo-ov tapya yevofitnj, that wert so beautifully formed ; 

It KapSia ttov Kavei rj p&va o-ov what must thy mother's feeling* 

va o-^ 3 8y aireo-ap.fUvr) ; at seeing thee dead J 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



Tt's ecrka <fxrvvv$, \varkpa puov, 

/tort rj rjfxepa %v d<fxrrjX , q ; 
'Erov kclov I Trdvrav vttovvo 

irdvra vv<f>ra <TKOT€i,vrj. 
V rjav' &pya rovrj \varkpa /xov, 

port jjlov €J3yrj 's rrj cantata. 

Spiandurifavc at colonne 
/cat deralamptfe okrj rj 
a-rpdra* 9 

To k£fjs poyAaVtov cfrat 
" flTtyxryyeAtai diro0vrj<rKOVTOS 

""Ave ir«raV<o tcAco vd p*. 


escappeddata puka-a 's ttjv 

Kat <rvp€ to. paSSta aov a<fxrc 


koI Kovp/3a pjov Ta irdvov 's 

ToVo fJL€ 7T€pVOVV€ '$ T^V a- 


koXovccl, dydirq puov, ar\ 


Kal fi\e<fxr€ vd fiov vdtjxrov ra 


dvov 's to 'vrjpa irov \<t> va 


*cai poi '5 tov 5vo Kavkva 

IlaT/DC/AOV, r»)v rjpApa t<3s aVco-a/x/Acva) 
invia /tov Va suspiro Kavpivo. 

poi 's to \povo 'wkpov /xta 

Who will wake thee, my daughter, 

when the day is high ? " 

" Here below there is evermore 


evermore murky night" 

"How beautiful was this my 


when she went forth to tjie high 


Then the columns gleamed, 

and all the street was filled with 


The following little song is 
"The dying Lover's Injunc- 

" Love, when I die, I will that 
thou bewail me 

Down in the court-yard with 
uncover'd head, 

And with the mantle of thy 
tresses veil me 

Over my heart in silken folds 

When to the holy Church my 
corpse they carry, 

I pray thee follow in the 
mourners' line, 

And o'er the grave, where thy 
true love they bury, 

See that the funeral tapers 
duly shine. 

When one year 's past let mass 
be celebrated, 

And after two years chant a 

And when the spirits are com- 

Breathe burning sighs in 
memory of me. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 




ToVo irov oka rova to* 'x cts 


voi^xrc to 'vrjua k' ty/3a ckci 

fm ficva. 

To €^r}s ttvai crvfMpovXr) cts 
irpoTid€fi€vovs va wp^vdwri 

"'AKcwnpro, d#cdirqo*o, a tcA.0 

v* d/caTnyo^, 

fta x vaT€ / >e< i ( ia '<£o~* cikocti 


*Av l^fl cikoo-mtcvtc, /i^ TcAijoi/, 

Vcs t>/ *ti € Staprjfiivo to 


*A TcAjy 7ndKy 6 po&o va uvpurQ, 

O*V0€ TO /AOT €V rjfucr 

» J t »» 


To l£r}$ SirjyrifidTiov thai €is 
wcfov Aoyov Kal ofwidfa woXv 
/^ ttjv lv 2d/up fyurryopiav rov 

" Mia <£o/xx €*X€ /ua ywaika, 

irov Trdvra hrpaydktt. to T«o 

va 6 /w}a oraxrjj kolXo. Kdi* 

dvroawroi cwravc 's to /w/a 

tovto irpapLO, Kal 6 prja Tqv 

€<fxi>V(W€ Kal rq pwrqo-t yvarl 

arpaydku tcxto yia cavro. Kal 

K€ivrj cftrc, ''E^Sco 7r/oayaAw to 

Tco va fueivys vyio Trdvra, yiarl 

iav uas cscorccixre, Kal a ir€- 

vaivg «rv, €p\€Tai €V dddo irov 

€\€t va XopT<*xrrj ttjv ircivd 
> »> 


'ISov *ai irapoi/xiai tivcs €K 
Bovas t^s Kakaftptas c#c ti}$ 

0~uAAoy^S TOV Mo/OOOTJ /ACTOt tt/s 

U€Ta<f>pd\rcm tov To£eo. 

When these kind offices accom- 
plished are, 

Open the tomb and come my 
grave to share." 

The following is "Advice to 
young Men intending to Marry." 

" If you would wed, then choose 

A maid of twenty years : 

At twenty-five, refuse, 
Say she too old appears : 

Half-blown he culls the rose, 

Who for its fragrance cares." 

The following little tale is in 
prose, and much resembles 
Aesop's speech in Samos. 

" There was once a woman who 
prayed to God continually that 
the king might keep in good 
health. Certain men reported 
this matter to the king, so the 
king summoned her and asked 
her why she prayed so much 
for him. And she said, ' I pray 
God that you may continue in 
life for ever, because you have 
flayed us, and, if you die, another 
will come who will have to 
satisfy his hunger/ " j 

Here too are some proverbs 
from Bova in Calabria from 
Morosi's collection, with Mr. 
Tozer's translation. 

i by Google 




1. Ae/>i ty) wovppvj, 
K€vra '$ rrj fiovrj ' 
At/M ty) fipaSia, 
Kevra 's rr)v oovActa. 

2. Ta £vAa rot aTpa/So, 
ra Vafet to lucisi. 

3. '0 (TKvddo irov ocv dAcoract 
oay/cavct Kpv<f>au 

4. Tl S€V €X€A <f>OVppO SlKOV TOVj 

$€ to \opraivti to fa>/u. 

5. llS €<T7T€pp€l S TO OLpyO, 

Tptay€i \6pro, 6*€v ica/wro. 

6. *H yAaknra \rrca 6*€i> l^^i 
icat 'area icAaVct. 

Swferat /ca/i/ua c/c rovrcuv 

TCoV TTapOLfJLLiOV €V 'EAA<x5l l} 6V 

Tovo/cta ; 

'E/ctos tt/s Trpiorqs ?rao~at at 
aAAat <rci>£ovT<u /cat zrapot rots 
€v'EAAa8i /cat Tovo/cta "EAAt;- 
(tiv, dAA' €K7T€<f>pacr/i€vaL 8l 
aA Awv TavTooir}p,<i)V \k%€tov * 
t.^. ij Sim; irapoipia €\ei wa/» 
^/a?v cos €^s • 

"*H yAcoVcra /coic/caAa 6cv 
6^€t /cat /coic/caAa cnro'vct." 

'Yirdpxct /ca/x/ua icakr) icat 
jtAi^s (rvAAoy^ Nco€AA^vtK(Sv 
irapoifutov ; 

MaAtora, V7rdp)(€i r) tov 
K. I. Bcvt^cAov ticSoOeura kv 
A&Jvats T(p 1846, /cat 17 tov 
II. * KpafiavTwov rvTrmdoxra t<£ 
1863 ^ 'Iwavvtvots * iriOavbv $€ 
€ktot€ va cyctvav /cai aAAat o~vA- 
Aoyat v7ro dAAwv'EAAiJvtoV, ras 
oirotas eya> 5«v yvtopifo. '0 
EAA^vt/cos Aaos lurayeipi^rai 
u>vapiOp.rJTOvs wa/oot/itas, 17 

A rainbow in the morning, 

hasten to your dwelling ; 

a rainbow in the evening, 

hasten to your work. 

Bent timbers 

are straightened by the fire. 

The dog that does not bark 

bites stealthily. 

If a man has no oven of his 

own, his bread does not satisfy 


He that sows untilled land, 

will eat grass instead of corn. 

Though the tongue has no 

bones, it can break bones. 

Are any of these proverbs 
extant in Greece or in Turkey ? 

Except the first, all of them 
have been preserved both among 
the Greeks in Greece and among 
those in Turkey, but expressed 
in other words with the same 
meaning ; e.g. the sixth proverb 
runs as follows with us : 

"The tongue has not bones 
and yet it breaks bones." 

Is there any good and com- 
plete collection of modern Greek 
proverbs 1 

Yes, there is the one by C. J. 
Venizelos published at Athens 
in 1846, and the one by P. Ara- 
vantinos published at Janina 
in 18(53 ; and it is probable 
that since that time other col- 
lections have been made by 
other Greeks, of which I have 
no knowledge. The Greek 
people make use of innumerable 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 




crvvdOpouris rtov oiroiw Siv 
cTvai evKokov Zpyov. 'Ev T<j> 
rpCrip TOfup rrjs HavSupas, 
irepioSitcov a^ioXoyanaroVy kh-q- 
pjoo'ifvOrja'av ovk oXiyat Trapot- 
/itaif as crvvcAc^cv 6 TroXvfAadrjs 
larpbs I. A^ KtyaXXas *ai at 
o7rotat 0€i> w^p^ov €V rjj 
<rv\Xoyjj tov Bcvi£eA.ov. 

*Yft€is <os *EAAi/v 0a ivdvptL- 
<r0€ pcfiaiios iroXkas irapoi/JLias 

€K T(OV €V KOIVQ \prq(T€l* fJLOl 

Ka/JLV€T€ rrjv xdpiv vd puoi €iirrrT€ 
Tivas €K tc3v <rvvr)0€OT€p<ov ; 
cya> 8c 0a irpooiradrp-ia va evpw 
ra$ dvrurroi'xpva-as 'AyyAi/cas. 

Evxaparrws. 'AicouraTc Ao&- 
iroV Ttvas. 

proverbs, the collection of which 
is not an easy task. In the 
third volume of the Pandora, 
a most excellent periodical, a 
good many proverbs have been 
published, which the learned 
physician I. de Cigallas collected, 
and which were not included in 
the collection of Venizelos. 

As a Greek, you must certainly 
recollect many proverbs among 
those in ordinary use : will you 
do me the favour to repeat to 
me some of those which are more 
commonly employed? And I 
will endeavour to find the corre- 
sponding English ones. 

With pleasure. Listen then 
to some of them. 

Greek Version 
KdXXto TeVre koX 'j 

rb x^P* 
IlapA dtKOLKal Kapripi. 

"Oxou XaXo0K iroXXol 
Tcrctrol, apyct va 'fr 


01 xoXXoi Kapapo- 
KVpcuot xviyown rb 

' Axb AvOpwirov airavbv 
rplxa 8h 'propels va 

Els rijv avappoxia, 
Ka\b Kal rb xaXdft. 

"Orav ij afiX'/j <rov Bt\f/g f 

'0 ydSapos <bv6fia<re 
rbv irereivbv K€<pd\a. 

Literal Translation 

Better five and in 
the hand 
than ten and delay. 

Where many cocks 
crow, it delays to dawn. 

Many commanders 
sink the ship. 

You cannot pull a 
hair from (the chin of) 
a smooth-faced man. 

In drought even hail 
is good. 

When your court- 
yard is dry, do not 
throw water outside. 

The donkey called 
the cock big-head. 

English Equivalent 

A bird in the hand 
is worth two in the 

Too many cooks spoil 
the broth. 

You cannot get blood 
out of a stone. 

Half a loaf is better 
than no bread. 

Charity begins at 

The pot called the 
kettle black. 

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"Orotos Kwtfyq. wok- Whoever chases Jack - of - all - trades 
Xoi>* Xayovs Kaviva, dev many hares does not and master of none. 
Tibet. catch one. 

T&Xoyov 'tov <rov Do not look at the 
XapLfrvp els ra 56ptl<i teeth of the horse that 

/*V to /SX^xtfs. 

they make you a 
present of. 

They gave a present 
to John and he found 

Tov Ttdwrj dwpov 

Kt' cdnbs fMTOfiircus fault with it. 

TOV €$fH.<TK€. 

TLirpa VoO KvXdet 
Bepfrio dev -mdvei. 

'0 <ricti\os Vov yavyt- 
*H xairas xaxas, 4) 

A stone that rolls 
does not acquire firm- 

The dog that barks 
does not bite. 

Let a priest be a 
priest, and a plough" to his last 
man a ploughman. 

Do not look a gift- 
horse in the mouth. 

A rolling stone 
gathers no moss. 

His bark is worse 
than his bite. 

Let the cobbler stick 

'M<£na Vov Sh (pal- The eyes which are Out of sight, out of 
vovtxu yXijyopa Xrjfffw- not seen are soon for- mind. 
vovvtojl. gotten. 

Speech is silver, Speech is silver but 
silence is gold. silence is gold. 

Who spits at the Curses come home 
sky spits in his own to roost, 

The blind man To look for a needle 
looked for a needle in in a bottle of hay. 
the hay-loft. 

A crow does not peck 
out a crow's eye. 

'Apyvpb rb 'fjJXrifui 
Xpwd to (narcra. 

"Oxoto* tyrei rbv o&pa- 
vov <fyrel ra fwvrpd tov. 

"Srpafios pe\6vi ytpeve 
lU<ra 's rbv dxvpwva. 

K6paxas icopdicov 'fidn 
fo> 'fiydvei. 

Ad$ tov poffKov yd\a. 

Give milk to the 

T6 ffldepo irvpujpAvo 

"Eva xekfibvi Avoil-tv 


when hot 

One swallow does 
not bring spring. 

Hawks do not peck 
out hawks' eyes. 

To carry coals to 

Strike while the iron 
is hot. 

One swallow does 
not make a summer. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



Td OTajMvl 'too 'xdet 

Xi4 xrtfnpre. 

The pitcher that 
goes often to the 
fountain one day is 

With one throw he 
hit two birds. 

The pitcher that 
goes often to the well 
is broken at last 

To kill two birds 
with one stone. 

Mcra Tas ira/oot/uas /caraA- 
A77A09 vofufo irapourtafcrat 
cts rj/uis eu/catpta va eivvfLev 
oAtya Ttva koX wept atvty- 
fjuxTiov. ILapa rots dpyaiois 
"EAAr^rt, a>s Aiyct 6 'A0j}vatos, 
at zrcpt aiviyfidrtav (rv^rfTrjcreis 
o^v cOcvpovvro dAAorptai </uAo- 
o~o<£tas* <rvv€iOi£ov 6« va irpo- 
pdWbxrw avrct ?rapa tovs iro- 
tovs a r^v t^s irat&tas <Mroo*€t£tv 


*H irporaxrts vpQ>v ctVat *aA?) 
#cat avoScxofJbcu avrrjv €V\api- 

OT(0S* €}(<*> 5c OV^t €VKOTa<f>p6- 

vrjrov <rvkkoyr)V atvty/AOTcuv, 

dp\aiU)V T€ KCU V€<0T€p<i)V 9 K(U 

8vvdfi€$a va &ik\du>p£v Ttva c£ 
avTwv. Kat irpwrov pxv as 
dp\ur(apL€V €K t&v dp\at(ov. c O 
'Ao-/cA^irta5iys trap' 'AOrjvaiy 
Acyet 6Vt to t»/s 2<£tyyos 
atvty/*a €?X€V <os «£>}$• 

""Eort 8tVovv €7rt y^s /cat rerpd- 
TroVy 0$ /ita <fxi)vrj, 

Kat Tparov, dAAaoxrct 6c ^t^v 
/xoVov, oaxr «rt yatav 

'E/MTCTOt KtV€tTat dvd t' dlOcpO, 

Kat Kara irovrov. 

AAA 07roTav TrXeia'Touriv coct- 

oo/*€vov iroo-t /Salvy, 

After the proverbs, I think a 
good opportunity presents itself 
for us to say a few words also 
about riddles. Among the an- 
cient Greeks, as Athenaeus says, 
discussions about riddles were 
not regarded as foreign to 
philosophy ; and they were 
accustomed to propound them 
at their drinking-parties, " mak- 
ing in them a display of their 

Your proposal is a good one, 
and I accept it with pleasure. 
I have a by no means despicable 
collection of riddles, both ancient 
and modern, and we can go 
through some of them. And 
let us first begin with the 
ancient ones. In Athenaeus, 
Asclepiades says that the riddle 
of the Sphinx was as follows : 

" There is on the earth an animal 
two-footed and four-footed, but 
it has one voice ; it is also three- 
footed, and the only one that 
changes its nature of all the 

that move upon the earth and 
in the air and in the sea, 
but whenever it goes supported 
on most feet, 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



"Ev0a Ta\os yviourw d<j>avp6- 

rarov irtkei avrov? * 

To atvty/Aa rovro rrjs *E<f>iyybs 

(fxfKTou irapa rots dp\aiots kou 

ik ir€$bv \6yov /carol 8ia<f>6povs 

Tpoirovs' dXA' as /i€Ta/?a>/x€v 

ffirf €is rbv ' &vTi<f>avr)v Sorts 

toi€a rrjv 2a7r<£a> fly>o/?d AAowav 

aivlyfmra fj a>s ovopAfa avra 6 

'Aflqvatos ypi^ow 

u *Eo"ri <£v<ris fliJAcia Pp€<f>rj 

cna^ovtr' vtto koAttois 

Avn}s. *Ovra 8* a<f><ava fiorjv 

urrrj<rL y€y(ovov f 

Kcu 8wt wovrtov o?o/£a #cai 

rjiretpov Sia irdarrfs y 

Ofs c&Act OvqTiav' rots 8' ov 

irapeowriv olkov€iv 

"E^cotiv Kio<f)r)v o° d/co^s 

aurd'qa'W c^ovo-iv." 

Ti aivwnrcTat 6 ypi<f>os odros 
ocv cvpow • 8vvacr#€ v/x€ts va /xot 

€OnjT€ 7TO>S €ZTlAv€Tat / 

*Av Xdpryre okiyrjv viropx)vrjv 
o.vrrj ij 2a?r</>a> 0<x OTiAvo-fl 
avTov cis vftas c/a/act/xos ' irplv 
o/hds yeiVfl tovto dKovcrare irws 
craAwcv avrov 6/c twv dpyaimv 

TtS €7Tl TO Kb)U,lK(tiT€pOV * 

n pxv <f>\xri$ yap rjv Acycis, 

&rrlv irokis* 

Bp€<£)j S' lv avry rpc<f>€i rovs 


OtiroL K€KpayoT€S 0€ Ta 8W 


Tcwc rrjs 'Ao-ias #cai diro 0op/o/s 

EAlCOWt OCV/K). N€/lO/X€V0)V 0€ 


then its speed with its limbs is 
most feeble." 

This riddle of the Sphinx is 
mentioned among the ancients 
also in prose, in various fashions ; 
but let us now go to Antiphanes 
who represents Sappho pro- 
pounding riddles, or ypt<f>oi as 
Athenaeus calls them : 

"There is a female creature, 

keeping children under its bosom. 

Though dumb they send a loud 


over the swell of the sea and 

over every continent 

to any of mortals that they wish : 

it is not possible for those present 

to hear, but they have their 

sense of hearing deaf." 

I do not understand what 
mystery this riddle conveys : can 
you tell me how it is solved ? 

If you will have a little 
patience, Sappho herself will 
solve it for you in verse ; but 
before this takes place, hear how 
one of the ancients solved it in 
a rather comical manner : 
" The creature that you mention 
is a state : 

she fosters children in her, the 

These, by their shouts, the trans- 

revenues from Asia and from 

draw hither. While they are 

1 Athenaeus, x. 83. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



AvtcDv Kadrjfrai koiSopovptvw 
f ? d 

OVU OptoV. 

'A/covo-cura ty)v \xxrw ravrqv 
r) ^air<f><a dva<fxav€i' 
** H£k ykvovr dv, <5 irdrcp, 
'Pip-top a<fxj)vo$, rjv pr) dA<£ t/jas 
irapavop*>v /" 

"EireiTa czrtAvet tov ypl<f>ov 

u BiyA€ia /i€v vvv coti <f>v\ri$ 

kirvarroXr] • 

Bpc<f>r) 8* cv avr^ irtpuf&ptt, rol 

ypdp.pua.Ta. • 

"A<fxava 8* ovra ravra rots 

iroppw AaAct, 

Ofs /3ov\*0' • Ircpos 5f dv tvxi/ 

tis vkrjo'Cov 

c E<rra»$ dvayivwoTcovros or* 

cucowerai. x 

Ev<^V6(rraTos ypt<f>os' o</>€i- 

\ofuv 8k TrAetoriyv €vyva>/*o- 

(rvvrjv cts ttjv iroirjrpiav l£air<f>u) 

oti /Ltas a7n}AAa^€ tov koVov 

T»/S Aw"6(tfS aVTOV. 

AticatoT€/>ov cfvcu vo/u'fci> vd 
€K<f>pdero>fA€V tyjv evyviopxxrvvrjv 
rjpuav cts tov 'AvTi^dvrjVy Siori 
€K€ivos r)ro 6 iroLYjo-as tov tc 
ypi<fx>v teal TTjv \v\riv avrov. 

Tco/oa as dvayvwrmp^v kcu 
Tiva alvtypaTa Tr\% NcocAA^vt- 
ki}s <£iAoAoyias, 8tort outci /xot 
€v8ta(f)(povcrL irepuro-orepov. 

Uplv p,€ra/3(op.€V cts Tavra 
kirvrpk^/ark poi v* dvayvwrto 

Vp.LV KCU TO !£>}$ 01T6/3 dvT€ypatf/CL 

€K tov 'AdrjvaCov ooris Acycf 


1 Athenaeus, x. 72. 

and for ever abusing, near them 
is seated 

the populace which neither hears 
nor sees anything. " 

On hearing this solution 
Sappho exclaims : 
" How can an orator, father, 
be reduced to silence, unless 
he has been thrice convicted 
of illegal acts V 1 

Then she solves the riddle 
" The female creature is a letter : 

she carries children about in 

her, the characters : 

though dumb they speak to 

those far away, 

to whomever they wish : if 

another happen to be standing 

near to him who reads it, he will 

not hear." 

A very clever riddle ; and we 
owe the greatest gratitude to the 
poetess Sappho for saving us the 
trouble of its solution. 

I think it is more just to 
express our gratitude to Anti- 
phanes, for it was he who com- 
posed both the riddle and its 

Now let us read also some 
riddles which belong to modern 
Greek literature, for these 
interest me more. 

Before we go to these, let me 
read to you also the following 
which I copied from Athenaeus 
who says : " Euripides appears 

i by Google 



"Evpnri&qs 0€ ttjv kv t<£ 0ry<r€4 
jyjy eyypdfifiarov coucc iroifjo'fti 
pfyrw. Bot*7/> 8' karlv aypap^ 
jmtos avToOi, Si/Axov rovvofia 
tov Qrjo-€(t>s iiriyeypafifj&vov, 


<r Eyw TT€<f>VKa ypafifidrtov pkv 
ovk i6/h$, 

Mo/o^as &€ Ai£a) kcu <ra^ 

fl€TpOVfl€VOS ' 

Ovtos 8* l^€t o-qp&lov kv pJe<r(p 

To 0€VT€/30V 8€ ITptoTCL fLCV ypapr 

fxat 8vo 9 

Tavras Steipyei 8 3 kv pJka-ais 

aWrj fiia. 

Tpirov 8k fiooTpvyps tis a>s 


lo 6 av reraprov i\v p&v €is 

opObv fua, 

Ao£al 8' €7r' avrrjs T/>€ts /car- 


Euriv. To Ttkpnrrov 8' ovk kv 

ev/mpei <f>pd<Tai • 

Tpafifial yap turiv €K 8i€<rr<oT<t>v 

8vo 9 

A$tcu 8e (rvvTpkxovcrw els fiiav 


To Xourdiov 8e t<£ to try irpoar- 

€p.<f>€p€S.' " X 

"Ottcos kvvorjo~n tls KaXus ttjv 
TT€piypa<f>rjv tov €v<j>vovs /3ov- 
koXov irpkirei va \df3y w oxfei 
ot4 els rbv Kaipbv tov Evomtioov 
Ta kv \prjo'€L fjaav Ta 
K€<f>a\aia, &ot€ to ovopa tov 
Adrjvaiov rjpuos kypd<f>€TO tot* 
ovrto' 0H2ET2. 

to have composed in his Tlieseus 

a passage descriptive of written 

characters. There is in it a 

herdsman who cannot read, who 

describes the name of Theseus on 

an inscription thus : 

'I am not skilled in written 


but I will tell you their forms 

and clear indications. 

A circle as if measured by the 

compasses : 

this has a clear mark in the 


The second is first two lines, 

then another one between them 

keeps them apart. 

The third is like a twisted curl. 

The fourth again was one line 


and crosswise upon it three 

firmly fixed 

are there. Now the fifth is not 

easy to explain, 

for there are two lines from 

separate points, § 

and these meet upon one base. 

The last is like the third? " 

In order that one may well 
understand the clever herdsman's 
description, one must keep in 
view that in the time of Euri- 
pides the letters in use were 
capitals, so that the name of the 
Athenian hero was at that time 
written thus : theseus. 

1 Athenaeus, x. 80. 

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Katpo? napa va fX€Taft£>fj*v 
c*c twv apxaiotv cts to. alvtypara 
rrjs crqfupLvrjs t EXXrjvtKrjs. 

Ev^apttrrws, /tcrot t^s <rvfju- 
<fxi)V las Sfjuas va irpooiraQrfrtftt 
vfuls va evprjT€ rrjv Xvcriv 

'Eav o/uds 8<v SvvrjOta va ra 
e7rtAvo-a> 0a 2;((tf va v7ro<rr<u 
Tipuapiav rtva; 8tdVt ws 6t£cv/9ere 
ol d/o^atbt cts tovs fti) 6Wa- 
fUvovs va anXvoxri ra wpo- 
f$aXX6p*va cis avrovs aiviypara 
kirkfiaXXov iroivrjv ov)(l evdpt- 
otov dvc/uyvuov rbv otvov 
avT&v p*& aXprjs /cat rjvdy- 
/cafov avrovs va 7rtaxrtv SXov to 

€pTT€pL€\6p€V0V TOV WOTTJpCoV 


Mrf fofaicrOt ori da Trd$7p , € 
roiovrov ti irap' tpov, StoVt €ya> 
ov pjovov 8kv 6a eras avay/cacrft) 
va irlrjT* olvov dXpvpbv lav 5«v 
X\xrqr€ ra atvtypxra, dXXa #a 
eras &ocra> Kal Stootav va pot 
€iTrr)T€ rrjv Avcrtv €ts to tcXos 
tov ra^€iZiov pas. 


TrpoOvptos Kal d<f>6/3u)s v aKOvcro) 
ra. aiviypara' dvaytvaxr/c€T€ 
Aowrov /cat prj f3paSvv€T€. 

*Y/i€tS 8c TTpOG-€\€T€ &JTWS 



Ei/a* a^v^ov, tip ac/wovov 
J AAA' a/xa cru OeXrjcrys, 

4>a>v^v /cat yovt/LtoTr/Ta 
Mot x<Wy€fe cirt<n/s. 

It is now time for as to go 
from the ancient to the modern 
Greek riddles. 

With pleasure, but on the 
understanding that you are to 
endeavour to find the solution 
of them. 

But if I am unable to solve 
them, shall I have to undergo 
any penalty ? For, as you know, 
the ancients used to impose upon 
those who were unable to solve 
the riddles propounded to them 
a punishment not at all pleasant : 
they mixed their wine with salt 
water and compelled them to 
drink the whole contents of the 
cup at a draught 

Do not be afraid that you 
will suffer any such infliction 
from me, for I will not only not 
compel you to drink salt wine 
if you do not solve the riddles, 
but I will even allow you time to 
tell me the solution up to the 
end of our journey. 

On these terms I willingly 
and fearlessly agree to hear the 
riddles : read them then to me 
and do not lose any time. 

And you give your mind to 
discover what is hidden. 


I am lifeless, I am dumb, 
but as soon as you wish, 
voice and fecundity 
you equally afford me. 

1 The answers to these riddles are given in Appendix III. 

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Tcvvft) fwv rrfv yevmipav 
Kal ra\vT€povs jftcAovs 


KaTaaTpoifnjs ayycAow. 

AvTOl /HOV $€ 04 €KyOVOl 

*Av Kal 'StKoi jxov yovoi 
'AAA* 5/iCt»s airo/Jcui/owr* 
IIoAAa/as irarpoKT6voi • 

'Aoparos, a€/oto5 

*0 ayoufc t<ov Spofjios. 
' Efv' iy xvo^ /nov flavaros 
Kal 17 ^opq /aov rpofws. 

Ata^ooov to fX€yeOos 
Tty Svvafuv to G-^rjfua, 

IIoAAwv avOpiim-iav avoi£a 
'Airoi^/rl to fJLvrjfia. 

'Eav /Jt€ oV^idVifTa 


Uvp Kal \aX,Kov vapayoww 
At 8vo Stai/xcreis. 

Kou ai> tovs 6vo iroAovs /*ov 

'Epcuo^s cts ev oAov, 
IIapaooA)v, *rAi)i/ aAi^&s, 

Tcvvft) to j' Iva woAov. 
(Ilav&ooas to/lu A 7 o\ 484.) 

B ' 
Ilocbv cf/xat to yvayufcts* 

Ti, cirurrjs to ei£ev/0€is. 

"Ovov piipys ev <rov fJk&fifM 

Elvcu cvKokov vd /x' €vpys. 

Avo </>i'Aoi d3cA<^ot fiov 

2v/x^xoj/ovv, to, <rvfxf3i/3d£ow y 
Kat €ts tcis avAas twv fevwv 

Ka&yvTcu #ccu /tc <fxavd£ovv. 

I give birth to my mother, 
and swifter than a dart 
are my offspring I send forth, 
emissaries of destruction. 

My very children 

though they are my own offspring 

yet they become 

often parricides : 

invisible, aerial 
is their wild course. 
My breath is death 
and my voice terror. 

Differing in size 

in power and in form, 

of many men I have opened 

without trouble the tomb. 

If with dexterity 
you cut me in half, 
fire and copper 
the two halves produce. 

And if my two extremities 
you join in one whole, 
marvellous but true 
I form one end. 

(Pandora, vol. L p. 484.) 

Who I am you are aware ; 
what too you equally know. 
Wherever you cast a single glance, 
it is easy for you to find me. 

Two dear brothers of mine are 
in harmony, agree in their affairs, 
and in the halls of strangers 
sit down and call me. 

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M^ tovs euAa/Jcts fi okovovv 
Kat pk fJXarovcrt. kv/hws* 

M' eo€py€Tqv ttA^v Kavcva 
Acv fu jSAiirowrt tcAcmos. 

EvayvlAta 6 Mapicos 
Kat 6 'Iaxxvnys l^ovv, 
€ts avra ft aicovovv wavra 
"Oo-oi avdpunroi 7rpoa-€\ovv. 

Mcra 8ia/36\a)v rp€\(a 

Kat /irra rwv /?0VJcoAa#ca>v, 

Kat <fxt>vd£a) irotov cipat 
'Airb rS.Kpa rwv avAaK<t>v. 

Ets rrfv Kokvfifirjdpav pecra 
M' aAAovs 8€*a ipaTrrUrOrjv, 

Mc Xotortavov /cavcva 
IlawroTc Scv k<r\€Turdir)v. 

<&€vy<i) 7ravTOT€ tovs vavVas • 

Tovs vava/o^ovs <f>l\ovs fya)* 
Ets ra 7rAot(x rcov 6cv e^aat 

M€ TOtS Ac/it/JoVS oAaS TO€^(0. 

Ilotov efyiat, o*€ to Acyct 
'Ev a/t>x^ o EvptTrtorys. 

"H/cowcs ; II Aqv prj (V/tiJot/s 
*Ev avnj) /cat va /t€ to#s. 

AvO-KoAcVCO-at CLKOflT) / 

*l£pfia va i8ys irov Ketpai' 

K't av <f>(i>vd£ys, "cr* efyoov o - ' 


Ats 0* aicovo-fls 7rotov 

2. K. K. 

(IIavoa>/oas to/a. A' o\ 532.) 


Ets ra vwra rrjs OaXda-trqs 
^a-rapkirq & v craAcvco, 

With the pious, people hear me 
and especially they see me ; 
but with any benefactor 
they see me not at alL 

Gospels Mark 

and John possess, 

and in these people always hear 

me as many men as pay attention, 

With devils I take my course 
and also along with ghosts, 
and I proclaim who I am 
from the edges of the channels. 

Inside the font, 

with ten others I was baptized, 
but with any Christian 
never had I ought to do. 

Sailors I alway shun : 
I have admirals for friends : 
I am not in their ships, 
with all boats I travel fast 

What I am tells you 
in the beginning Euripides. 
Did you hear ? But do not seek 
in him to see me too. 

Are you in difficulty still ? 

where I am go in to see ; 

and if you cry : " I have found 

you, I have found you," 

twice your ear will tell you what 

I am. S. C. C. 

(Pandora, voL i. p. 532.) 

On the surface of the sea 
standing I do not move, 

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IIAl/V /A€TOt TO>V OTrko<f>6p(i)V 

Hepirpcxo) rd f3ovvd 9 
Kal av fJL€ airoK€<j>aXio"QS 

Eis rbv "OX.vfj.Trov i7nr€V(«>, 
'Ottov veos olvo)(6os 

QcLOV V€KTCLp fJL€ #C€/Ov£. 

(TLavdwpas Top* 6' <r. 368.) 

A 7 
Ei/uu iirlrpOTros rov r)Xiov 

€irl rrjs <r<f>aipas rrjs vSpoyelov 
Et]nafc /Mvdpx^S €vdpovurpL€VOSy 

p* Xaparpov OT€p,pa &T€<j>av(o- 

Tv(Opl£o) irkrjdoS TWV pLVOTlKtOV 

€?/** 6 irurroraros t<2v Trwrnov 


2^c8ov to rjp,urv rrjs fa»}s <rov 
€LfxaL 6 (fylXraros rrjs foXl* 
Kat p? oA.a ravra pk Kara- 

p.* dyv(apMVvr)v p,€ dvr~ 


M* oAov rbv Opovov kolI rr)v 

oroXrjv /40V, 

TToWaKlS T€/AV€IS T^V K€<£a- 

Aiyv /xov. 

Ka0' oow T€/*v€ts ycvvaYat 


ij ^ct/o o-ov 8 3 a#0is r^v Kara- 


TC </>X6ya Tpecjxo €ts rqv KapSiav 

Sict Too-avr^v d)(apurTiav ! 
\i' o Kal TrJKop,ai /cat X av ~ 
vovpai f 

Kal #car oAiyov diroveicpovpcu,, 
[0 0-rkp.pja iriirrei irpb twv 


but with armed men 
I run about the hills ; 
and if you cut my head < 
I ride away to Olympus, 
where a youug cup-beare 
hands me divine nectar. 
(Pandora, vol. ix. j 

I take the place of the sr 
on the terraqueous globe 
I am a monarch enthrone 
with a bright diadem crc 

I know a number of your 

I am the most trusted < 

confidants ; 

for nearly half your life 

I am the closest friend < 


And with all this you afl 

with ingratitude you reqi 

With all my throne a 


often you cut off my hea 

As often as you cut it off, i 

is produced, 

your hand again destroys 

What a flame I nourish 


for such thanklessness ! 

And for this I melt a^s 


and in a little while I di 

my crown falls at my fee 

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Kal tot* €vpia-KO) tov Odvarov and then I meet my death. 


I. P. c Payica/}i}s J. R. Rangabes 

(Ek ttjs *Awo$T^Krfi twv (IxfxXt- (From the Magazine of Useful 
fjuav yvuHrcnH', to/a. B' <t. ioo). Knowledge, vol. ii. f>. 100). 

E ' 
Ef/xat /x«ra cts T^y 'Pw/Aiyv kcu o-uyx/aovcos €ts t?)v Kwv, 

8iaTplfio) cis Mw/ocav tt)v 'Paxro-iav /carot/cwv. 
Eis to 6a>/xa cov ovxydfa els tov oTkov o'ov wore. 

cis tov Tpd\rj\ov Sc/xcvov /*€ KpaTOvv ol TnaXryraL 
'Eyw a\frv\ov /tcv cf/uu Kat xcoots dvairvorjv, 

Sfjuas c?/acu dvayicatbv c*s ckootov ttjv [wjv. 
at o totos o €/oa>9 cupavifcT cv Tavnp, 

aV TO VTTOK€lfJL€VOV fWV OCV VirdpXQ cV aVT<j>. 

Za> fiaKpav dwb ra 800-77, 7rA^v /ac £<£a jcaTouco) * 

cts ttjv yijv irorc Scv cf/xcu Kal p.* dvOpdnrovs arvvoucw. 
"Oirov rj TTTQ}\bs f) ykp<av, aStoraKrcos *roox<*>/><*»> 

av 6c xAotKrios t) veos, iraocvflus ava^w/ow- 
Eis tov Koapuov oev ^' €vpurK€is 00*01/ Kal &v oToxacrOjjs* 

irXriv av Ijvai <f><t>s f-c* /}A.cVcts cis to fi&rov irapevdvs. 
Ets rov #ca>v<0?ros to o-w/xa evpvxtapws €ur\(ap(ay 

cv<£ c2/xat toow /xrya, <2>oV ov6' cis tottSv xo/>u>. 
Tt aKOfitj 8cv /£* €vplcrK€i$ ; ti aKo/i-q oVo/octs ; 

cis to o-Tocufia o-ov i/a /x' euojTS x^P** ko7zw ci/aito/dcis. 
IldJs cis €kotoo-iv Too m avrtfv 9 dvayvcxrra, o~k /ava>; 

c*s t^v yXcinrav o~ou cVavco cucuvicds Tpiyvpvu). 

I. P. Tay#ca/&}s 
('E* t^s ' AirodriK-qs t<uv uxfxktpuav yvaKrcwv, to/*. A' <r. 128}. 

V 1 
I am in Rome and at the same time in Cos. 
I reside in the Morea while I inhabit Muscovy. 
I am often on your roof but never in your dwelling. 
Fastened to their neck shopkeepers hold me. 
I am without life and without breath 
but 1 am necessary to the soul of all ; 
and love itself in a moment disappears 
if my substance be not in it 

1 A very slight freedom of translation has adapted this riddle to th« 
English language. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



I live away from thickets but with their* occupants I dwell. 
I am never on the earth but with mortals still I live. 
I present myself freely where the poor are and the old, 
but if a rich man or a lad be there I quickly go away. 
You do not find me in the universe, however much you think : 
but if there be a glow of light, you straightway find me in its 

I enter the mosquito's body and have much room to spare, 
while I am so big that in all space I have no room at alL 
Why have you not yet found me 1 Why are you still at fault ? 
Without trouble you can find me on your cot ; 
Why, reader, do I move you to such a trance of wonder ? 
I am always going here and there for ever on your tongue. 

J. R. Rangabes 
(From the Magazine of Useful Knowledge, voL i. p. 128). 

tdyiO €lfl €K€WO TO TTOVAl 

onrov yewa ait* tv\ /xvrq ' 
'Hov €)(€(, fJiavpr) ttj (fxoXrja 

ki dpaxyiao'fJLtvo ottitl 
Tpcts fie Kparovv orav y€w<o, 

I* dXrjQeia irp&ra irtwo, 
Eis aoirpovs KafAirovs rd yevvta 

ki oTTtb-oi fwv t 3 a<£ii/(«>* 
Kat oAa K€tva ra irovkia 

avOpomiva kaXowri* 
TLoioi Ta ypoLKovv orav kakovv 


('E#c rrjs 'EfiSofmSos, 1884.) 


2aS 6/AlA.d) \U)pls VCL €\(i) OTOfMl' 

TLepnrarto \(apls Kav va Ktvwpxu' 
* YWa/JX^ fa* \(apls va €\(o o-(5/xa' 
K*t ov5e7TOT€,ov8«roT€ Kotpuopai • 
Atx<o? avrid aKovo) icd$€ ktvtto, 
4>g>vc££t€ /*€ Key <a dd eras to €nrw. 
('Ek t%'E£$o/lw£oos, 1884.) 


I am that bird 

that gives birth from its beak ; 

which has a black nest 

and a house all full of cobwebs. 

Three hold me when I give birth, 

but truly first I take a drink ; 

on white plains I give them birth 

and behind me then I leave them : 

and all those birds 

speak the words of men : 

some understand them when 

they speak and some do not 

comprehend them. 

(From The Week, 1884.) 

I speak to you without having 
a mouth ; I walk without as 
much as moving ; I exist, I live, 
without having a body, 
and never, never do I sleep : 
without ears I hear every sound, 
call me and I will tell it you. 

(From The Week, 1884.) 

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Ilcrctvos 'wxdros, 
Hepirarei Kal k/hvci 
Mc SiKauxrvyrj. 

(ArjfM)Tucbv atviy/xa.) 

IlaJ? eras i]p€(rav ra NeocA,- 
Aryvtica aivlypuara ; cvorpraT* ri 
VTroKpv7TTov<riv ; 

Mot fipcxrav vTrepPakXovrws 
Kal vofiifo 6V* cigcvpQ) rrjv 
kxxriv avrdJv, dkk' areiSr^ ws 

/?A.€7T€T€ €</>^aCTa/iCV CIS B/>€V- 

T^crtov, ariTpkypaTk fwi Kara tcl 
(rv/nr€<f>u)vr)fi€va va cas ct-Tro) 
avr^v €is to tcXos tov Ta^ctoYov 

ILov Oa virdyaifiev va A,aj9a>- 
/Ltcv oAiyov irpoyevpa. ; 

&kv €)(0fL€v Kaipbv va vira- 
ya)fi€V €ts Kavkv pxpos, Sioti air' 
evdtias irp€TT€L va /*€Ta/?ayi€v 

€tS TO aT/407rA.OlOV, &7TOV 8*V 
dfJL(f)lf3dW(i) 6d €Vp<0fJL€V TO 

irpoyevfia iroifwv cVt rrjs rpa~ 

Et ovtws €\€i as cnr€va-(t}fi€v 
ocrov Ta^Lora els to aTfwir\oiov y 

SlOTt €\(ti VTTCpjSoklKrjV 1T€lVaV. 

A cock with claws, 
with clawed feet, 
walks about and judges 
with justice. 

(Popular riddk) 

How do you like the modem 
Greek riddles ? Did you find 
out what they hide ? 

They pleased me excessively, 
and I think I know the solution 
of them, but since, as you see, 
we have arrived at Brindisi, 
allow me, according to the 
agreement, to tell it you at the 
end of our journey. 

Where shall we go to get a 
little breakfast ? 

We have not time to go any- 
where, for we must go straight 
off to the steamer, where I have 
no doubt we shall find breakfast 
ready on the table. 

If that be so, let us hasten as 
fast as possible to the steamer, 
for I am excessively hungry. 

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To Trpoyevfia krekelaxre' ri 
A.£y€T€, ava/3aivofJL€V €is to 
KaraoT/CKo/Aa v dvairv€v<r<i>fi€V 
oXiyov KaOapbv dkpa ; 

Ev^ao«rra)s, Siotl r) drpo- 
<T(f>aipa cow /caret) Scv €?vat ttoAv 

€tfdp€OTOS ' 7T€/)t/Jt€tVaT€ O/ACOS 

/uaj/ (rn,yp.r)v va virdym va 


ras Sioirrpas. 

Ilapa/caAa), av 6*€V eras 8io# 

K07TOV, </>€/>€T€ #cal Tots l&ZCaS 
/tOV 0a TOIS €Vp7]T€ €7Tl Tljs 

icAtvi/s ftov. 

IIoA/u /caXa . . . rw/oa as 
dva/?(5/4€V €ts to KaTaxTTpiapa. 
"12, Tt Xapirpbs Katoos / fcf KlBpia 
pkv tol avtoOcv, aKvpLavrov 8k 
Kal yaXrjviov aVav to irkXayos, 


Kal t$ oi/Tt efvai Xap/jrpora- 
tos Katpos, ical €v\opai, va 
e£aKoXovdy va fjvat, toiovtos 

€JTl 7To\v, SlOTl av KOI 8kv p.€ 

ireipdfa r) $d\a<r<ra /cat kv 
pxyurTQ TpiKvpia, 1TpOTip,(0 OfJLGJS 
Kaipibv yaXrjViov. 

^vp,<f>(ov(>) irXrjpkoTara p£ 
v/xas, 8«m 6Vav 6 Kaipbs €?vai 
KaXbs 8t€px*Ta[ Tts Tas <5/oas 
tov ev\apC(rT(t>s kv t<£ irXoiy 

Breakfast is finished : what 
do yon say, shall we go up on 
deck and take a little breath of 
fresh air ? 

With pleasure, for the atmo- 
sphere down here is not very 
pleasant : but stay a moment 
till I go and get the glasses 
from my cabin. 

If it gives you no trouble, 
please bring mine too : you 
will find them on my berth. 

All right . . . now let us 
go up on deck. Oh, what 
splendid weather ! " Bright up 
above, without a wave too and 
calm all the sea, like a mirror, 
so to say." 

And indeed it is most splendid 
weather, and I hope it will 
continue to be such for a long 
time, for though the sea does 
not incommode me even in the 
greatest storm, nevertheless I 
prefer calm weather. 

I quite agree with you, for 
when the weather is fine, one 
passes one's time pleasantly on 
board ship : one can walk about 

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Svvarai .va trepvwary arl rov 
Karaarpia/JLaroSy Svvarai va, 
crvvofxiXy fxcra </>i'Aa>v, Svvarai, 
av ijvat ^lAavayvoKm/s, va 
€#cAi£fl fuav fprv\ov ytaviav #cat 
c#c€t va €VTpvif)$ dvayivtaa-Kiav 
Kal dvairvkiav rrfv &pocrcpav 
avpav rrjs OakdtroTjs. 

Tt Aeycrc, 8*v vo/ufcrc oti 
0a ^vat icaAov va €kAc^<u/a€v 
ko2 17/ttis fttav ^<rvx ov ywvtav, 
#cai vet €^aKoXx>vOrjfT(a/i€V rds 
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on the deck : one can converse 
with one's friends : one can, if 
fond of reading, choose a quiet 
corner and there enjoy oneself 
with a book while breathing the 
fresh air of the sea. 

What do you say, do you not 
think it would be a good thing 
for us too to choose a quiet 
corner and pursue our favourite 

Certainly : but where shall 
we sit ? Here I see every 
place is occupied : at that end 
there are two seats, but the two 
loquacious Germans are seated 
near there, who deafened us with 
their voices at breakfast-time. 
But look at those four Italians 
here to your left, one would 
think that forty men were talk- 
ing : if one were to judge by 
their voices and their gestures, 
one would suppose that they 
were quarrelling and that they 
would very soon come to blows, 
while nothing of the sort hap- 
pens : they are talking together 
in the most friendly manner and 
have an exceedingly peaceful 
subject of conversation. 

The people of southern climes 
are extremely animated in their 
discussions, and, since each of 
them tries to be the first to 
express his ideas, it often hap- 
pens that they all talk at the 
same time and there arises a 

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confusion and clamour just as 
if they were chasing a jackdaw : 
at last, with much bawling 
and every kind of gesticulation, 
it is often the one who can 
shout the loudest that gains the 

Here, I think, the crown 
of victory will be gained by 
that desperately warlike Cala- 
brian who, with his stentorian 
voice, has already succeeded in 
preventing the rest from being 

He is indeed " great with the 
war-shout," as Homer entitles 
his heroes, and the meed of 
valour is his due. . . . But 
what is happening? I see 
every one running to the bow. 

Something must be happen- 
ing, so let us too go and see 
what is going on. 

All the hurrying and pushing 
to get to the bow was on account 
of these men-of-war which are 
calmly cleaving the waters of 
the Adriatic. 

I suppose they are the same 
that we saw this morning in 
the open sea outside the Gulf of 

Very probably : but I see 
they do not belong to the Italian 
navy, as we thought this morn- 
ing, but to the Austrian. They 
all seem handsome and powerful 
vessels. Formerly the Austrian 
fleet produced fear and trem- 
bling in the Italians, but after 
the terrible reverse the latter 

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sustained off Lissa in the year 
1866, learning wisdom from 
what they had suffered, they 
set themselves energetically to 
the construction of a strong 
fleet, and now they are not only 
a match for the Austrians on 
the sea, but are even superior 
to them. 

Do you know as nearly as 
possible what the naval power 
of the Italians now is 1 

I think it consists of 18 iron- 
clads, 19 protected cruisers, 9 
despatch - boats, 6 torpedo - 
cruisers, 8 gunboats, and 128 
torpedo-boats and other craft 
Two of her ironclads, the 
Italia and the Lepanto, are 
perhaps the largest ironclads of 
all that have been built up to 
the present day. 

But why should the Italians 
give to one of their largest iron- 
clads the name of a small Greek 

In memory, I believe, of the 
famous naval action which took 
place off Lepanto in the 16th 
century, in which the Christian 
powers gained a brilliant victory 
over the Turks. 

I recollect reading many years 
ago something about this naval 
engagement, but the details of 
what happened at it no longer 
dwell in my memory, so you 
will greatly oblige me if you 
will tell me something about 

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With pleasure. Lepanto, 
though a small and insignificant 
place now, is nevertheless cele- 
brated in history. In the 
Peloponnesian war it was one 
of the most important naval 
stations of the Athenians. In 
the Middle Ages it was given by 
the Byzantines to the Venetians, 
who fortified it so well that in 
the year 1477 it was able to 
resist a powerful force of the 
Turks who, after besieging it for 
four months, were at last com- 
pelled to retire unsuccessful 
It was only taken when, in the 
year 1499, Bajazet IL attacked 
it at the head of 150,000 men. 
In the year 1571 the Christian 
powers on the Mediterranean, 
seeing the irresistible advance 
of the Ottoman arms, formed a 
league against the infidels and 
sent a powerful fleet to oppose 
them. The powers which con- 
stituted this alliance were Spain, 
the Venetian republic, and Pope 
Pius V. The fleet was placed 
under the command of Don 
John of Austria, son of Charles 
V. On the sixth of October of 
the same year the two opposing 
fleets of the Christians and 
Turks met near Lepanto or, as 
Daru says, off the Echinades 
islands. The Turkish fleet 
consisted of 230 galleys and that 

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of the Christians was of a nearly 
equal number. The battle was 
an obstinate and very bloody 
one : at last the Turkish admiral 
Ali was killed, and on the 
captured flagship was raised 
the standard of the Cross. In 
this sanguinary naval engage- 
ment the Christians lost eight 
thousand men and fifteen galleys, 
and the Turks were utterly 
annihilated ; for not only were 
nearly all their galleys destroyed 
or captured, but twenty-five thou- 
sand men were killed and a 
very large number taken prison- 
ers. In the captured galleys 
were found 15,000 Christian 
slaves employed as rowers and 
fastened alongside the oars with 
chains, all of whom were at once 

Thank you very much for the 
information you have given me 
about this famous sea-fight : but 
from the past let us return to 
the present. A little while ago 
you told me what the present 
naval power of Italy is: will 
you now do me the favour to 
give me some information also 
about the Austrian navy ? 

By all means. Four years 
ago (1887) the Austrian navy 
consisted of 10 ironclads, 7 
cruisers, 6 torpedo - ships, 34 
torpedo-boats, and 16 vessels 
for coast defence : but since 

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then perhaps their number has 

Fortunately in these days there 
is no fear of a conflict between 
Austria and Italy : if however 
anything of the kind occurred, 
I doubt whether the laurel of 
victory would be given to those 
who triumphed off Lissa. 

Perhaps you are right : but 
such things "are at the dis- 
posal of the gods." Now let 
us go back to the stern of the 
ship and perhaps we may find 
an empty corner to sit down 

You are quite right : let us 
make haste and go before the 
others anticipate us and get 
possession of all the seats. 

Thank God, we have found 
at last two empty seats in a 
retired and quiet part Sit near 
me and let us begin our reading: 
I think we are at the 17 th 

Yes, but before we begin the 
reading let me recite to you a 
few verses of the first canto of 
The Wanderer, by A. Soutsos, 
which have this moment come 
to my recollection. 

You will greatly oblige me. 

Excuse me for a moment till 
I recollect the beginning . . . 
now listen : 

"The traveller on the sea beholds 
amazed the level plain 

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of the ocean that has no beginning 

and no end : 

staying in the centre of a circle 

which ever is expanding, 

never does he reach the border 

that flies at his approach : 

there the rapid course of thought 

has nothing to confine it, 

no horizon in front of her 

imagination ever meets : 

his soul in perfect freedom 

travels over space with a breeze 

that speeds its course. 

Roll thy waves, sea ! . . . 

myriads of fleets 

come and go, all tread upon thy 


Thou movest, and of thy huge 

and ponderous limbs 

both the one pole and the other 

feel the shock. 

sea! Thy measureless and 

ever-youthful arm 

embraces all the earth like the 

mother her child, 

and untamable and fierce 

thou fightest with tempests and 

warrest with the elements. 

All the earth man's audacity 


but it meets as its limits thy 

unchangeable dominions. 

When the first hour of creation 


youthful thou didst flow, and 

youthful thou wilt flow for ever. 

The tide of fortune and its 

unstable breath 

thy stream represents, whirled 

about by the winds, 

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Ta ovofJLara t<ov dpurrtov irovq- 
T(ov rrjs dvaycvvrjOeivrjs e EAAa- 
&>s* ikirigti) ofJLoys on 0d SwrjOti 
va irpd£ti> tovto, iv ficpei rov- 
kdxurrov, 7rpoo-€x^s, aVayycA- 
k(ov els vfias Kat riva £k tQv 
ckAc/ctotc/hov avrtov irovqpLaTdiv. 
H&rj as o-vv€xUr(OfjL€v ras dva- 
yvaKrets iJ/acov e/c rrjs vvkkoyfjs 

and in thee the wide expanse 
of space reflects itself as in a 
sapphire mirror." 

An excellent poem : not only 
are the poet's ideas elevated, but 
his language is pure and musical, 
such as suits poetry of this kind. 

You are right Amidst all 
the croakings of certain insig- 
nificant and ephemeral poetasters 
who now inundate independent 
Greece with their insipid versifi- 
cations, Alexander Soutsos and 
his brother Panagiotes are the real 
poets of the Greek nation in the 
present century : but, in saying 
this, I do nbt mean to depreci- 
ate our other great national 
poets. The Ode to Liberty, which 
Count Dionysius Solomos com- 
posed at the beginning of the 
Greek revolution, from the sub- 
limity of its conceptions and the 
lofty and vivid character of its 
poetical images, is and will 
always be a valuable national 
possession. It is superfluous for 
me to mention to you on this 
occasion all the names of the 
best poets of regenerated Greece : 
but I hope that I shall be able 
to do so, partly at least, by and 
by, reciting also to you some of 
their more select poems. Now 
let us continue our readings 
from my collection. I have 

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twv (rvyxpovoiv tov, <5otc 
dvayivaxr/cajv rts tov "'Eoo>to- 

KpiTOv" VO/Jilfa OTl Sl€p\€Tai 

pvOurrop-qpa irepl i7r7roTa>v tov 
fJL«racu)vos. "Hpws tov irovq- 
pxnos €ivai (o/xuos kcu dvSpeios 
veos, vlbs tov irpiodvTTOvpyov 
tov /3acriX.(ii)S twv 'AOrjv&v 
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ovSeiroTe virrjpgev. OvVos Xot- 
irov 6 t HpaK\rjs €T\€v vpaio- OvyaTcpa ovopjafaphrqv 
'AoerovVav, fJTIS 
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^Jtoi>€ o-ToXurphrq, 

Evy€VlKY) KaX TCLKTlKrj, 

irokka xapiT(ti[ikvri." 

here some extracts from two 
poems of the 17th century: 
they are both written in the 
Cretan dialect of the time, which 
does not differ much from that 
now spoken in Crete. The first 
of them is an epic called Ero- 
tocritoSy and was written by 
Vincenzo Cornaro : the other 
is a play which is entitled 
Erophile, and is the work of 
George Khortatzi of Rethynmos 
in Crete. The subject of the 
ErotocrUos is a strange one, for 
the poet, while he says that 
his epic refers to ancient 

" in the days gone by i 

when Greeks held sway, 
and when their faith possessed 
no firmly founded root," 
describes the manners and 
customs of his contemporaries, 
so that any one reading the 
ErotocrUos fancies that he is per- 
using a romance about knights 
of the Middle Ages. The hero 
of the poem is a handsome and 
brave youth, son of the prim* 
minister of Heracles, king at 
Athens, who certainly nevei 
existed. Now this Heracl. 
had a very beautiful daughter 
named Aretusa, who 

"with every grace and virtu* 
was embellished, 
noble and of decorous mien, 
endowed with many charms." 

i by Google 




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Erotocritos fell madly in love 
with her, but being afraid to ex- 
press openly his amorous senti- 
ments, he went in the darkness 
of night under the windows of 
the palace, and there 

" he told and he recounted 
the sufferings of love, 
and how in love he was entangled 
and was frozen and was withered." 

The king and queen were 
delighted when they heard the 
sweet songs of the enamoured 

"but sweeter than to all men 
and women 
were they to Aretusa, 
and the songs in wakefulness 
often kept her." 

The king, out of curiosity, 
wishing to learn who the singer 
was, sent ten men whom he 
ordered to lie in ambush and cap- 
ture the unknown songster, but 
Erotocritos and his faithful friend 
Polydoros, who accompanied him 
in his nocturnal excursions, 
killed two of them and put the 
rest to flight. Erotocritos went 
away on a journey, and during 
his absence Aretusa, going on a 
visit to his mother, discovered 
by chance that the singer of 
those love-songs was the prime 
minister's son. From that time 
the love became mutual, so that 
when Erotocritos returned from 
his journey he became aware 

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that the damsel was enamoured 
of him. But the poem is a long 
one, and its analysis requires a 
great deal of time ; two or three 
short extracts however are enough 
for our purpose. The following 
is from Part II. of the poem, in 
which is described a single com- 
bat of two princes, the Cretan 
Charidemos and the Sclavonian 
Tripolemos, which took place at 
the tournament held in Athens 
on the invitation of Heracles, 
and at which the most celebrated 
princes of those days contended. 
The poet calls this contest a 

" They armed their heads, they 

began the charge, 

they put their spears in rest and 

set their steeds in motion. 

As the sombre cloud which the 

wind drives mad 

and with thundering and with 

lightning it terrifies the world, 

it blows it from the east and it 

drives it to the west, 

and the tossing up and down 

makes it rain and snow : 

so thundered and lightened the 

Cretan lion 

when under his arm he clutched 

his spear. 

The dragon of Sclavonia bellowed 

and roared, 

he tries at the first spear-thrust 

to hurl him down. 

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The mighty warriors meet and 
their spears went 
like feathers in the air, and like 
birds they flew. 

Tripolemos delivered his spear- 
thrust on the forehead, 
and the steel casque threw out 
a hundred sparks. 
The horse knelt down but did 
not roll upon the ground 
and in a moment leapt upright 
like a deer : 

no other harm did the great 
spear-thrust do, 

for with double steel he protects 
his head ; and he gives, 
in his turn, the brave fellow, 
a thrust with his heavy spear, 
throws the horse upon his back, 
with his rider and all ; 
and as from a lofty cliff a mass 
of rock falls down and plunges 
with a sound of thunder in 
the sea upon the shore, 
flings up and down the water and 
makes foam like of the waves, 
and great turmoil arises at the 
bottom of the sea, 
in such a way he thundered in 
that fall 

and such great turmoil at that 
time arose." 

No long time had passed after 
the tournament when the king 
of Byzantium sent ambassadors 
and asked Heracles for Aretusa 
as a wife for his son ; but the 
damsel refused, urging as a pre- 
text that she did not wish to 
go far away from her dearest 

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parents. This greatly enraged 
Heracles, and his soul was dis- 
turbed and his heart boiled * 

" like hot water upon coals 
when its boiling swells it, 
and takes it from the depths 
and raises it above, 
and back again the lire's heat 
brings it down below, 
and it does not find repose 
ever as long as it boils." 

But since she persisted in her 
refusal, Heracles, after sending 
back the ambassadors, punished 
her without mercy : he cut off 
her golden hair and, putting 
shabby clothes on her, shut her 
up in prison with her faithful 
nurse Phrosyne, 

" into the worst prison, 

into the darkest, 

where mire was, and mud, 

he made her enter, 

and trusty guards he places 

to watch from the outside, 

with an ounce of bread and an 

ounce of water, 

as much as not to die." 

Erotocritos was at that time 
exiled in Euboea and there he 
heard of Aretusa's imprison- 
ment. The grief that took 
possession of him cannot be 
described, for the unfortunate 

" ate nothing, drank nothing, 
nor ever slept, 
in thought he was being tried, 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 




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and in his fancy lie was tortured. 
Often, often did he groan, 
his limbs were chilled, 
herbs did him no good, 
doctors did not cure him, 
he utterly abandoned himself, 
and renounced his youth, 
a single hour in repose 
he was never observed. 
His beard and hair grew long, 
his appearance was changed, 
he assumed another and strange 
look and his own melted away. 
He became dark, he became ugly 
while he wandered in foreign 
lands, and any one who knew him 
no longer recognised him." 

In this way three years passed, 
and the fourth was beginning 
when a report reached Erotocritos 
that Vlandistratos, the powerful 
King of Wallachia, had declared 
war against Heracles and had 
come with a large army and 
was besieging Athens. Without 
losing time he runs to a sorceress 
and she gives him two flasks : 
one of them contained a liquid 
which had the power of changing 
at once the colour of the face and 
hands to black, and the other 
another liquid which had the 
power of restoring the natural 
colour. Erotocritos, washing 
himself with the first liquid, be- 
came as black as an Aethiop, 
and having armed himself, soon 
arrives at the camp of the Wal- 
lachians who were besieging 
Athens, and hides himself in 

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some out-of-the-way place : from 


" every morning he arose ; 

and as soon as he heard 

the trumpet resounding, 

the bugle blowing, 

he rode like an eagle 

in haste along the road 

and arrived just in time 

when the armies met, 

and he made a whirlwind 

and a great turmoil, 

and he always helped one side 

and did harm to the other. 

Like a dragon he frightened 

them, like a lion he fought them, 

and the Wallachians, to see him 

at a distance, trembled." 

Vlandistratos, seeing his army 
daily decreasing, determined to 
collect all his forces and make a 
general attack upon the city: 
the army accordingly advanced 
very early in the morning, and 
there was fought outside the 
city a sanguinary battle in 
which in another moment 
Heracles would have been killed 
if Erotocritos had not oppor- 
tunely arrived and saved him. 
The Wallachians, defeated, fled 
in utter disorder, and Aretusa's 
lover, washing himself with the 
liquid of the other flask, re- 
covered his original appearance 
and, being recognised, had at last 
the satisfaction of marrying her 
in the midst of great rejoicing 
and exultation. 

The poem of Cornaro is not 

i by Google 



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kacdvrjs ras x € ty a S Ka ^ T7 ) v 
KapSiav rov ayair-qrov avrrjs 
av8p6$. *H 'E/jax^tAiy dirortivti. 

at all to be despised : the 
Cretan dialect does not, I see, 
differ much from the colloquial 
Greek of the 16th and 17th 
centuries. Now do me the 
favour to read me some short 
extract from the Erophile of 
Khortatzi after telling me first a 
little about the subject of the 

With pleasure. The subject 
is as follows : Philogonos, King 
of Memphis, took possession of 
the throne after murdering his 
elder brother with his two 
children. In a battle in Upper 
Egypt he killed the king of that 
country and took his son Panare- 
tos prisoner ; and since the latter 
showed himself brave and faith- 
ful to him, in course of time he 
made him commander-in-chief 
of all his forces. Philogonos 
had a very beautiful daughter 
named Erophile, whom, without 
his knowing anything about it, 
Panaretos married. No long 
time passed before two princes 
of the neighbouring kingdoms 
sought the hand of the princess : 
then, learning that his daughter 
was already married to Panaretos, 
he immediately killed him and 
carried to his daughter the 
hands and the heart of her 
beloved husband in a basin. 
Erophile addresses a long dis- 

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avrov kolI w <f>p€vrjTiiacrai Mat- 
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to (fxicrfxa tov favcvOevros 
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ovTiti \.rjy€i rj TpavyoYa. To 
k£rjs airooirafrfia €ivai €#c Trjs 
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Tovrovy irapioTaTai 8k Satfuov 
ofiiktov irpbs akkovs Scu/xovas, 
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tov <f>a[v€Tat ori cTvai 6 'Eco- 

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ot oAoi Ofiaoi 
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fms cpprffc 's Tbv "^Srj ' 
K't avrts tv) 'fikpa tt) kafiirpa 

Kal tov KaOdpiov r)kco } 
K't dvrls ttj Xdfixf/i. Kal Tb <£cos 

(LfJLOpcf) aCTC/OO) \l\lU}y 

course to her hard-hearted father 
and then kills herself in front of 
him with a dagger. The hand- 
maidens of Erophile, who form 
the chorus, at once rush upon 
him and like frenzied Maenads 
mercilessly tear him to pieces. 
After this there comes upon the 
scene the apparition of his 
murdered brother trampling in 
triumph upon the body of the 
king, and so ends the tragedy. 
The following extract is from 
the beginning of an episode of 
this play : a demon is represented 
talking to other demons, and 
from the style of his conversa- 
tion it appears that he is Lucifer. 

" spirits from heaven 

expelled to Hades, 

my companions in Hell 

and slaves like me, 

I imagine every one of you 

very well remembers 

how with me at one time 

you lived in glory 

on the heights above Heaven, 

and how at that battle, 

the fearful one, which between us 

and the gods took place, 

then we had Fortune against us 

so that all together 

down with so much shame 

she cast us into Hell ; 

and instead of the bright day 

and the pure sun, and instead 

of the brightness and the light 

of a thousand beautiful stars, 

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Kat icetva 'ttov /*as /cavct 
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's to koyurpuov t as jSavfl, 
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/n €va /cat /i aAAo rpowo 
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va o-vo# twv avOpdyjna. 
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t$) TovpKovs v d<f>avurov 
K' kkevOepia r£rj Xowrrtavovs 
T C *X&povs pas va yvpixrov" 

'Ev rots €^s dXtyots otl\ols 
6 ^ooos irpo<rayop€V€i rbv ^Atov • 

I am staying down below 

in the gloomy abyss of Hell, 

with endless heat and flames 

always in torture ; 

and what is more, 

see his whim : 

on account of us, to death 

he gave his son ; 

and he came and quickly raided 

Hades and stripped us 

and only left us 

the heat of Hell ; 

and a victor he went back 

superlatively honoured 

to Heaven and remains 

for ever glorified. 

But why our ancient sufferings 

and our ancient trouble 

now recalling, 

do I repeat them to you all ? 

Let us quit the past ; 

and what he does to us 

this day let each one of us 

fix in his mind, 

how he strives and aims 

in one way and another 

all the multitude of men 

to draw to his side. 

See, in Jerusalem 

how there are collected 

so many faithful generals of his, 

and they strive with rage 

our trusty friends 

the Turks to annihilate, 

and to give back liberty 

to our enemies the Christians." 

In the following few lines 
the chorus addresses the Sun : 

" ' A/crtva rovpavov \apiriapkvq^ " gracious ray of heaven 

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Aav, iJtis €?vat d>/oa?ov iroip*- 

vikov 7roiYffw. rov IZ aiaivos • 

eypdcfrrj 8c wro rov c£ 'Attoko- 

piovayv rrjs Kprjrrjs NikoAoov 

ApifivriKOV /cat €TV7T(a$rj TO 

irpwrov Iv Ikvcrta t£ 1627. 

'AAA* €KTOT€ dv€TV7Tto0J/ 7ToAAd- 
KtS, 8lOT6 €Tl feat vw €?vai 
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rov troi.ripja.TOS efvat dTrAotxTTaTTj* 
iroipr)v V€ap6s €V<j> irpttitav Tivd 
sftoo-Kt Ta irp6/3a,Ta avrov cvtos 
T€pTrvoTdrqs KOiAdoos, 

" Mccra Vc SwSpr}, Vc Ai/^dSia, 

Vc iroTapia, 

'^k 8po€T€pa #cat Tpv<f>€pd #caAd- 

Mara *s Ta Scv&prj K€iva t dv- 


'rioO /Soo-kolv rd 'Aa^dfaa rd 


2, Trj yrj Tr) opoaeprj s Ta 


'IIoil yAvKO/ccAaoouo-av Ta ttov- 


diravTy. Ka\\ip,op<l>ov 7rot/*€Vt8a 
fioo-Kova-av Ta iroipvio. tov ira- 

which with thy great flame 

givest light to all the world, 

thy path adorns Heaven from 
one end to another 
and all the earth, 

without ever its course erring." 

After the Erophile we pass 
to the Boscopoula, which is a 
beautiful pastoral poem of the 
1 7th century : it was written 
by Nicolas Drimyticos of Apo- 
corona in Crete, and was first 
printed in Venice in 1627 ; but 
since then it has been several 
times reprinted, for it is even 
now favourite reading with the 
Greek people. The subject of 
the poem is a very simple one : 
a young shepherd, while he was 
grazing his sheep one morning 
in a most charming valley, 

"among trees, meadows and 


in cool and fresh beds of reeds, 

among those flowering trees 

where the dear little fawns were 


on the cool ground and in the 


where the birds were sweetly 


meets a beautiful shepherdess 
feeding the flocks of her father, 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 




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\ov Trapvjv v Epws kTogevaev 

d/K^OT€/KOV TOLS KapSldS, KOL fl€T 

oAiyas rjfxkp as rjppa/^tovurdrfarav 
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tov Aoyov tov, Kal $)\$€ fiovov 
6Ye dvcAa/kv €/c tt}s dV0€V€ias. 
'Ioov 7TW5 7r€piypd<f>€i rrjv <rvvdv- 
rrja-iv avrov fiera tov waTpbs 
t^s pvqoTrjs tov ' 

who at that time had gone to a 
quarry to hew stones for the 
enclosure of his sheepfold. The 
meeting was not without conse- 
quences, for omnipresent Cupid 
shot his arrows into both their 
hearts, and after a few days they 
became secretly betrothed. On 
the day when the young girl's 
father was about to return from 
the quarry, her lover, going 
away, promised her to come 
back after a month and ask for 
her from her father as a wife ; 
but the poor fellow, falling ill 
in the interval, was unable to 
keep his word, and only came 
when he had recovered from his 
illness. Here is the way in 
which he describes his meet- 
ing with the father of his be- 
trothed : 

" '2 kvov flovvov Kop<f>rj, 's eva 

X a P* K h 

'Slavoiyw Kal Oojpio cva ytpov- 


K* IjSAotc Kairoui 7rp6/3aTa 6 


'ASvva/AOS Kal fMLVpO<f>Op€fJL€VOS. 

" Upon the top of a hill, on a 


I look and see a little old man, 

and he was tending some sheep, 

poor fellow, 

feeble and dressed in mourning. 

2tyupij£ci> Kal (fxj)vd£(D, \aip€T<i) 


Kal y ta tyjv Boo-JCOTrovAav €/ocotco 


Mc <£o/Jov Kal /*€ TpOfXOV TOV 

' £qyovfwvv 

Kat rot 8kv rjOtXa &kov€iv k<f>ov- 


I whistle and I call, I greet 


and ask him about Boscopoula, 

with fear and trembling I ex- 
plained to him 

and listened to what I did not 
like to hear. 

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Tbpi&Ko rrjs fioipasTovaTifLafciy 

Kat Kkaiovras fwv keyci, f 'H 

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'AiroOavc, Scv ttv xrActa Kovrd 


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iratSt /aov, 


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lvos, Atyvbs /cat ycAa- 


fiavpoppdrrjs 9 'Stco/za- 


t cr ipuTrjo-Q oyta va 

Vov anriOavf. /cat \ddri, 

1 hear the old man and at first 

he groans, 

he reviles the destiny of his fate 

and weeping he says to me, 

1 The object of your desire 

is dead, she is no longer near 


She whom you ask after was 

my child, 

my courage in my poverty and 

my hope, 

but death took her from before 


and darkened my eyes and my 


Good -hearted she was always 

and my joy, 

a great comfort to my old age, 

but the anxiety which she had 

every night 

untimely cast her into Hades. 

* * * * * 

Last night was the ninth day 

[since she died], my son. 

At the time when she expired 

she spoke to me : 

she left me a message : " Here 

in the woods 

a handsome shepherd will pass, 

dark-complexioned, slight, and 

youthful and black-eyed, talka- 

and he will ask you, that he 
may learn about her who died 
and was lost, 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



Kat va rov V#s w& etv aVo- 

Mot 8ev rov Xrprfiovy iror rj 

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floor Kbs KareoTrj dirapTjyoprjroSy 
koi fAerafids els rov rd<f>ov rrjs 
dyairrprfjs rov opKifierai va #ca- 
rakiiTQ rb iroifiviov Kal va ptxfy 
rbv avA,dv rov, Kal e\<t)v ws 
ftovov onjvrpo<j)Ov rb XevKbv 
dpvlov, oirep ekafiev a>s h&pov 
Tapd rrjs dyairrjrrjs rov t va 
ifepufreprqrai. els rd Sdo-rj Kal 
rovs Spvfwvs. 'ISov 6 opKos 

and you are to tell 

she is dead 

and never forgot hin 


and let him grieve f 

let him weep for her, 

and dye his clothes 

her account. 

Tell him that the can 

lost her 

was that as she saw 

passing, and that he e 

her, poor girl, 

through that she di< 


And from your look 


and my heart weeps fc 

feels for you, 

for I wanted to mak 


and I had talked 

wedding.' " 

On hearing this, th 
shepherd was inconso] 
going to the tomb of h 
one, takes an oath U 
his flock and throw 
flute and, having as 
companion the white If 
he had received as 
from his darling, t 
about in the woods 
thickets. This is his 

" K't ovras ftpovry. ki darrpd<jyrrf 
Kal \iovifo 

u and when it rains ar 
and snows, 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 


Kavets /foovcos 's ra 0017 Skv 

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'Eyw va '(jlcu 's tov 17X10 va /x,c 

Tavra vofitfo dpKoxxri irpbs 
tov <r#co7rdv /txas ws ykuxro'tKd 
0€ty/*aTa tt}s K/otjtik^s Sia- 
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c EAA77 vt/cov l#vos Kairot Okt/36- 
ficvov V7rb /3apvrarov £vybv 
fi&ekvpas TvpavvlaSy ov8€7tot€ 
hrcXdOtTo twv trarp^v avrov 
apcTwv. C H yij, ^Tts virrjp^ev 
€7rt ouwvas ko-Tia t<3v <£hot(ov 
/cat tov 7roAtT«r^ov, Scv e^€/3ap- 
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Trjpei axrfie&Tov Kal koiov to 
£(owvpov tt}s 'EAA^vt/dJs 7rcu- 
6cta$. Ot Tuoavvoi p,€Tr}X0ov 
iravra ra pAcra oVcos Kara- 
<TTp€\J/<ixri Trjv WvtKrjv Opr}o~K€iav 
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and no shepherd wanders on 

the mountains, 

then on the hills and on the 


to weep for that most lovely girl. 

And when the sun burns the 

stones and the timber 

and all draw near to the leaves 

of the tree, 

and at that time the shepherd 

goes and seeks a cool retreat, 

to be in the sun for it to burn 

I think these are sufficient 
for our purpose as linguistic 
specimens of the Cretan dialect 
which under many aspects is 
very interesting and worthy 
of special study. The Greek 
nation, though crushed under 
the heavy yoke of a hateful 
despotism, never forgot the 
virtues of their ancestors. The 
land which had j>been for ages 
a focus of enlightenment and 
civilisation did not lapse com- 
pletely into barbarism, as many 
people in the West supposed, 
but, in ' the deep darkness 
of ignorance which overspread 
her, she preserved unextin- 
guished and burning the vital 
spark of Greek learning. The 
tyrants pursued every method 
to destroy the national religion 
and the language of the en- 
slaved Greeks : they took away 
from them their churches and 

i by Google 


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turned them into mosques : they 
closed their numerous schools 
so as to render them ignorant 
and subservient In some pro- 
vinces they even cut out the 
tongues of many of them, in 
order to inspire terror in the 
other Greeks and so deter them 
from speaking their mother- 
language : but all these terrible 
and oppressive measures had no 
power to check the onward 
movement of the Greeks, so that 
at last their persecutors allowed 
matters to take their natural 
course. In a treatise published 
in 1843 in the Asclepios, an ex- 
cellent medical periodical in cir- 
culation at that time in Athens, 
S. C. Oeconomos says : " Though 
living under a tyranny and in 
many ways enduring abject 
sufferings as the Greeks were, 
they never left off establishing 
schools, some small, some larger, 
and in these educated their 
youth and adorned their minds. 
On the one hand, the Church, 
the common nurse of the ortho- 
dox communion, and those in 
the service of the government, 
not only those who at the time 
of the celebrated Maurocordatus 
and subsequently became fam- 
ous and rose to princely rank, 
but also those who in former 
times by some service to the 
state in different places had 
become known to their rulers — 
for example, the leading men 
in the provinces and others ; 

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on the other hand, again, persons 
engaged in trade and accustomed 
to reside abroad, and men of 
property, all animated by the 
same spirit, by their exhortations 
and patronage, and with lavish 
expenditure, contributed to the 
establishment of educational in- 
stitutions. From Constantinople 
towards both the east and the 
west of the Greek country as 
far as the very extremities of 
the Seven Islands there was no 
town of any note without a 
school. And the very first 
principles of what is rather 
wrongly called * Lancaster's 
system' were long ago common 
in Greece, a noble heritage 
which had remained existing 
from the days when Greece 
was in its splendour. A press 
also was established in Con- 
stantinople in the time of the 
Patriarch Cyrillus Lucaris. It 
was there too that in later 
times the celebrated Chrysanthus 
Notaras the Peloponnesian, 
afterwards Patriarch of Jeru- 
salem, the author of the treatise 
on astronomy, erected an obser- 
vatory at Galata. It was there 
also that the learned Angyramos 
laid out a botanical garden. 
The splendid zeal for the culti- 
vation of literature exhibited by 
different Greek provinces and 
by my native Thessaly, whose 

l This press was brought to Constantinople from London in 1627 by 
Nicodemus Metaxas, a monk of Cephallonia, but owing to the intrigues of 
the Jesuits it was afterwards suppressed. 

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natural beauties captivate the 
traveller's curiosity, incited at 
the same time ambitious Mace- 
donia and ardent Epirus to 
establish schools, or to im- 
prove those already existing, in 
which the hearts of the young 
were anointed with the saving 
chrism of hereditary piety, and 
they had their intelligence 
sharpened by the masterpieces 
of Greek genius and were in- 
flamed with the burning zeal of 
patriotism. The hardy and 
fearless character of the Thessal- 
iaDS, who even from the 15th 
century had compelled the con- 
queror to respect their noble 
spirit, became a consolation and 
an example of endurance and 
courage to the people both of 
the neighbouring and the more 
distant provinces. And these 
mountaineers sang the glories of 
warriors, and the hills echoed 
their songs, and the sweet hope 
of a better future nurtured 
their young men. While the 
national spirit was thus pre- 
served, education spread and 
the number of the learned men 
of our nation increased, and 
works were published and great 
benefit resulted from them. 
Not numerous, nor brilliant, 
nor clothed in the purple robe 
of perfection were the works 

1 In Moschopolis in Macedonia there was a college where many cele- 
brated Greek scholars held professorships, and there was also a press in 
that town, but these institutions excited the envy of the Albanians, who 
destroyed them in 1780. 

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of those .celebrated teachers 
of the race, but nevertheless 
these remain as conspicuous ex- 
amples of their great virtue and 
patriotism which united and 
kept together the learned for 
the. advancement and enlighten- 
ment of the nation and 
the preservation of orthodox 
Hellenism. Homer and the 
other celebrated poets and 
writers formed the basis of 
their literary education. Rhe- 
toric, logic, mathematics and 
theology constituted for the 
most part their philosophical 
attainments ; and the homilies 
of the Fathers were the insepar- 
able companions of the students 
from the beginning to the end 
of their course of instruction, 
impressing on their souls in- 
delibly the doctrines and the 
morals of the piety of their 
ancestors. And there issued 
from the schools a body of 
youths, not indeed very learned 
in the various subjects studied 
by those of a later day, but yet 
thoroughly versed in the know- 
ledge of useful things, and who I 
were essentially Greek. Thus j 
those teachers of happy memory 
passed to their descendants the 
torch of their ancestral enlighten- 
ment and virtue, having hut 
one sole object in view, that 
of implanting that salutary 
knowledge which is most 
necessary for the common good, 
in order completely to dissipate 

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/ArjvdkXd Kal<f>i\.oo-o<l>ias ^aro, 

the evils of ignorance. Hear 
what Alexander Maurocordatus, 
the [Sultan's] confidential secre- 
tary, says about learning : * For 
it is by ignorance that those 
who are destitute of learning 
are dragged into every kind of 
evil ; and on the contrary, edu- 
cation steeps the human mind 
in virtue, and is the teacher 
and creator of all kinds of good, 
if only he who devotes himself to 
study and learning is a human 
being and does not happen to 
be altogether hardened, and does 
not naturally possess ingrained 
and indelible impurity.' " 

At what period did Alexander 
Maurocordatus flourish ? 

In the 17th century. He 
was born in Constantinople in 
1636. His father was Pan teles 
Maurocordatus of Chios, and 
his mother was Loxandra of 
Constantinople, daughter of 
Scarlatus. Loxandra was a 
woman of very great ability 
and highly educated ; " for she 
had been taught the Greek lan- 
guage," as Jacobus Argeius says, 
" with such accuracy as to under- 
stand and explain without diffi- 
culty rhythmical and metrical 
compositions, speeches of ora- 
tors, and histories written very 
elegantly and artistically in 
prose ; nor did the work of 
Thucydides nor Xenophon's 
narrative elude the grasp of her 
acute intellect. Moreover this 
woman, if we may call a woman 

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dgtaiOeis twv v\f/[(TTO)v aKaSrj- 
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o*ti SiaToi/Jr/v 1 7T€oi kvkAo- 

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/AcyaAw? €Ti/xaTO wro twv totc 

1 Instrumentura pneumaticum 
usu pulmonum. Bolognae, 1664. 

one who had a masculine mind 
and though of the female sex 
was endowed with the mental 
power of a man, had studied 
philosophy and enriched her 
mind with ontology." Caesarius 
Dapontes calls her "most 
learned," adding that " she was 
so advanced in Hellenic studies 
and had become so famous that 
travellers from Europe came 
and conversed with her and 
were amazed at her erudition." 
It naturally followed then that 
a woman so highly educated 
should also have her son Alex- 
ander properly brought up and 
instructed, and she accordingly 
sent him at twelve years of age 
to the then celebrated university 
of Padua to study philosophy 
and medicine. The young 
Greek, having rapidly mastered 
Latin, applied himself zealously 
to the study of science and 
medicine, and in fourteen years 
completed his course, having 
gained the highest academical 
honours. Tn the year 1664 he 
published at Bologna a treatise 
in Latin on the circulation of the 
blood, which acquired no little 
celebrity among the learned of 
those days, and was reprinted a 
year afterwards at Frankfort and 
in 1 682 at Leipsic. Returning to 
Constantinople he practised the 
medical profession, and was held 
in high esteem by the Turkish 
circulandi sanguinis sive de modo et 

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dignitaries of the day, who by 
their wealth and influence held a 
prominent position. He was also 
for seven years headmaster of 
the Patriarchal School, in which 
he was a most zealous teacher. 
Subsequently, wishing to enter 
the political arena, he renounced 
the medical profession and 
devoted himself to the study of 
foreign languages, and in a 
short time acquired a thorough 
knowledge of Turkish, Arabic, 
Persian, French and Slavic. In 
the year 1671 he became sec- 
retary to Panagiotes Nicousios, 
who was then Grand Dragoman 
to the Porte. After the death 
of the latter in 1673 Alexander 
Maurocordatus was appointed to 
this high position and discharged 
with singular ability the duties 
of the much-coveted but very 
perilous office for many years. 
Having great influence with the 
Turks, he made use of it to al- 
leviate the sufferings which his 
fellow-countrymen endured. It 
was to his house that all rushed 
who had need of powerful pro- 
tection. He frequently saved 
many Christians from a death 
that they could not otherwise 
have escaped, for in those days 
the Turks used to kill Christians 
for the slightest fault, and some- 
times simply for amusement, to 
try the temper of their swords. 


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o~tv tov va €<f>vy€v €K TovpKias 

It seems to me extraordinary 
how Maurocordatus could have 
remained for many years Grand 
Dragoman without exciting 
against himself the easily 
aroused suspicion of the Turks. 

This was owing to his great 
ability ; but he did not pursue 
his political career without 
danger. After the failure to 
capture Vienna and the com- 
plete defeat of the Turkish army, 
when the Sultan, in a transport 
of fury, gave the order and they 
beheaded the Grand Vizier 
Mustapha, the life of Mauro- 
cordatus was in extreme jeo- 
pardy, for not only was he him- 
self imprisoned at Adrianople, 
but his wife and his mother were 
put in jail at Constantinople. 

How did he escape the terrible 
danger of the sword or the 
gibbet ? 

Through those means which 
alone at that time were all-power- 
ful, the payment of an enormous 
ransom, for he was obliged to 
expend three hundred purees of 
gold to gain his liberty and 
that of his wife. His poor 
mother, unable to bear the 
hardships of imprisonment, died 
in the sixth month of her in- 
carceration, but he and his wife 
passed eleven months in jail. 

I hope that after his libera- 
tion he escaped from Turkey 

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to some Christian state in 

Nothing of the kind took place. 
After his liberation, he asked 
permission to go to Constanti- 
nople to see his wife and children, 
but the very day after his 
arrival there he received a 
summons to return to Adria- 
nople, and the Grand Vizier at 
once began to employ him on 
secret business of the state, and 
after two months presented him 
at the grand imperial divan, 
when he was again proclaimed 
Grand Dragoman and invested 
with the robe which was the 
badge of that office. The war 
against the Germans and their 
allies had in the meantime been 
going on, but the Turks, having 
sustained many defeats, deter- 
mined to conclude a peace, and 
with this object they despatched 
Maurocordatus, who with great 
devotion and considerable politi- 
cal skill carried out the delicate 
mission entrusted to him. This 
peace was arranged at Carlovitz 
in the year 1699, and a treaty 
was signed by which Turkey 
was obliged to restore to Austria 
and the powers allied with her 
all the countries which she had 
from time to time taken from 
them. Both contracting parties 
willingly accepted the terms of 

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dAAd ra^ccos ot/hxtos Axxrr pia- 
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the treaty, and they honoured 
with various tokens of their satis- 
faction Maurocordatus who had 
chiefly contributed to the agree- 
ment, and the Sultan awarded to 
him the title of Mechremi-Esrar, 
that is to say, Confidential 
Secretary ; and the Emperor 
Leopold sent him most magni- 
ficent presents ; indeed it is said 
that he also honoured him with 
the title of Count, which was 
however kept secret in the 
family for many years. Mauro- 
cordatus died in the year 1708. 
His son Nicolas Maurocordatus 
was equally celebrated with 
his father. He was Grand 
Dragoman of the Ottoman 
empire for many years. In 
1707 he was appointed Prince 
of Moldavia, but was recalled 
and re-appointed a year after- 
wards, in 1711. After five 
years he was transferred to 
Wallachia, but in a short time 
an Austrian army stealthily 
entered that principality and 
captured Bucharest and took 
him prisoner. At the expira- 
tion of two years he was liber- 
ated, and resuming his govern- 
ment retained it till his death 
(1730). Nicolas Maurocordatus 
was one of the most distinguished 
scholars among the Greeks of 
the 1 8th century : like his father, 
he knew many languages and 
wrote several works and greatly 
contributed to the diffusion of 
Greek learning. Into the two 

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principalities of Wallachia and 
Moldavia, which from that time 
up to the middle of the present 
century were governed by Greek 
princes appointed by the Porte, 
Greeks flocked in crowds, and 
these greatly contributed to the 
intellectual and material de- 
velopment of those countries. 
The natives were enveloped in 
the dense darkness of ignorance 
before the arrival of the Greeks, 
but through the indefatigable 
efforts of the latter the agricul- 
ture and trade of their country 
were improved and Greek civilis- 
ation spread in every direction. 
In Bucharest there flourished 
for many years, under the 
patronage of the Greek princes, 
an Hellenic school, in which the 
best and most learned Greek 
teachers of those times gave in- 
struction. Here Latin and Greek 
philology was taught with entire 
success, and also a complete 
course of general knowledge. 
Many of the Greeks who in the 
beginning of the present century 
were distinguished for learning 
and patriotism were pupils at 
that famous school. 

But the Wallachians, or 
Roumanians as they are now 
called, are not, I think, par- 
ticularly fond of the Greeks. 

It is not unusual or novel for 
those who have received benefits 
to be ungrateful and act as 

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enemies to their benefactors. 
The Greek nation especially, in 
the course of its long life, has 
often met with outrage and 
insult as a return for the good 
it has done to others. 

This is acknowledged by all 
who read history impartially : 
but perhaps it will be better for 
us to leave this question for 
the present, and turn to those 
subjects which regard our pur- 
pose. Do me the favour to tell 
me in what style the learned 
Greeks of the 18th century 
usually wrote. 

In the first decads of the last 
century there prevailed the style 
of the Byzantine writers which 
they had received from their 
fathers ; some of the learned how- 
ever used to write occasionally 
also in the common language of 
the people in order that their 
works might be intelligible toall ; 
but that popular language gradu- 
ally threw off little by little the 
foreign words and barbarous 
terminations through which it 
was in danger of becoming a 
strange medley of corrupt idioms, 
and, being daily enriched from the 
inexhaustible treasury of ancient 
Greek, eventually became what 
it now is ; but to secure this 
result the scholars of the nation 
had a hard struggle both in 
the past century and in the 
beginning of the present one* 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 


irapovros. 'Ev $ ovtios ol 
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Oa>/xa tov Hapurivov els rov 
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irovcrivov 'AAc^/ov 2o/*/ia/?€/ro 
(Paris 1709). 

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T€Tota<s koyrjs cpyov c^oStcure 

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vi/^koraTOvs ' AiroKptxrdpiSes 
(rav Kal 8lol rot kirikotira Wvt) 
twv Xpurriavuiv. 'A/at) krovra 
Ta avtodtv 8kv aas crwvovv 81a 
va dwiKaxreTt rbv d^Lrjyrjrov 

Thus, while the Greeks spared 
no labour to improve their 
national language, some foreign- 
ers in the West, with the view 
of making proselytes, published 
books written in an idiom 
adulterated with barbarisms to 
such a degree that even the most 
uneducated Greek, on hearing 
such a monstrous language read, 
could not refrain from exclaim- 
ing, " Bring me a basin" Here 
are some specimens of this 
Franco-graeco-barbaric language 
taken from the introduction of 
the Capuchin Thomas of Paris 
to the Thesaurus of the French 
Capuchin Alexius Sommevoir 
(Paris 1709): 

" This is the most useful work 
of the kind that ever appeared. 
It consumed and exhausted the 
labour and zeal of forty years, 
it enfeebled, it broke down the 
intellect and the mind of one 
who was the most celebrated 
and the most virtuous man to 
be found among all the most 
able of the missionaries belong- 
ing to the French Capuchins. 
He was in a position to reside 
for many years in Constantinople, 
to be chaplain, confessor, and 
catholic theologian to their 
highnesses the ambassadors as 
well as for the other Christians 
of different nations. But the 
above does not suffice for you to 
understand the inexpressible 

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tov €KOvvrp-av Kal tov ecrdXtxf/av 

services of the most reverend 
father. You know again how, 
with all this, he had the honour 
besides, as a capable teacher, to 
govern and instruct the high- 
born pupils and young nobles 
of France who were accustomed 
to learn Turkish at the hands of 
the Capuchins, in accordance 
with the goodness and the com- 
mands of our Most Christian 
King who desires to have them 
always ready to his hand to be 
dragomans in every part of the 
Turkish empire. 

And hence all the great care 
which this teacher himself took 
to learn Romaic, and his strange 
anxiety to understand the ordin- 
ary language, and his desire to 
see and discover the difference 
of the dialects, and frequently 
ask for information from the 
most enlightened and the most 
accomplished men of the East : 
finally what and what more 
should I tell you besides his 
profound knowledge and his 
complete experience which he 
possessed in everything, as much 
in Constantinople, in Smyrna, 
in Chios, in Crete, in Athens, in 
Morea, as in the remaining 
islands in the White Sea 
[Aegaean], everywhere where he 
was Superior ? All these things, 
I say, his office^ his abilities, his 
labours, his actions and attain- 
ments, stirred and incited him 
to compose [the Thesaurus] with 

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TOV SpOoV TOVUTpOV T(t>V ke^€(i)V. 

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£wovs Kal as tS(i}fJL€v ttcos Zypa- 

<f>OV 01 TOT€ V EA.XryV€S TT/V 

such lofty learning that it cannot 
be otherwise than that the 
Franks and Greeks will be 
greatly benefited. . . . 

A few useful Explanations 
First and foremost, as it is a 
fact that there are many Romaic 
words which, besides their natural 
meaning, have also a metaphorical 
one, learn that after he puts that 
which shows the natural and 
general meaning, he puts also 
that which shows the meta- 
phorical meaning : for example, 
this word (ktvtt(o) which means 
naturally and generally ' I beat/ 
afterwards and besides that, he 
puts that it means also meta- 
phorically ( I drink/ putting as 
a token this secondary meaning 
and adding also an example, 
thus : €KTvirrjo'ap£v rp€.ls y iw- 
<T€pes oicaoVs Kpaxri) 'we had 
drunk three or four okas of 
wine/ and so for the rest" 

This is, I think, sufficient as 
a specimen of the Graeco-bar- 
baric style in which the mission- 
aries of the West wrote at that 
time. Our good Capuchin not 
only wrote wretchedly the 
popular Greek of the day, but 
he had very little knowledge of 
the rules of orthography and 
of the correct accentuation of 
words. Let us leave then the 
foreigners and see how the 
Greeks of that period wrote the 
pure modern Greek freed from 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 


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TOV dp\l€7rUTKQ7TOV 'A$7JV(aV 

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piav €K Trjs TraAatas 'Pco/a^s €ts 

Tl/V V€aV 'Pco/ATJV, ^TOt TlfV 

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'EAA^vtoV dpcOfiei, tovs Acopt€ts, 
tovs AtoA.«ts, /cat tovs "Icovas* 

foreign elements. The following 
is an extract from the Geography 
of Meletius, archbishop of Athens, 
written in the first decad of the 
18th century, but published at 
Venice in 1728. 

"Hellas, that great name, 
universally celebrated in ancient 
times, insignificant and ill-fated 
at the present day, is called 
Greece by those Europeans who 
are not Greeks, and received that 
name from Graecus who reigned 
in it, just as it derived the name 
Hellas from Hellen, the son of 
Deucalion and Pyrrha ; but by 
the Turks and others in these 
days it is commonly called 
Roumelia, from the Romans of 
new Rome, that is to say, from 
the great Constantine who re- 
moved the seat of government 
from old Rome to new Rome or 
Constantinople in the year 335 
a.d. At first Greece proper and 
Thessaly were called by the 
common name of Hellas, as one 
province, but these were after- 
wards separated from each other, 
whence Homer designates only 
the Phthiotae as Hellenes: 
Herodotus the latter and also the 
Pelasgians : Athenaeus enumer- 
ates three nations of the Hellenes, 
the Dorians, the Aeolians, and 
the Ionians. Afterwards Pelo- 
ponnesus also received the name 
Hellas, and likewise Epirus and 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 




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CIS TTJV 'Ao-LaV, KOI €?}(€ TO 

iraAcu p.€.ydXr)V Kal dxrvyKpirov 
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koToXUrdip'av ra rjOrj T(ov 
dvOpwTriov 8ta TtoV VOfUOV TWV 

the whole of Macedonia; and 
finally Crete and the other is- 
lands of the Aegaean Sea were 
called Hellas. The name Hellas 
subsequently passed into Italy 
and Sicily, and a great part of 
the former was called Magna 
Graecia. In like manner it 
went to that part of Asia which 
was called Asiatic Hellas. 

Taken as a whole then, Hellas 
is bounded on the east by the 
Aegaean Sea, on the south by 
the Cretan Sea, on the west by 
the Ionian Sea, and on the 
north by the Scardian mountains, 
by which it is separated from 
Dlyria and Mysia, and by the 
river Nestus, by which it is 
divided from Thrace. 

Hellas was inhabited before 
the other parts of Europe 
because she was nearer to Asia, 
and had in olden times possessed 
great and incomparable fame 
and splendour in all her actions 
and achievements ; for she was 
the home of learning, and it was 
from her that science spread to 
the other parts of Europe and 
elsewhere. It was from Hellas 
that colonies of Greeks were 
sent to different places. The 
habits of mankind were im- 
proved by the legislation of the 
lawgivers of Hellas, and in a 
word Hellas was resplendent 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



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p.€vov irapd 2. K. OiKovofMp. 
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o£vs, 17 8k iretpa o-KfraXeprj, 
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over all the world by hex words 
and deeds and by her military 
expeditions. . . ." 

Did Meletius write any other 

Yes, but they were not all 
printed. The more remarkable 
of his works are the Geography 
from which the above extract is 
taken and his valuable Church 
History, which, written in the 
ancient Greek idiom, was subse- 
quently translated at Constanti- 
nople into popular Greek by 
Johannes Palaeologus and 
printed at Vienna in three 
volumes, in 1783-4, under the 
superintendence of Polyzoes of 

The following extract I copied 
from the Neos Asclepios: it is 
the first of the Aphorisms of 1 
Hippocrates with an explanation 
in popular Greek written by 
Marcus of Cyprus, who was 
a contemporary of Alexander 
Maurocordatus : it was first 
published, in the medical peri- 
odical I have mentioned, in 
1843, from a manuscript in the 
possession of S. C. Oeconomos. 

Ancient Text 
" Life is short but science long : 
time is fleeting, experiment haz- 
ardous, and judgment difficult 
One must not only oneself con- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




8c ov fiovov kavrbv wapk\€iv 
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larpiKTjs rk\vri$ (irtpl rrjs 
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tov dvdpwjrCvov fiiov. Tov 

KCLipbv €tS TOV OTTO tOV SoKLpd- 

fovrat at kvkpyetai avrrjs tov 
k\€t 7roAAa o~T€v6v /cat oAtyo- 
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p£Ta/3okrjV Trjs vXrjs twv avdpta- 
iriviav cr(op,dT(ov ' fj irtipa 
ttvai <r<f>ak€pa Sta to Tt/uov /cat 
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dvdpwrriviov craytaTttV, cVava> cts 
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aaSkveiav irpkirei 8k o^t povov 
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dAAa /cat 6 dadevrjs va viroTaxr- 
oyjrai els Tas irapayyekias tov 
laTpov, va /a?) ttoijJ to Ivavrtov* 

form to what is requisite, but the 
patient also, and those with him, 
and his surroundings. 

Man's life in comparison with 
the magnitude of medical science 
(which the present subject re- 
gards) is short, and is not 
sufficient for a complete com- 
prehension and grasp of that 
science ; and therefore a careful 
perusal of the books of our 
predecessors is of great benefit 
and indispensable, especially 
of those concise instructions 
which in a definite and summary 
manner explain the power of the 
science : but on the other hand 
the science is of great extent and 
beyond the life of man. The 
time which it has for its powers 
to be tried is very restricted and 
brief owing to the rapid change 
in the substance of human 
bodies. Experiment again is 
hazardous on account of the 
worth and value of that sub- 
stance of human bodies, in 
essaying upon them untried 
herbs and remedies. Judgment 
also is a difficult matter, that ia 
to say, to decide what is proper 
for the physician to do in each 
illness. Not only must the 
physician do what is requisite, 
but the patient must obey the 
physician's commands and not 
act in opposition to them. And 
those who are in charge of the 
sick man must be capable of 

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va fjvat, OTtTij&tot va KaraXafJL- 
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^€oa1^€tav. ,, 

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epwrqo-rjT* Ttva €ts 7rotov 26Vos 
dvrJKCi, Od o*as aTroKpidy OTt 
€tvat Ka#oAt#co9 >} SiafiapTvpo- 
fievos ' €av 8k to) 7rpoT€ivr)T€ Kal 
ScvTcoav cpwD/cti/, 7rota €?vat 17 
yAaxro-a tov, 8c v #a 8vvq6y va 
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o-vAAoywr^ oAtyov #cat v7roToi/- 
Qopvfav Od €L7ry • " 'Ey ku> ^€/0€ts 

understanding and carrying out 
whatever the physician orders, 
and moreover, the external sur- 
roundings must be well looked 
after, for instance, the place where 
he is, actions or subjects of con- 
versation which cause the invalid 
distress or irritation, and other 
similar matters which hinder 
sleep, or the prognosis, or the 

From this interesting extract 
and the one before it, it is very 
clearly evident that modern 
Greek at the commencement of 
the 18th century sensibly be- 
gan to be purified. 

There is no doubt about that, 
for the books written at that 
time on various subjects most 
distinctly attest the fact ; yet 
the foreign Hellenists of those 
days persisted in saying that the 
language of the Greek people 
was a barbarous medley of 
strange words, deriving their 
information from the Levantines 
scattered about the commercial 
cities of the East. If you ask 
one of these to what nation he 
belongs, he will reply that he is 
a Catholic or a Protestant ; and 
if you put a second question, as 
to what his language is, he will 
not be able to answer at once, 
but will consider a little, and 
will mumble : " I know many 

i by Google 




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oflrot ft€Ta£v T(av 6/uAoixri 
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v aTOKTrjcry fiiKpav yvaxrtv tt}s 
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Eis tovs elSoras rr)v dp\atav 
'EAA?/vi#o)v rj €Kp.d6rj<ris rrjs 

languages, but French is my 
grandfather's language, my 
mother was Maltese." These 
Levantines speak among them- 
selves a most vulgar Graeco- 
Turco - Gallo - Italian idiom, in 
which moreover their Prayer- 
Books are written in Roman 
characters. In this idiom the 
word of God is preached in the 
Latin churches throughout the 
East. For many centuries these 
Levantines were the only inter- 
preters for Europeans travelling 
in oriental countries. From 
these interpreters, whose chief 
characteristic is always ignor- 
ance, travellers for the last 
two or three hundred years 
regularly collected, and perhaps 
even now still collect, their 
information regarding the people 
and languages of the East. 
The foreigner who intends 
to visit Greece or Turkey 
for commercial or literary pur- 
poses, or simply for recreation, 
if he does not wish to fall an 
easy prey to those interpreters 
of whom we are speaking, will 
do well, before going into those 
parts, to acquire some know- 
ledge of modern Greek as it is 
now spoken and written, since 
that is the prevailing language 
there. For those who know 
ancient Greek the mastery of 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 


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modem Greek is a very easy 
matter, and can be gained in a 
few weeks. The first and the 
principal thing they have to 
do is to learn to pronounce 
Greek words in the Greek 
manner : after this, let them 
read some modern Greek books 
or newspapers, and they will 
soon find that they have in- 
sensibly become proficient in 
modern Greek. The habit of 
talking readily and accurately 
in Greek, as in all languages, 
is acquired in time by practice. 
If any one speaks even ancient 
Greek to Greeks he is under- 
stood : all that is required is 
not to pronounce it after the 
Erasmian method, for then they 
will think he is speaking another 
language. The following phrase 
for example : " These old mid- 
wives, though advanced in years, 
nevertheless appear youthful," 
read with the English pronunci- 
ation, "High gry-eye haught- 
eye my- eye ki-toy pro-beb- 
bee-kyoo-ee-eye fye-nown-die en 
tou-tois nee-eye," no Greek can 
understand. If you would 
like to have a laugh, let me 
read you a few lines from the 
satirical poem Tiri-IAri of Or- 
phanides, in which a description 
is given of some travellers who 
went to Syros at the time when 
the inhabitants were in a tre- 
mendous state of excitement 
about the wonderful cuckoo 
which had been killed by the 

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OV €<£0V€W€V 6 7Tip[<f>rjfJLOS KVITq- 

yhs ZoAoVas. Eivat Sc ttc/dit- 
tov va o~as €t7rco on 3Xi/ rj 
wroOco-is rov TroirjpaTOS cfvai 
irXaxmfj. 'JS^kpyovrai Xoiirbv 
oi ^€voi els rrjv irp(oT€vo\xrav 
Trjs vrprov 'Ep/iowoAiv 
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f3kia cis ras }(€?/>as, 

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K'l aAAot €7Tt TWV 7Tl'A(OV T(OV 

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twv KaAwv /tas ^cvwj/, 

Ncos <f>ai8pbs fi€ €K<f>paxrw 
(rarvpLKov irpoo-toTrov, 

Mc ftXtfJLfxaTa (raraviKa, iccu 


'AiriOvrfa-Ke p&iSCafia dxnrXdy- 

Xvov €l/0(OV€taS, 

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avdicvpTov, ki aVraas 

Tpa<f>i8oS aVTlK€LJJL€VOV, (rrpa- 

<f>els irphs Kam-qXar-qv 

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Twv Xai'pc cTaipc* '*ft waij 

Ai£ov /xoi* 

IIov av li'ev dW/oos ZoAoVa 


( Mc crvyxtopets avdevra ftov/ t<£ 

dweKpidr) watfov 

KwrqXdrrjs, 'ay vow T^vyAoKr- 

orav twv Kivcftov.' 

"Ev <rr)fJL€Ui>/MLTdptOV 6 ^€VOS tot 9 

Kat ypd<fxi Tavra* '"EAAiyvcs 

t^v <rrjfJL€pov oXCyoi 
AaXowri r»)v *EAAiyvt#c^v a>s 

OVT6S TCKva /AaAAov 

celebrated sportsman Zolotas. 
It is superfluous for me to tell 
you that the whole subject of the 
poem is imaginary. The travel- 
lers land at Hermopolis, the 
capital of the island. 

" Some of .them carried books in 
their hands, 

some bands crossed over their 

and others, wound round their 

a white handkerchief ; but one of 
these gentle strangers, 
a youth, bright, with a satirical 
expression of countenance, 
witfi satanic looks, and a mouth 
from which 

there died away a smile of piti- 
less irony, 

with a sharp nose but distinctly 
up-tilted and for a humorous 
pencil a subject, turning to a 

said with that most charming 

of the Keye-eree-het-eye-eree 
lot : '0 pie, lexon moy 
poy an ayi-en antros Zolota 
oykoy V 

' Pardon me, my lord,' answered 

the boatman, ' I do not know the 
Chinese language.' 
A note-book then the stranger 

and thus he writes : ' Few Greeks 

speak Greek, being offspring 

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'Ikkvpi&v Kal Tpi/3aAAwv Kal 

SAd/Jcov Kal Bav8dAa>v. 

K* efe 2v/oov Tqv ifiiropiKTiv rov 

vkov Kpdrovs irokiv 

A£v eftpov irepirjyqdel? rrjv d- 

yopdv rrjs okrjv 

Ou&va vd fi€ hvojj. . . .' " 


fflvovs tfro vd vfipurdy Kal vd 
XkevaxrQy TroAAdias virb £€V<ov, 
dkka fJAragv twv weptrjyrf- 
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oiroloi ov fwvov ras dperds 
rod 'EkkyviKOv kaov i$av- 
fiacrav, dkka Kal rqv yAwo-- 
<rav avrov /Mtydkw l^erifi-qcrav. 
e O €K Mao-o-aAtas Uerpos Av- 
yovoTivos Tkv?, ypd<f>mv k£ C EA- 
Adoos Kara to 1750 Acyci iroA- 
Ad KaAd vn-lp tcov tot€ 'EAAiy- 
vtav Kal rrjs virb T<ov £€V<ov d- 
8iica>s 7T€pi<j>povovfJXvqs yAaxron/s 


yktiixrcrav Oeoypel fwvov Kar 
€irt<j>dv€iav 7rapa/i€fio/)<^a)/x€V^v, 
Kara j8d0os 8c Sta-nj/oovo-av okov 
rbv irkovrov Kal rr)V yka<f>vpo~ 
Tr/ra rrjs dpx a * as 'EAAr/viiojs. 
C H tgrjs avrov iraparrjprja-ts 
€?vou yjyq(Tip.{iirdTT) ds rovs 
hnOvpovvras vd pddwi rrjv 
NcoeAAr/vtKiJv. "'AovvaTOV vd 
fiddji tls TYjV Kadup.ik'qiMvqv 
'EkkrjviKrjV," Alyci, « X w Pk 
irportpov va yvh>pio"Q ra irapa- 
p.v$ia Kal ras OTtxrjpds 
irapoifiias. Ot "EAA^ves Aa- 
Aovo-iv a€«roT€ d7ro<f>0€yp.a- 

of Illyrians, Triballians, and 

Slavs and Vandals. 

And in Syros, the commercial 

city of the new kingdom, 

going over all its market I did 

not find 

any one to understand me. . 

It has been the fate of the 
Greek nation to be frequently 
insulted and jeered at by 
foreigners, but among those 
who have travelled in Greek 
countries there are to be found 
some truthful and impartial 
men, who not only have ad- 
mired the good qualities of the 
Greek people, but have set a 
high value on their language. 
Pierre Auguste Guys of Mar- 
seilles, writing from Greece in 
1750, speaks very favourably of 
the Greeks of that time and of 
their language unjustly despised 
by foreigners. He regards the 
common language of the people 
as only transformed on the 
surface, but as preserving be- 
neath it all the richness and the 
elegance of ancient Greek. The 
following observation of his is 
most useful to those who wish 
to learn modern Greek. "It 
is impossible for any one to 
learn the vernacular Greek," he 
says, " without first acquiring a 
knowledge of the folk-lore and 
metrical proverbs. The Greeks 

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Sirjyrjfxara kcu ra$ irapoiptas, 
rets oirotas rj irapdSoans &V 
errjprjo-c Trap' avrois fxera rG>v 

WCfMiiV. . . ." C O/itA.0>l' 86 7TC/01 

twv kptarncOtv fo-fuxrw rov 'EA- 
Xtjvikov Xaov Xey€i m w 'AAAa 
Tt va €i7ru) wepl rrjs cpwrucfjs 
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yXaxrcra Svvarai va irapdxr\-Q 
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6vo/jl(xto)v o<ra ol "EXXrjves 
epacrral hriSaxf/iXcvovo'W els Tots 

€/Ml>/£€VaS TCOV." * 

Ta cgvjs poyxaTa y&ofieva kv 
Kaiv<rravTivov7roA.€t Kara, to 
eros 175° dvrkypa\fm. «k rrjs 
Tptrrjs €k86o-€0)S rov "3>tAoA.o- 
yucov els rrjv 'EAAaoa ra^€t- 
Siov " rov Tkvs. 

A'.) 'AKpoo-rixov (top* A' <r. 

#<as tov rjXiov ttcXafiTTpov, Xdfi- 

\j/is CO/OatOTCtTI/, 

pi^€ Kal cts tov Xoyov /AOV aV 

rr)v Kadapiordrrj, 

air T(3v '/AaTtwv cov Tas ftoXas 

duriva xpvcrijv fxiav, 

va evpn) cts Ta ira^ry jhov #cd/A- 

/uav depairetav. 

to. fiduravd fiov, y irXrjyais, 01 

ttovoi, Ta 6ctva /u>v, 

QdXrjv fie StSovv irdvroT€, Oprj- 

vovv rd '/AOTta /xov. 

always speak in apophthegms : 
they are very fond of the tales 
and proverbs which tradition 
has preserved among them in 
common with their customs. 
. . ." Speaking of the love-songs 
of the Greeks he says: "But 
what shall I say of the lan- 
guage of love employed by the 
Greeks? Nowhere so much as 
among them are there found the 
excessive transports of the pas- 
sion of love. No*other language 
is capable of supplying such a 
wealth of expressive epithets as 
Greek lovers lavish upon their 

The following songs, sung in 
Constantinople in the year 1750, 
I have copied from the third 
edition of the Voyage Littdraire 
de la Grtee, par M. Guys. 

1. An Acrostic (VoL I. p. 129). 


O brilliant light of the sun, 

loveliest splendour, 

cast on me too one most pure 

golden ray of the glances from 
your eyes, 

that I may have some little 
alleviation of my sufferings. 
My torments, my wounds, my 
troubles, my wretchedness 
make me dizzy always, my eyes 
shed tears. 

1 2d0a, Uapdprtffm NcoeX. $i\o\oylas, <r. 126. 

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's Ta a/A€r/oa fwv rd kolko. pv- 
Kpav irafyqyoplav. 

KOLflC, <t> (f><Jk fAOV, IA.€OS, KajJL€ 
eva VT€pfldvi f 

€is rds irXrjyds pav ras TroAAas 

/3dX.€ £va /3ordvi. 

<r(ov€i fj dirovia <rov, <f>ddv€i "q 

dxjirkayxvia y 

dXXoipjovovf €\d$rjKa 9 8kv elvai 

dfiaprCa ; 

B'.) To SivSpov rfjs dydir-qs 
(<r € k. 133). 

To StvSpov rrjs dydir-qs <rov fie 


rpov €v<j>po(r6vrjSy 

wXrjV Ttopa ipxLpdvd-qKav rd 

<£vAAa, k \nro<f)€pv(i) 

dirtXirwrLas <f>Xoyurpbv k\ aSt*a 


T(ov VTroo-x&rttov #cA.aSia rov 

p[<rovs r\ x/rvxporrjs 

e^€pav€ iravrdiraa-i rfjs fydpas 

f) KpvoTqs, 

kolI puovov pt(av rov <f>vrov 

dSvvaTov Kvrrdfa 

aw' rd <rr)p€ia tcov #cA.a8ia>v av 

etv* X^Pl 8urrd£<o, 

(frawerai Kawtos €\acr€ rrjv 


/cat 6V avrb dwe/SaXc twv <j>vX- 

kb)v TTjv OT0A77V rrjs. 

act 0a Acs kvopifa to ScvSp avrb 

pc XdOos 

XW/04S 7TOT€ VOL 8e\€TaL TO <f>vX- 

Xo/36Xov wdOos. 

Kal fA 0X0V TOVTO Wp6<T<f>€pVa 

Kal Ka6* Oepawciav 

Come, my light, show me 
some pity, some remedy, 
a little consolation for my end- 
less woes. 

Have pity on me, my light, 
give me a little help, 
put one hero upon my many 

Enough of your indifference, 
enough of your cruelty ! 
Alas ! I am lost ! O the pity of 

2. The Tree of Love (p. 133). 

The tree of your love with its 

leaves of fidelity 

gave me the shade of hope, of 

boundless joy : 

but now the leaves are withered, 

and I suffer 

the scorching heat of despair, 

and writhe in unmerited torture. 

The branches of promises the 

cold of hatred 

and the frost of enmity have 

utterly dried up, 

and I see only the feeble root of 

the plant : 

from the signs of the branches I 

doubt if it still be green : 

it seems to have been deprived 

of the source of life 

and so has lost its robe of leaves. 

I wrongly thought the tree was 

and never had to suffer the cast- 
ing of its leaves ; 
and still I paid it every care, 

i by Google 




bcLKpvwv fiov W0Ti<rfJ.aTa fi€ kolO* 
irpoOvfiiav ' 

irkrjv fiaTrjv eKOiriaaa, yiarl o«v 
€i\€ <f>dd\ry 

's rb fiddos' pifav /uova\a 's 

T7/V 6\f/W €l\€ TTldcTQ) 

Kal e8eixv€ *s ret 'fidria fwv oko 

u-cos $€ v OLv£rj<rQj 

fia plfav (rraOeporrjTOS Scv €i\€v 


pov dirb £e<rt.v Zpuros irdkiv av 



tkiriSos '£ava8(o<rQ. 

zealously watering it with my 
tears ; 

but my labour was in vain, for 
it had not reached 
to any depth : it had taken root 
only on the surface, 
and yet it always seemed to my 
eyes that it would grow, 
but it had not acquired the root 
of constancy. 

If only from the heat of love it 
will again send forth its buds, 
perhaps it will give me, as be- 
fore, the shade of hope. 

V.) To irkkayos riov a-vfi<f>opwv 

(to/x. B' o-ek. 39). 

Mc SvoTvxias 7TO A.6/40), 

/*€ fido-ava, (us to kaifib 

's to Trekayos rtov o*i;/a</>o0G)v 

fJL€ €7TLkIv8vVOV KOLlpOV, 

fi dvtfwvs okedptov?) 
<r<f>o8povs Kal kvavriovs, 

fl€ KVpXLTd 7Tokk(OV KavpL(OV 

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Tokka ay piwftevri, 
ottov d<f>pi£et Kal <f>v<r$, 
/*€ crayavaKta TT€pur<rd • 

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Kal Karaxrvyxia'fJLeva, 

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va Slovv ra ' pAria puov <rT€prqd\ 

ykvKa vepa va, evpto, 

v dpd£(o 0€ 8kv dpiropij), 
yiarl kipAva Scv Oojpoj. 
a* dirtkiruriav rp€\a> 
s ra apptva 'irov €\(i) t 
Vov fi* avra kov va irviyta, 

3. The Sea op Troubles 

(Vol. II. p. 39). 

I am fighting with misfortunes, 

with afflictions, up to the neck 

in the sea of troubles, 

in dangerous weather, 

with destructive winds 

violent and contrary, with waves 

of passionate longings 

and profusion of sighs. 

A swollen sea 

all raging, 

and foaming, and it blows 

with many a gust : 

clouds darkened 

and confused : 

and that safety may appear 

and my eyes descry the land, 

and I may find fresh water, 

I strive, but find no means. 

I cannot come to anchor 

for I see no harbour : 

I run, in my despair, 

to the sails which I still have, 

at least to drown with them 

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rj <rcAa/ucri va t/3yQ' or safely come to land, 

koi Tovra av /3aoTaA>vv and these, if they last, 

'fiiropovv va\ /a€ <f>v\a£ovv. may save me. 

AcV elvai €VKaTa<f>p6vrfra ra These love-songs are not to 

kpaniKa ravra pcr/iara, teal irpe- be despised, and we must ac- 

tt€i va SfjLoXoyiofjLCv irkcurras knowledge the deepest obliga- 

Xapiras cis rbv Tkvs «rm ra tion to M. Guys who has pre- 

Sico-oktcv • dkk* aKovts) rbv served them : but I hear the 

Ka&Dva rjxovvra, wrrt as bell ringing, so let us go down 

viraytafjicv kolto) cis tovs Kovnovi- to our cabins and get ready for 

ckovs fias va. eroifuwrdQfuv &a dinner. 
rb ytvfJLa. 

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Kara t5v /trjva tovtov cts 
to, fi€(T7)fxf3pLva raura /*€/ot? o 
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7ra0atv€t Tts cav k£k\6j) cts 
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oriys €v 'A&Jvats, oypalav Ttva 
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ycpovTos rtvos A€/*^8oux ov va 
/wis inrdyy cws €K€t Kat va /*as 

Look, the deck is all wet : 
apparently, while we were 
having our dinner down below, 
it was raining outside. 

But I do not think much 
rain has fallen : perhaps it was 
a passing cloud, for I see the 
sky is clear, as if nothing had 
happened, and the sun pours 
without stint his golden rays. 

During this month, in these 
southern parts, the weather is 
usually very changeable, and 
one often suffers if one goes 
out for a walk without an 
umbrella. I remember, when I 
was a student • at Athens, on a 
beautiful day in April I went 
down to the Piraeus for recrea- 
tion with some of my fellow- 
students. None of us had 
brought with him an umbrella 
or overcoat. After we had 
dined at a little restaurant by 
the sea, we determined to make 
an excursion as far as Salamis. 
So we made an agreement with 
an old boatman to take us as 
far as there and bring us back 
for fifteen drachmas, and with- 

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irat&a," €?7r€, ei /3X€ir€T€ ck€ivo 
to p.avpo o"vvve<t>o ; da l^cu/tc 

out losing time we got into his 
boat and were soon outside 
the harbour. A light breeze 
blowing from the east swelled 
the sail and the boat cleft the 
waves delightfully. All of us 
were in high spirits and we 
passed the time in singing 
national songs. We had gone 
beyond the little desert island 
Psyttaleia and were already 
doubling Cape Cynosura when 
one of us, a student, if my 
memory does not fail me, 
from Philippopolis in Thrace, 
standing up, began to repeat 
with enthusiasm the beautiful 
lines of Aeschylus about the 
sea -fight at Salamis ; and just 
as he was reciting the famous 
exhortation : 

" Go, sons of Greece, 
free your fatherland, free 

children, wives, and the homes 
of your fathers' gods, 
and your ancestral tombs : the 
fight is now for all you have," 
and the whole of us were madly 
clapping our hands, the old 
boatman, who, seated at the stern, 
had up to that time been steer- 
ing without taking any part in 
our hilarity, interrupted us and 
stretching out his arm towards 
Mount Parnes said, " Look there, 
boys, do you see that black 
cloud 1 We shall have rain, 

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ToVTO TO iriO-TCVO), SlOTl Kal 

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Kara t^v kiro\rjv Tavrrjv kv 

and heavy rain ; so we should 
do well to put in to land here 
and creep into that hut till the 
storm has passed," and with 
these words he steered to the 
land ; but the rain did not give 
us time to take refuge in the 
hut, for suddenly it came down 
furiously and drenched us to 
the skin. 

I hope you did not catch 
cold, for there was no possibility 
of your changing your clothes 

My good fellow, how on earth 
could we change our clothes ? 
Luckily in a few minutes the 
burning rays of the sun dried 
them on our backs. 

That I can well believe, for 
at this moment the heat of the 
sun is no joke ; and, as our 
clothes have no need of being 
dried on our backs, I think we 
should do well to go and sit 
down in that shady corner and 
resume our favourite discussions 
and readings. 

Very good, for we shall thus 
be able, before we arrive at 
Corfu, to examine concisely the 
points which regard the progress 
of the Greeks in literature and 
science in the last fifty years of 
the eighteenth century. 

At that time in western Europe 

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there was imperceptibly at work 
a great intellectual and political 
agitation which later on over- 
turned everything, destroying 
ancient prejudices and raising 
man to his proper position. 
The writings of Locke, Hume, 
Voltaire and Rousseau greatly 
contributed to hasten that 
change, by which intellect he- 
came the ruling power among 
the communities of the civilised 
world. In what condition was 
the intellectual development 
of the Greek nation at this 

The Greek nation, as you 
know from what I have already 
told you, even from the 17th 
century began to make intel- 
lectual progress, but it is from 
the middle of the 1 8th century, 
properly speaking, that its true 
intellectual regeneration com- 
mences. At this time the zeal 
of the Greeks for learning 
received a new impulse and 
education was no longer confined 
to a few, but spread among all 
classes of the nation. The 
method of instruction pursued 
in the schools, reformed and 
improved every day, became 
more and more efficacious, for 
the teachers in them were in 

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general men of enlightenment 
who had completed their studies 
in the then celebrated uni- 
versities of the West. 

Who are regarded as the 
more distinguished among the 
learned Greeks of this period ? 

Eugenius Bulgaris and Nice- 
phorus Theotokes. Regarding 
these learned men Mr. Thereianos 
very justly remarks that they 
were "the foremost heroes of 
science and Greek literature, 
the eloquent heralds of the 
intellectual reformation of the 
race, renowned as teachers, 
more renowned as writers, a 
real honour to Greece." 

You will greatly oblige me 
if you will tell me a few par- 
ticulars of the life and writings 
of these two learned men of 
Greece in the days of her 

With pleasure : I begin then 
with Eugenius as of earlier 
date. He was born in 1716 in 
Corfu, where his father Peter 
Bulgaris had gone for a time 
with his wife Zaneta for fear of 
the Turks who were coming to 
attack his native country Zante. 
Eugenius, having completed 
his elementary course of educa- 
tion first in Zante and after- 
wards in Corfu, subsequently 
went to Italy where he remained 
studying for three years. In 

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1738 he returned to his native 
land, and going thence to 
Janina was ordained deacon. 
After this he went back to 
Italy, and having become ac- 
quainted in Venice with the 
Maroutzae, at that time engaged 
in trade there, who were natives 
of Epirus and patriots, was sent 
by them to Janina to take up 
the post of headmaster of the new 
school which they had at great 
expense established in that city. 
There had been flourishing for 
years at Janina another school 
superintended at that time by 
Balanus, a very learned man, 
but a follower of antiquated 
philosophical systems. This 
man and his associates, rejecting 
the philosophical theories of 
Eugenius, which introduced 
new principles, raised a furi- 
ous war against him and 
compelled him to leave Janina 
and remove to Cozane, where he 
taught for some years with great 
success. The fame of Eugenius 
as a learned instructor and an 
eloquent preacher had spread 
throughout all the countries 
inhabited by the Greeks, so 
that, in the year 1753, having 
been invited to Constantinople 
by the Oecumenical Patriarch 
Cyrillus, he was sent from there 
to Athos as headmaster of the 
Patriarchal School just then 
established at that place. This 
great national school Eugenius 
superintended for six years, in- 

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1 Plato's inscription over his doorway is said to have been : "Models 
dycwfUrprrrot eWtw," " Let no one enter who is ignorant of geometry." 

structing the crowds of students 
who flocked there in logic, meta- 
physics, mathematics and di- 
vinity. Over the great gate of 
the school Eugenius, in imitation 
of Plato, wrote the following 
inscription : 

" Let him who will study geo- 
metry enter : I do not forbid 
him : on him who will not I 
shall close the door." 

The teacher of the Greek 
language and philology in the 
school was the celebrated Neo- 
phytus Causocalybites, whose 
commentaries on the fourth 
book of the Grammar of Theo- 
dorus Gazes, extending over four- 
teen hundred pages, published at 
Bucharest in 1761, attest not 
only the industry of the man 
but also his * great ability in 
everything connected with gram- 
matical studies. In this school, 
as I told you before, Eugenius 
did not remain more than six 
years, for, perceiving that he was 
envied and bitterly persecuted by 
the deposed Patriarch Cyrillus, 
at that time staying at Athos, 
he resigned the head mastership 
and withdrew to Thessalonica. 
Seraphim II., who was then 
Patriarch, invited Eugenius to 
Constantinople to fill the chair 
of divinity in the National 
School. Regarding the Patriarch 
Seraphim II. , Sergius Macraeus 
in his Ecclesiastical History says : 

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"His Holiness Seraphim was 
fond of men of learning and 
culture, and took delight in 
conversing with them, and did 
all he could to show them 
honour: . . . and sending for 
the great Eugenius from Thes- 
salonica, for whom he had 
great admiration and esteem, 
appointed him a teacher in the 
school at Constantinople, so that 
in the third year of his patri- 
archate he made the parish of 
the Phanar a perfect Athens : for 
there the famous Eugenius was 
at that time teaching divinity, 
there Dorotheos was imparting 
instruction in philosophy, there 
Critias was lecturing on rhetoric, 
there Ananias was giving lessons 
in logic : there was indeed a 
crowd of philosophers there, a 
throng of men of letters, and a 
band of theologians." 

From Constantinople Eug- 
enius went to Dacia and thence 
to Leipsic, where in 1766 he 
published his Logic. In this 
city he became intimate with 
the Russian commander-in-chief 
Theodore Orloff, who then hap- 
pened to be staying there. Or- 
loff on his arrival at St Peters- 
burg recommended the learned 
Greek to the Empress Catherine, 
and the result of this recom- 
mendation was an invitation to 
Russia, where he acquired high 
honour. In August of the year 
1775 he was ordained priest by 

2d0a, MeacuupiKij Bt/SXto^/ny, rbfjL. I" <r. 229. 

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Platon, the Metropolitan of 
Moscow, and a year afterwards 
was consecrated Archbishop of 
Kherson. In 1789 he became 
a member of the Most Holy 
Synod of all the Russias, and 
also of the Imperial Academy. 
He died at an advanced age on 
the 10th of June 1806 and was 
buried with great distinction. 

The information you have 
given me about Eugenius 
Bulgaris is very interesting. 
Did he write many works ? 

A very large number, of which 
you can find a long catalogue 
in the Modern Greek Literature 
of Sathas. His translation into 
heroic hexameters of the Aeneid 
and Georgics of Virgil in three 
folio volumes is worthy of note. 

In what style did Eugenius 
write his works ? 

In the ancient Greek style : 
but in some of them he em- 
ployed modern GTeek, which he 
certainly did not write with so 
much purity as Nicephorus 
Theotokes. As a specimen of 
his style in the vernacular let 
us read the following extract 
from his letter to the deposed 
Patriarch Cyrillus, who by his 
intrigues compelled Eugenius 
to resign the headmastership of 
the school at Athos. 

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"Here are some out of the 
many causes of my departure. 
In them you have sufficiently 
the why and the wherefore : 
but your Holiness, attaching no 
importance to these causes, in 
your various letters against me 
only strives to make it appear 
that my departure forsooth re- 
sulted from your wishing to cor- 
rect the irregularities of the 
school and expel those who were 
insubordinate, and that I, as a 
haughty and arrogant person, 
took it ill and could not endure 
your setting matters to rights. 
Heaven forbid ! A school which 
I found with twenty students of 
whom I raised the number to 
nearly two hundred, which I en- 
larged and firmly established 
with such great efforts, as you 
have heard, and with such great 
labour, as you have seen, how 
was it possible for me to bring 
to that perfection in which you 
found it beyond your expecta- 
tion, without punishing the 
insubordinate, and without 
correcting, as far as I could, the 
irregularities in it, as they 
arose ? According to what was 
required there I earnestly 
advised, harshly rebuked, 
severely chastised, angrily ex- 
pelled, and again good-naturedly 
took back and treated with 
affection and kindness, thus 
keeping two hundred persons in 
discipline and good order such 
as I can boast that the small 

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number of servants who attend 
you never lived in, notwith- 
standing the noble example of 
propriety they have in the great 
virtue of your Holiness." 

The following is an extract 
from the sermon which he 
preached at Constantinople be- 
fore the Patriarch Seraphim at 
the feast of St. Andrew : 

" And the laws themselves at 
first, like tender infants, require 
milk and something to strengthen 
them : as they advance they 
grow up and come of age : 
afterwards, like men, they 
arrive at perfection and are 
in their prime, and at last they 
grow old and decay, they be- 
come enfeebled and collapse, 
and then they want — what 
else, but a hand and a staff? 
a staff to support them, a hand 
to raise them up and hold them ; 
or they then want, what is 
more desirable, a breath of life, 
and some revivifying and in- 
vigorating power which will set 
them up when they have fallen, 
bring them to life when they 
are dead, make them young 
again when old, restore them 
when decrepit. People have 
likened laws to spiders' webs, 
and in some respects have well 
so likened them, for a single 
feeble breath shakes them, a 
vigorous puff pierces and dis- 
sipates them : spiders' webs in 
fact ! If flies and gnats and 

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"H5^ fi€Ta/3aivop.ev €ts tov 
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small weak insects of that kind 
are entangled in them, they are 
caught and imprisoned: if 
larger and more powerful 
animals make a rush, they break 
them and tear them. But this 
comparison (according to my 
judgment) is incomplete in this 
respect, that when spiders' webs 
have been broken and scattered, 
there is no more any hope, and 
no art by which they can be 
mended, so that they may return 
to their former condition : but 
laws, yes. Whence laws and re- 
gulations would be more fitly 
likened to nets, which are sub- 
jected to what spiders' webs 
undergo, according to the size 
of the animals that fall into 
them, and also they have this 
further peculiarity of laws, that, 
when they are torn they are 
mended, and, when they be- 
come old, they are renewed. 
See if I speak according to 
reason. . . ." 

We now pass to Nicephorus 
Theotokes. He was born in 
Corfu in 1736. His father was 
Stephanos Theotokes, a noble- 
man. Having completed in his 
native land a course of general 
education he went at a very 
early age to Italy, where he 
studied with great assiduity 
mathematics and philosophy. 
Returning in 1756 to his own 
country, he taught for some 
years mathematics and philo- 
sophy in the school there. 

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Having been subsequently or- 
dained, and preaching the word 
of God with great eloquence in 
the churches, he acquired cele- 
brity among all the Greeks. He 
afterwards went to Constan- 
tinople, and met with a favour- 
able reception from Samuel I., 
who then adorned the Oecu- 
menical throne. This famous 
Patriarch was a Byzantine by 
birth, and he was one of the 
best prelates of the Orthodox 
Church, for he was not only a 
pious and just man, but of the 
greatest ability in the direction 
of ecclesiastical affairs : " and ac- 
cordingly, even amidst all the 
difficulties of the times, he was 
prompt in the execution of all 
his measures and easily effected 
whatever the necessities of the 
Church required, securing the 
goodwill and esteem even of 
those in power, especially of the 
monarch (Sultan). He was suc- 
cessful in whatever he took in 
hand, capable of carrying out 
anything he chose to attempt, 
brave in enduring, active in 
meeting or else in averting or 
withstanding attack : he was the 
terror of evil-doers, but an 
affectionate friend to those who 
followed the right path and 
kind to all, popular with the 
multitude, especially most 
solicitous about the affairs of 
the Church, superior to the in- 
fluence of money, holding in con- 
tempt unreasonable prejudices, 

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£ev kirnr XrjKTiKws • " e H 'Ek- 
Kkrjcrta Okkei lepoKrjpvKas, ov^i 
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cras rr)v hrnlprpriv /Sapvrdrrjv 

an ardent defender of the ortho- 
dox doctrines of his ancestors, 
a zealot in piety, the champion 
of the truth, and an admirer of 
antiquity: a great patriot and 
philhellenist, and a man who 
sought and earnestly studied 
every means in every direction 
for the general improvement 
and advancement of his race." 
Theotokes, having been ap- 
pointed patriarchal preacher by 
this great prelate, performed 
the duties of his ministry with 
immense success, and attracted 
the goodwill of every one. He 
became on the most intimate 
terms with the princely family 
of Ghicas, but this friendship 
was the cause of his leaving 
Constantinople. This is what 
happened : when the mother of 
Gregorius Ghicas, Prince of 
Wallachia, died and the funeral 
ceremony was performed in the 
patriarchal church, Theotokes 
preached the funeral sermon, in 
which he appears to have 
lavished on the deceased more 
praise than was seemly, and 
accordingly the austere Patriarch 
frowned, and when, at the con- 
clusion of the discourse, in 
accordance with ecclesiastical 
regulation, Theotokes came to 
kiss his hand, he ex- 
claimed in a tone of rebuke: 
"The Church requires preachers, 
not flatterers. " Theotokes, re- 


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garding the censure as very 
severe, at once resigned his 
office, and repairing to Jassy in 
Moldavia was appointed head- 
master of the Prince's School 
there. From Jassy he went to 
Leipsic, where he published 
several of his works. When in 
1779 Eugenius gave up the 
archbishopric of Kherson, the 
Holy Synod of Russia appointed 
Nicephorus Theotokes. to that 
office. He was afterwards 
promoted to the archbishopric 
of Astrakhan and Stavropol. 
Having performed his archiepis- 
copal duties with zeal and 
devotion, after the lapse of a 
few years he proffered his re- 
signation and, withdrawing to 
Moscow, passed the remainder 
of his life in study and in writ- 
ing books^ He died in 1800. In 
his scientific works, the number 
of which is considerable, he 
employed ancient Greek, but 
such of his works as had general 
utility for their object, he wrote 
in the pure modern Greek 
idiom. " This great man," says 
Constantine Sathas, " uniting to 
extensive erudition in other 
subjects a profound knowledge 
of both the ancient and the 
modern Greek idiom, and 
thoroughly understanding also 
the destiny of the national 
language, used great efforts and 
wonderfully succeeded in purg- 
ing it of barbarisms and, without 
any violence, bringing it near 

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to its limpid source. Con- 
sequently he may be justly 
regarded as the one man who 
gave its form to our common 
idiom which at the present day 
is written and understood by 
alL In his earliest works, the 
youthful preacher of Corfu 
seems to have preferred the 
popular idiom of his native 
land, but in his Sunday Com- 
mentaries Theotokes, the aged 
Bishop of Astrakhan, afforded 
an extremely pure model of the 
language " : this is what Sathas 
said. Let the following two 
extracts, taken from the Sunday 
Commentaries of Theotokes, serve 
as specimens of his pure style. 

Explanation of the Gospel 

according to St. Luke for the first 


" Many people, observing the 
fish in the sea taking to flight 
if even the slightest noise occurs, 
are convinced that they have 
a very acute sense of hearing : 
yet, as they are without the 
organs of the faculty of hearing, 
they have no sense of sound, 
but are completely deaf. How 
is it then that they start off and 
make their escape whenever a 
noise is heard? Any sound 
whatever is nothing but the 

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movement of the air produced 
by the sounding body : the air, 
set in motion and formed into 
waves, imparts a corresponding 
impetus and wave -motion to 
the water in contact with it 
The fish, though they have no 
sense of hearing, have an ex- 
tremely delicate sense of touch, 
and therefore, when they feel 
the movement of the water 
produced by the sound, at once 
go away to another place. The 
fish of the Lake of Gennesareth 
were deaf, like all other fish, 
but when Jesus, coming to that 
lake, said to His disciples : ' Let 
down your nets for a draught,' 
then, although they were deaf, 
they heard that voice of our 
Lord, and hearing, obeyed His 
authoritative command And 
therefore they did not run 
away but approached : they 
were not scattered but were 
gathered together and enclosed 
in the net ; and so great a multi- 
tude was collected that the net 
began to be torn, and the fisher- 
men filled two boats. We have 
the organs of hearing, we have 
ears, we hear every day the voice 
of the Lord in the Gospel, but 
hearkening not at all to His 
divine commands, we become 
more irrational and deafer than 
irrational and deaf fish." 

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Explanation of the Gospel 

according to St. Mark for the third 

Sunday in Lent. 

"The soul, by means of its 
intellect, in the twinkling of an 
eye ascends to Heaven, descends 
into Hell, makes the circuit of 
the earth, goes into cities, enters 
every place, thinks about what- 
ever it wishes, recollects the past, 
considers the present, foresees 
the future ; weighs, examines, 
combines and separates even 
the subjects of its own thoughts. 
It learns different languages, 
arts of all kinds, sublime sciences : 
whatever languages you hear, 
whatever objects of art you 
contemplate, are the work of 
our souls : it invented the 
contrivances by which we pass 
over long distances at sea : we 
dive into the depths of the 
ocean and bring up pearls, we 
descend into the entrails of the 
earth and extract the metals : 
we measure the size of the sun 
and of the moon and the other 
planets, and moreover the dis- 
tances between them : we calcu- 
late the period of their course, 
their rising, setting, conjunction, 
eclipse, the distance separating 
them from each other and from 
the earth : we collect and disperse 
fire, we introduce and remove 
air, we know the measure of the 
power of fire, of water, and of the 
winds : we see even such things 
as by their smallness or distance 

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escape the sight of our eyes : 
it discovered microscopes, tele- 
scopes, pyrometers, hygrometers, 
barometers, anemometers : it 
understands the solutions of 
problems on every subject, long 
and difficult calculations, and the 
finding of hidden things. The 
soul treats of morals, physics, 
geometry, botany, meteorology, 
medicine, astronomy, ontology, 
pneumatics, psychology, the- 
ology : by these means it rules 
and governs everything in the 
world and the whole world 
itself. Do you see what a great 
difference there is between the 
rational man and the irrational 
animal ? Which of the irrational 
animals that fly or swim or 
creep, or of the quadrupeds, can 
do, I do not say everything, 
but one single thing with that 
perfection with which man does 
all these things ? Foolish, then, 
and senseless and lost to shame 
are all who say that rational 
man in no way differs from the 
irrational animals." 

Besides Bulgaris and Theo- 
tokes did any other learned 
Greeks of distinction make their 
appearance at this period ? 

A very great number : but, 
as we have not much time at 
our disposal, we must necessarily 

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omit their names and pass at 
once to the great Corais, who 
undoubtedly holds the highest 
position among all the Greeks 
who have been conspicuous by 
their erudition from the taking 
of Constantinople to the present 

Before we pass to Corais I 
must beg you to tell me a little 
about Lampros Photiades, whose 
beautiful portrait I saw in the 
house of the Greek envoy 
Mons. Gennadius when I lately 
had the honour of visiting him : 
he told me that Photiades him- 
self gave it to his father, the 
celebrated George Gennadius of 
immortal memory, who was the 
favourite pupil of that great 

I too have often seen it It 
is the only original portrait of 
Photiades : all the others have 
been copied from it Now 
listen to a few particulars about 
the learned man we are speak- 
ing of. Lampros Photiades 
was born in Janina in 1750. 
Having received a general educa- 
tion in his own country, and 
having subsequently studied 
ancient Greek literature with 
Neophytus Causocalybites, and 
being endowed by nature with 
ability, a good memory and 
industry, he soon became one 
of the best teachers of the nation. 

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In the year 1792 he was 
appointed headmaster of the 
school at Bucharest, in which 
he taught till the close of his 
life : he died in 1805. In the 
days of Photiades the school at 
Bucharest received new life, and 
the number of Greek students 
who thronged there from all 
parts was very great, and not a 
few Wallachians and Bulgarians 
came there to drink from the 
streams of Greek learning. Lam- 
pros in his tuition did not spend 
the whole of his time simply in 
the explanation of words and 
phrases, but he directed the at- 
tention of his pupils to the lofty 
ideas of the ancient writers and 
imparted to them that sacred 
flame which, penetrating their 
young souls, filled them with 
that inspired enthusiasm which 
the study of the masterpieces of 
ancient Greek literature pro- 

Did Photiades leave behind 
him many works ? 

In a biographical notice pub- 
lished in the Logios Hermes of 
1811 it is mentioned that he 
translated what has been pre- 
served of the ten orators, Xeno- 
phon from beginning to end, 
the Muses of Herodotus, five of 
the books of Thucydides, the 
greater part of Plutarch, much 

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of Lucian, and some other works ; 
but what has become of all 
these writings I have not the 
slightest idea : what is certain 
is that not one of them has been 

I am much obliged to you 
for your information about 
Lampros Photiades. Now let 
us go to Corais, about whom I 
have read not a little. His 
valuable editions of the ancient 
writers are held in high esteem 
by Greek scholars in England 
and are found in all our great 
libraries. In my studies I 
frequently made use of his 
learned notes on the Aethiopics 
of Heliodorus, on Plutarch's 
Parallel Lives, on Isocrates, 
Strabo, and many other authors. 
I have observed that his emenda- 
tions of the ancient texts are 
for the most part correct, and 
many of the more recent editors 
have adopted them, but it is 
worthy of notice that some of 
them make no mention of the 
source from which they derived 
them, and allow the reader 
to suppose that they are the 
offspring of their own critical 

You are right Mr. Therei- 
anos, in his life of Corais, men- 
tions many emendations by that 
learned critic which some later 
editors have had the effrontery 
to offer as their own. But let 

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us leave what regards the edi- 
tions and emendations of Corais 
and let us see in what respect 
he so differed from the other 
learned Greeks who flourished 
during the subjection that the 
nation should look upon him 
as far superior to them not only 
in erudition but in many other 
respects. Listen to what the 
learned Thereianos says about 
him : 

"The same relation that 
Socrates bears to the philosophers 
who flourished before his time 
Adamantius Corais bears to 
preceding and contemporary 
teachers : the latter turned their 
regards to heaven, while he prin- 
cipally and especially contem- 
plated mankind : the latter 
studied nature, the former man. 
From his honeyed lips there 
came a sweet and delightful 
voice, which charmed and 
warmed the sorrowful heart of 
the Greek and confirmed the 
wavering souls of all. He 
was the first who spoke to the 
Greeks of Greek liberty in a 
style of speech neither adulter- 
ated with barbarisms nor so ar- 
chaic as to be unintelligible, and 
he so connected with each other 
Greek literature and freedom that 
the Greek language, the principal 
organ of national life, purified 
by him, became, as it ought to 
have become long ago, the most 
powerful lever of national re- 

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generation. By his character, 
which was that of one who loved 
liberty and deserved it, and by 
his purely patriotic advice, he 
implanted in the souls of all a 
love of their fatherland, not of a 
superficial and trivial kind, but 
that real and practical love 
which produces noble sentiments 
and which teaches that to be 
unsparing of himself for the 
sake of his country is the chief 
duty of every patriot. Educa- 
tion, as Corais understood it, 
was the moulding of the mind 
and heart so that they might 
be in harmony, and it was some 
such kind of nobility of char- 
acter which above all things the 
race required to enable it to 
take its proper place in the band 
of well-ordered nations. The 
more healthy the education the 
Greeks receive, the stronger is 
the desire they conceive for 
liberty. Accordingly education 
was the principal equipment 
required for regaining independ- 
ence. And since true education 
without instruction on a right 
method is impossible, it was 
necessary above all for the 
educational system to be re- 
formed, by the subjects of study 
being simplified and so arranged 
as to be more practically 
useful, especially the teaching 
of the ancestral language. The 
beauty of the Greek language 
was not obscured to such an 
extent as not to be susceptible of 

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kdviKrjs iraXiyyeveo-ias Kal rrjs 
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(fxarrjs rrjs 'EXXrjviKrjs ykwrcrrjs 
Kal rrjs 'EXXrjvucrjs faXoXoyias, 
us Sicwiyrarios Krjpv£ rrjs dperrjs, 
rrjs <f>iXo<ro<f>ias Kal rrjs kXeu- 
Otpias, Kal a>s elcrqyrjrrjs Kal 
i€po<f>dvrr]S vktov dp\(ov, €\€i 

restoration. The noble character 
of the nation was not so com- 
pletely obliterated as to afford 
not even the slightest hope of 
its being re-established. For 
this purpose there was no need 
of any supernatural ingenuity 
or contrivance : the change to 
be effected in the Greeks to fit 
them for the new life could be 
accomplished by the formative 
and nationalising force of Greek 
literature. Corais thoroughly 
understood that the remodelling 
of the nation was not an under- 
taking which could be at once 
and immediately carried out, 
but he had faith, which nothing 
could shake, in the purifying 
and invigorating power of a 
healthy education, and he rightly 
considered that even by itself it 
would smooth the path of liberty, 
and therefore from the very 
beginning he held the opinion 
that the enlightenment of the 
race was the most certain pre- 
cursor of its national regenera- 
tion and its political restoration, 
and at the same time the 
strongest safeguard of those two 
supreme blessings. The life of 
this great man — who as the 
chief designer and reformer of 
the Greek language and of 
Greek literature, and as the 
loud-toned herald of virtue, of 
philosophy and of liberty, and 
as the author and initiating 
priest of new principles, holds 
among Greeks that kind of 

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position which Montaigne has 
among the French, Bacon among 
the English, and Thomasius 
and Leasing among the Germans 
— is an inexhaustible treasury of 
wise words and deeds for the 
benefit of the Greek race and 
of Greek learning." 

Here are some biographical 
notes about this distinguished 
man. Adamantius Corais was 
born at Smyrna on the 27th of 
April 1748 : his father Johannes 
Corais was a native of Chios and 
his mother Thomais was from 
Smyrna, daughter of Adamantius 
Rysius, a man of learning. 
He received a general education 
in Smyrna, in the Greek school 
founded there by Pantoleon 
Sevastopulo. Having completed 
his course at the school, he 
devoted himself to the study 
of languages and soon mastered 
not only Italian and French but 
also Hebrew and Latin: the 
last he learnt under the Rev. 
Bernardus Keun, the chaplain of 
the Dutch consulate at Smyrna, 
giving him in exchange instruc- 
tion in Greek. In 1772 he 
was sent by his father to 
Amsterdam for mercantile 
purposes, and he remained there 
six years, not only engaged in 
trade but occupying himself also 
in serious study. Recalled by 
his father in 1778, he went back 
to Smyrna and stayed there four 

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years, passing his time in 
scholastic pursuits. In 1782 
he went to Montpellier, where 
he remained six years studying 
medicine. During this time he 
made translations into French 
of two German and two English 
important medical works, and 
these the French held in high 
esteem not only for the value 
of their contents but also for 
the excellence of the translation. 
Having completed his medical 
studies at Montpellier and 
gained the highest academical 
honours, he went in May 1 788 to 
Paris, where he resided till the 
end of his long life, which he had 
devoted exclusively to the en- 
lightenment of his nation. He 
died on the 10th of April 
1833. I do not attempt here 
to wreathe a chaplet of praise 
to the memory of Corals, for 
much more able men than I 
have worthily celebrated him. 
You have the valuable work of 
Dionysius Thereianos, and there 
you will find eloquently and 
accurately described all that 
any one can desire to learn 
about the life and works of that 
great man whose equals rarely 
make their appearance in the 
history of nations. 

Now, if you like J^Jf^iB 'reacF 



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some extracts from the works of 

By all means. This first one 
I copied from his preface to 
Plutarch's Parallel Lives : it is an 
exhortation to teachers. This 
is what he says : 

"The learned instructors of 
the nation should love their 
pupils as their own children, and 
consider them as sacred trusts 
confided to their hands by their 
parents. The most important 
lesson for their young minds to 
learn is to render their disposi- 
tions gentle, which instruction 
in science alone without litera- 
ture cannot effect. Let them 
then advise them to acquire a 
sound knowledge of grammar 
before they include themselves 
in the list of students of philo- 
sophy, that is to say, to learn first 
the literature of the Greek 
language with which Latin 
should be inseparably united. 
Science without literature is 
reduced to the humble level of 
the mechanical arts. Nearly 
all the ancient philosophers 
were also men of letters, and 
the most distinguished among 
them were the best grammarians. 
Our ancestors of imperishable 
memory well understood that the 
so-called ' humanities ' greatly 
contribute not only to the art of 
writing but also to actual gentle- 
ness and refinement of manners. 
On this account our ancestors 

i by Google 




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BeKKapiov (1823) • 

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dv8p€i6r€pos<, €i>as tov aAAou 

gave the name of Music to general 
education, because it softens the 
disposition just as music, pro- 
perly so-called, does, and it was 
for this reason that the divine 
Plato advised his disciple 
Xenocrates to sacrifice fre- 
quently to the Graces." 

The following passage about 
Equality is taken from Corais' 
introduction to the second 
edition of Beccaria (1823) : 

"Our ancestors included in 
their list of proverbs ' Equality 
is friendship/ that is to say, 
they regarded this as one 
of those truths which the ex- 
amination itself of human 
nature, and daily experience, 
which agrees with that ex- 
amination, render incontestable. 
But if equality produces friend- 
ship among men, inequality 
necessarily has enmity for her 
daughter. Nature made us at the 
beginning all equal, since she 
gave to all the same feelings, the 
same desires, and the same 
wants. But such equality only 
remains as long as the human 
frame is in its infancy. As soon 
as it is matured one man shows 
himself more intelligent than 
another, one braver than another, 
one more highly endowed with 
natural advantages than another, 
and therefore inequality is neces- 

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irpoXtyopkvtav rov Koparj eis 
rot 3 A7ropvrjpov€vpara rov 
^€vo</>a)vTos (1825). 

"'0 HitiKpdrrjs dv teal Scv 
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prjTOpucrj rov ^(DKpdrovs &v 

sarily produced, and this gives 
rise to disagreement Such is 
the condition of all mankind. 
Inequality then is the work of 
nature herself, and a cure for it 
was looked for from the state, 
but every well-ordered state must 
of necessity have inequalities. 
The son is not equal to the 
father, the pupil to the teacher, 
the one under trial to the 
judge, the governed to the 
ruler, the servant to the master, 
the hired workman to his em- 
ployer, the rich to the poor. 
Whoever seeks to equalise in 
all respects these superiors with 
these inferiors, seeks to intro- 
duce anarchy in the political 
community, seeks to make 
civilised man revert to his 
original savage condition." 

The next passage, about the 
rhetorical ability of Socrates, 
was copied from Corais* in- 
troduction to Xenophon's 
Memorabilia (1825). 

" Socrates, though he did not 
profess to be an orator, in the way 
that the sophists used to boast of 
their rhetoric, was nevertheless 
really an orator, and was regarded 
as such. The rhetoric of Socrates 

i by Google 



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was not like that of the sophists; 
and this explains what kind of 
rhetoric Plato means when he 
ridicules rhetoric and represents 
his master as despising it A 
considerable part of his Gorgias is 
derision of rhetoric, and yet its 
bitter denouncer, Plato, showed 
in the highest degree in this 
very work that he himself was 
a great orator. The especial care 
of the sophists was to please the 
ear by the harmonious combina- 
tion of the words, caring little 
about the value or worthlessness 
of what was said; and long habit 
in this kind of combination 
made them true extempore 
speakers like the celebrated 
Italian improvisatori are at the 
present day. Just as the latter 
deliver long extempore orations 
on whatever subject any one 
may propose to them, exactly in 
the same way the sophists used 
to speak upon every subject 
without any preparation. 
Gorgias used to boast that he 
was ready to reply to every 
question, and complained that 
no one any longer asked him 
anything new : * No one has 
ever asked me anything new 
for many years.' This faculty 
was regarded as a part of 
rhetoric, and it so much more 
easily led astray the inex- 
perienced, and especially the 
young, inasmuch as in those 
days one of the great defects of 
the commonwealth was the love 

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rrjs iroXiTcias vooT/fwxTa tJto 
teal ri oirov8apyla, ttjv oiroiav 
cftorjOei rj 8vvapis tov Xoyov, 
€ir€iorj cotoe ttjv curooov as Tas 
tKKXrjo'ias, ottov r) 8r) pay layia 

€7Tp€1T€ VOL €\y ToXXaKlS CTVfJr 

pa\ov ttjv avroo~xc8tov 8rqpr)yo- 
piav. 'EKav\Qvro 9 to X €l P°~ 
T€pov t ol €ro<f>urTal 6rt r) 
prjropiKrj rtav €?;(€ rocrqv 
8vvap.iv, wore v dtroB€t\VQ 
to <rvp<f>€pov dcrvpfopoV) to 
Sikcllov clSikov, ttjv dXrjOeiav 
\ptv8oS) Kal to \f/€v8os dXrjOaav. 

TovV (UVO/ia^ETO 'ToV ijTTO) 

Xoyov Kp€LTT<a iroulv' dXX* 
€7r.€i8rj r) oa>v€tS^o"is tovs eXeycv 
6Vt roiavTY) ctvat 
8vvapis KOLKovpyw aVfyxoTrcov, 
ttjv iirpoo'KoXXrjo-av /cat Tavrrjv 
cts tov ^(OKpdrrjv, u>s €ToXprj<rav 
va Xcyoxri /cat* avrov 6Vt 

l8l(OV yOVCCOV, <f>€pOVT€$ aVTOt 

prjTopiKrj tov ^(OKpaTOVS 6\i 
pnvov 8\v ct)(€V, u>s c?7ra, 

prjTOplKYjV T(OV O-0<f>lOTtoV, dXX* 
€076W/CaV C/CCtVOt. Ol o-o<f>icrTal 
tiyav €r\oX€ta Kal paOrjTas c/c 
twv oiroitov kXdpifiavav d8po- 
totovs puxrOovs. e O ^(OKpaTqs 


paOrjTas O'vvrjOpoio'e' o~xoActov 
tov €yeiv€V r) iroXis oXrj, Kal 
padrjTai tov foav 0X01 ol 
iroXiTai, tovs otto to vs, avTt va 
Xd/Srj trap' avrwv, 

of office, to which ability in 
speaking was of service, since it 
gave admission to the assemblies 
where the popular leadership 
frequently had occasion for the 
assistance of extempore public 
oratory. The worst of it was 
that the sophists used to boast 
that their rhetoric had such 
great power that it made an 
advantage appear a disadvantage, 
justice injustice, truth falsehood, 
and falsehood truth. This was 
called 'to make the worse 
appear the better cause/ but, 
since their conscience told them 
that such a faculty was a faculty 
which belonged to rogues, they 
fastened this too on Socrates ; 
just as they had had the audacity 
to accuse him of making young 
men insolent to their own 
parents, although they them- 
selves brought the young to 
such a pitch of insolence. The 
rhetoric of Socrates not only 
had, as I said, no resemblance 
whatever to the rhetoric of the 
sophists, but he did not even 
teach it as they taught it The 
sophists had schools and pupils 
from whom they received enor- 
mous fees. Socrates neither 
opened a school nor collected 
pupils : the whole city became 
his school, and all the citizens 
were his pupils whom, instead 
of taking fees from them, he 
advised themselves also to im- 
part gratis whatever good they 
had learnt from him, and before 

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€(TVfJL^OvX€V€ VOL fJL€Ta8l8(lXTl KOI 

avrol dfJLi(r6(iiS o, ti KaAov e8i8d- 
a-KOVT aw avrov, TraoayyeAAcov 
wpb X/OMrrov, on ewapdyyeXXev 
6 Xpurrbs cts tovs Madras tov, 
'Atopcav cAcijSctc, 6a>/Kav Sore.' 
Tov Sw/coaVovs 17 py]TOpLKT] 
f)rov r) dX-qSwr) prjropLKrjy yyovv 
r) Svva/us va weedy Tts tovs 
dvOpiawovs els t<x 6Y/caia jxe 
Aoyov Oe/ieXiio/ievov els twv 
wpaypAriav ttjv dXrjOeiav /cat 
<£vVtv, /cat /xaprvpovfievov dw' 
<lvty)V ttjv SidSecrw rrjs *p v XV s 
tov Xeyovros. *Av /cat Sev 
e/JLtfieiTO ttjv KaXXiewetav twv 
o-o^mttwv, €t)(av 6/Atos ot Aoyot 
tov €V aAAo e28os ev<f>pa8etas^ 
tJtls eweiOe woXXaKis 6<rovs 8ev 
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dfi<t>i/3dXXy Tts wepl tovtov, as 
wapafidXy rovs Aoyovs tov 
*2o)KpaTovs, els tol (rvyypdfAfmTa 

TOV E!€VO<l><tiVTOS)fJL€ TOVS o"a>fo/xc- 

vovs 8vo Aoyovs tov Topytov." 

Kat Tavra fxev wepl rrjs prjTOpt- 
Ktjs rov 2a>/cpaTOvs. 'AXAaxov 
irov ofjLiXet irepl wXovrov /cat 
7ratoctas a>S e£rjs' 

" Ka0a>s 6 7tAovtos, wapojxo ta 
icat 6 c/xoTtoyxos rrjs 8tavotas, Tore 
fwvov b)<f>eX€iTr)v wo AtTetav, 6Vav 
8iao-weCp€TOLt dvaXoyws els oAovs 
rovs woXitols. c H o-vo-o-atpevo- is 
tov wXovtov els oAtyovs tivols 
yevvy. rovs 2v/?aotTas koll tovs 
oAorcAa cwropovs, 8vo fJLeprq rrjs 
woXtre tas wdvTore els woXepov, 
ems va KaTao-Tpeif/uxri rr)v woXi- 

the time of Christ taught the 
precept which Christ announced 
to His disciples : ' Freely have 
ye received, freely give.' The 
rhetoric of Socrates was true 
rhetoric, that is to say, the power 
of persuading men in whatever is 
just, by a reasoning founded on 
the reality and nature of things, 
and attested by the speaker's 
actual sentiments. Although 
he did not imitate the finished 
style of the sophists, his words 
had another kind of eloquence 
which often convinced those 
whom the ridiculously elaborate 
oratory of the sophists had not 
previously poisoned. If any 
one have doubts about this, let 
him compare the discourses of 
Socrates in the works of Xeno- 
phon with the two extant 
speeches of Gorgias." 

So much then about the 
rhetoric of Socrates. Somewhere 
else he speaks about wealth and 
education in the following 
words : 

" Like wealth, in the same way 
too the enlightenment of the 
mind then only is of service to 
the state when it is distributed 
in due proportion among all its 
members. The accumulation 
of wealth among a few creates 
Sybarites and absolute paupers, 
two sections of the community 
always at war till they have 

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T€iav, 'Airo rov Trtpiopurpbv 
irdAiv Trjs <ro<f>ias els TroAAa 
fiiKpbv dpcOfxbv ttoAitwv aVa- 
^Xxurrdvovv ol <ro<f>okoyi<oTa- 
toi (r\oXaa , riKoi ) ol brroloi 
€fiiro8t(ovv rbv {fxtnur/jJov rov 
koivov kaov, 8ia rbv ifxtfiov pr) 
tovs KaTa<f>povrjo"[i 6 kolvos 
AaoV, Kal 8ia tt)v €A7ri8a, 6Y* 

TOVS X V ^ a * 0VS OkXoW €Vp€tV 

fiorjOovs €OLV TOVS «A#2/ 6p€^ts 
va depairevo'uxrt ra ird.Br) t<ov." 

He pi 8k rrjs c/c7rat8€V<r€U)S twv 
yvvaiK&v €K<f>€p€i ras d/coAov- 
Oovs (robots I8kas' 

"At yvvatK€s 9 kc/€i 6 
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p.kpos rrjs TToXireias' 6$€v 

OOTLS 8*V <f>pOVTl^€L ir\.r)v pOVOV 

twv dv8pG>v tyjv waifieiav, 
d<f>iv€t to rjpurv rrjs iro\iT€ias 
va £y <us dekei Kal 6\t Kara 
robs vopuovs. '"floV kv oa-ais 
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ras yvvat/cas, to i)purv Trjs 
7roAca>s etvai, Set vopifcw dvopo- 

$€TrjTOV,' 'AAA* 6VaV €VpUTK€Tai 

to r)purv Xtopls vopjov kyprjyopa 
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yvvat/cas ycvvupeda' €is avrwv 
Tas \ € *'P a S 8iaTpt/3opL€V to. irpio- 
Ta err) Trjs airaktaTepas, Kal 
a.Ko\ovOu)S €vKokb)r4pas va 
\d/3y 6iroiav8rjiroT€ pLop(fyqv 
rjXiKias. *Oiroia r)0rj l\ovv al 
yvvai/ccs TOiavVa pk to yaAa 
Tmv avrb pas iroTifavv." 

Kal 17 e£fjs ir€piK07rrj elvai 
d£ta dvay vdxrecos ' 

brought ruin on the common- 
wealth. From the restriction 
again of learning to a very 
small number of the members 
of the state there arise the highly 
learned pedants who prevent 
the enlightenment of the mass, 
for fear that the common people 
may despise them, and in the 
hope of finding the vulgar of 
service to them whenever they 
are inclined to gratify their evil 

Regarding the education of 
women he expressed the follow- 
ing wise views : 

"Aristotle says that women 
comprise one half of the state ; 
and hence whoever studies the 
education of men only, leaves half 
of the state to live as it likes and 
not in obedience to the laws. 
' Consequently in those states 
where matters which regard 
women are of no account, half 
of the state must be considered 
as not under legislation ' : but 
when half of it is not subject to 
the law, the other half soon 
ceases to respect the laws. From 
women we derive our birth, and 
under their control we pass the 
first years of that time of life 
which, being more impression- 
able than any other, is more 
easily capable of being moulded 
into any form. Whatever dis- 
position women have they im- 
part to us with their very milk." 

The following passage is also 
worth reading : 

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" € H KaXrj dvaTpo<f>rj yiverai 
koI /SorjdeiTai irXkov dirb tol 
KaXa TrapaSciyfmra irapa airb 
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uxfxXovv tov vkov at StSa^at orav 
ottov (rrpi^rj rovs 6<f>0a\fJLOvs 
aXXo 8kv ftXtTry irapa dvo/tuav, 
avOpioTrovs &7rav0pu>7rovs /cat dv- 
6pa7ro6\o8€ts, KoXaKtvovras /cat 


Tifitofievov /cat ttjv dpcrrjv 
Kara^povov/xkvrjv, tyjv dSt/ctav 
Tpwfyoxrav /cat rrjv 8iKaio<rvvrjv 
XifJuoTTOvcrav ; Hidav^rarov 
ort rotavTa wapaSeiy/xaTa 

OkXoVV TOV 8t6\££€lV €K€IV7JV 

tov fiiov ttjv Siaywyrjv els 

T7jV OTTolaV €VpL(TK€l TO. /A€0~a 

va fiocncQ to KTrjv(o8ks tov crco/m 
Kal va dcpaTrevy rrjs /ct^vwoV- 
oripas avrov ipvxys Ta irddrj." 
To k^rjs ctvat ircpl fwvcriKrjs' 
"Ot TraAatot cf>iX6cro(f>OL /cat 
vofxoOkrai 6/cptvav tt)v fxovo-iKrjv 
pJkpos avay/catov tt}s dvarpo<f>rjs, 
a>S t/cavov va fiaXdxro"Q Tots 
dypioTYjTas rfjs foxV^ KC " v< * 

pvOfll^Q TOV dvdp<i)7TOV €tS TTJV 

€wr)(rijxo<r6vr)V, a>s Xcyct 6 
nAovrapxo?* 'Tots 7raXatots 
twv 'EAA^vwv ctKOTa>s fxdXio'Ta 
irdvruiv kfikXrjo-* TTCTratScvcr^at 
fwvo'LKrjv' Twv yap vkmv Tots 
foxas yovro Sctv 8ta fiorxriKrjs 
7rXaTTCtv /cat pv0/ufetv €7rt to 
€vo m x'fJP'Ov y xpwfa 7 !* StjXovotl 
rrjs fiovo~iK7]S VTrapxovo"r]S irpbs 
irdvra Kal iraxrav ecnrovSa- 
(Tfikirqv irpa£w y Trporjyovfikvios 


vovs.' e O HoXvfiios diroSlSti 

"A sound education takes 
its source and receives assist- 
ance more from good example 
than from admonition and 
instruction. Of what good 
are lessons to a lad when, wher- 
ever he turns his eyes, he sees 
nothing but lawlessness, men 
inhuman and slavish, flattering 
and flattered, wealth esteemed 
and virtue despised, injustice 
in luxury and justice starving ? 
Most probably such examples 
will teach him to adopt that 
kind of life in which he will 
find the means of cherishing his 
animal body and gratifying the 
passions of his still more animal 

The following is about music : 
"The ancient philosophers and 
legislators considered music a 
necessary part of education, as 
having the power to soften the 
savage qualities of the disposition 
and give men a sense of propriety : 
as Plutarch says : ' The ancient 
Greeks very properly took care 
above everything to be trained 
in music ; for they considered 
that it was by means of music 
that they ought to mould the dis- 
positions of the young and incul- 
cate decorum, inasmuch as music 
is beyond doubt useful for every 
thing and for every action of 
importance, and especially in 
encountering the dangers of war/ 
Polybius attributes the gentle 

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twv 'ApKa&iov rrjv rffiepoTrjTa 
Kal <f>i\avOp(0iriav els ttjv oiroiav 
tlyav c£at/XTOv TrcuSiodev 
cnrovSrjV rrjs fWva-iKrjs oAoi, 
irkrjv fAias 'ApKaSiKrjs iroXctos 
twv KvvaiOZutv, twv oiroliov rrjs 
OrjpuoSias alriav Acyci oti 
KaT€<f>p6vrj(rav oAorcAa rr)v 
fiowiKrjv. "Airopov rjdeXe 
SiKaciDS <j>avf)v dv 
ttjv TcAciav Kal iroXvSdwavov 
fxova'LK'qv, 'AAAa irptarov els 
rlva 8*v elvat yvtoarrbv ort aVo 
robs irkvqras, koI k^aipkrus 
dirb ttjv rd£iv twv yaopywv 
/*as, 7roAAol syovv KaSkvas tt/v 
Xvpav rov ; 'A/o/cci va jxaOrfrev- 
BGxri rd T€Kva tiov va XvpC^wriv 
oXiyov apfioviKWTcpa. *E7rciTa 
ol Xvpurral Scv irepiopifavTai 
cts fiovov to opyavov, ov8k 
Xvplfrvv /xovov, dXXa Kal Xvp<p- 
Sovv. Iloor^v dxfrkXeiav Skv 
^0cAav 7rpo£evrj<r€LV els tovs 
TrTd)\ovs ol TratSevral t<3v 
7TTw^a>v, av els T07rov t<5v dvo^- 
T(ov /cat TroAAd/as darkpviov 
Tpay(j>8i(ov eo-vvOerav 6\a toL 
TTTca^a iraiftdpia v/mvovs els tov 
Oeov Kat rpay(p8ia ToiavTa, 
OTrota vet KpimTbxriv vtto rrjs 
fjSovfjs to KaXvfXfxa r)0iKr)v Tiva 
irapaiveo-iv, 'AAAa, TOiavTa 
KaAa irpkirei va to\ 7rpoo-p.kv(j)pev 
aVo tov 7roAv7rAao - tao*/Aov /cat 
ttjv TcActoTC/oav £iara£iv twv 

0"^oA€tCUV /WIS* 7Tp€7T€L VOL WpOCT- 
fl€V(t)fl€V OTaV KaTa(TTrj(r(t)fA€V 

Kal rjjjLeTs iraiSevrrjpiov e^aCperov 
rrjs dvarpo<l>rjs tg>v tttw^cuv, 

/CaT0\ TO <&€\X.€/JL/3€pyLKOV TTCpl- 

and benevolent disposition of the 
Arcadians to the special study of 
music, which from childhood all 
of them pursued except the one 
Arcadian city of the Cynaetheans, 
the cause of whose savage nature, 
he says, was their utter con- 
tempt for music. The thing 
would rightly appear impractic- 
able if I recommended a com- 
plete and expensive course of 
musical study. But first of all, 
who does not know that among 
the poor, and especially in the 
class of our agriculturists, many 
of them have each his lute? 
It suffices for their children 
to be taught to play it a little 
more melodiously. Then again 
the lute -players do not con- 
fine themselves to the instru- 
ment, and not only play the 
lute but also sing to it. What 
help would not the teachers 
of the poor give to them, 
if, in place of foolish and 
often unbecoming songs, they 
composed for poor children 
hymns to God and such songs as 
might convey under the cover 
of pleasant recreation some 
moral precept ! But such bene- 
fits we must await from the 
multiplication of our schools 
and their more perfect organisa- 
tion : we must wait till we also 
have established a special school 
for the education of the pooT, 
on the pattern of the celebrated 
Fellenberg school, and teachers 
who have Fellenberg's philan- 

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cfvat 6Y oXa ret veapd 7rat6Ya 
fiecrov urxvpbv mt/aov kcu 
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rot (rvveiOigfl va /cavovifaxri tov 
fiiov tu)v kcu va crvvcpydfavTcu 
fjL€ tfcrvxov dpfioviav' vd ficTpu- 
d(y rets draKTOvs opfxds, Kal va 
KaOapify) tt)s foxy* Ta a '°"^~ 
fiara, Kal va rrjv dveyelprj els 
ras vxprjXas cvvotas. Xo^o-i- 
/neu€t i£aLp€T<t>s va rffiepovy^ va 
€v<f>paivrj TrpeiritiSecrTepov *n)v 
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a-KXrjporrjTa rrjs 4>v<r€<os ckcivwv 
/xdXurra twv 7raiSi(ov, oca 
eXaftev els to o'XoA.ciov tov aVo 
t^v Ta£tv twv ^(tf/AOf^TWV." 

At 7T€Ot jJLOwiKrjs ISeat tov 
Koparj cfvai opOorarai Kal 
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e£ avrwv va e/3aXov avTcts €ts 
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€#c twv 67roaov dvreypaxpa Ik 
t<3v irpoXeyopAvtav avrov els 
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rfjs 'IXidSos (1811-1820). l 
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£k86t7}S avT&V irapicrr^. 8e 
auras ire/xirofievas els Hapicriovs 
irpbs TVTraxrtv wo Ttvos Aoyiov 


thropy. This Socratic educator 
of poor children was taught by 
experience that music for all 
young children is a powerful 
means of rendering them civilised 
and fit for society, an efficient 
instrument with which to 
accustom them to regulate their 
life and work together in peace- 
ful harmony, to moderate their 
undisciplined inclinations, and 
purify the feelings of the soul 
and raise it to lofty thoughts. 
It is particularly useful for 
imparting gentleness, for glad- 
dening the heart within due 
bounds, for softening any 
natural hardness of character, 
especially in such children as 
he received in his school from 
the class of beggars." 

The ideas of Corais about 
music are very correct, and I 
hope that the Greeks have 
derived advantage from them 
and put them into practice. 
Have you anything else from 
his works ? 

Yes. I have two more ex- 
tracts, the first of which I 
copied from his preface to the 
four first rhapsodies of the Iliad 
(1811-1820). Corais does not 
come forward as the editor of 
them, but he represents them 
as sent to Paris, in order to be 
printed, by a certain learned 
Chian supposed to be an inhabi- 
tant of Bolissos, where, according 

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BoAwnry, oirov Kara wapdcKxriv , 
dpyaiav Sierpixpe 7tot€ 6 v Opr]pos, 
'Ev rjj Kiofxyj ravry irapurrq. 6 
Kopa-ijs ort vwqp\e /car CKetvrjv 

TOU )(/DOVOV Tip TT€pio8oV €<f>rj- 

pkpios tls cwrAoiVcos ficv /cat 
dpotpos 7rat8€tas, cva/oeros op<os 
/cat Xtav <f>iXopadrjs. 'I8ov ir<os 

7T€piypd<f>€l aVTOV 67T4 TO OOTTCt- 
OTtpOV * 

"*H (rvvava<rTpo<f>rj fwv elvai 
pie rbv e<fyr)p£piov rov x<opiov, 
avopa, ocrris irapa rdXXd rov 
irporeprjpara, Kavyarat. on kcu 
els oXrjv ttjv vfjcrovSevevpurKerai 
irairds va dvay wwricQ irap avrbv 
eyprjyopwrepa rd Kadurpuara rov 
xf/aXrripiov, Wis rrjs eoprrjs 
twv Xpurrovyevviav rbv opSpov 
rov arvvefir) va irrapvurdrj els 
rrjv dvdyvoxriv rocrov or<f>o8pd 
<5<rr€ va o-/3eo~Q rr)v \apird8a. 
"Orav rr)v ava^av, o , vXXoyt(6- 
puevos iroo'ov e\axre Kcupbv els 
rrjv peragv o-Koriav, eirpori- 
prjcre va irrjSrjoy if/aXpbv 6X6- 
icXrjpov, rbv paKporepov, wapd rb 
SveiSos va paKpvvy rbv /cai- 
pbv rrjs dvayvuKTttos virep rb 
o-vvyjOcs. Acv el^evpm^ av Sid 
rrjv raxyrdrrjv ravrrjv dvd- 
y vaxriv, r) Sia rrjv ^vo'tKrjv rjpLtav 
tcDv XiW kXlviv els rd otco>- 
7TTi/ca iraptovvpia, 6 BoAwnri- 
vbs e<f>i)pepLOS 6vopd(erai aVo 
rovs iroXiras rrjs Xtov IlaTra 
T/oc^as, kcu to iraptovvpiov 
yjpeo-e roo-ov els rbv irapovo- 
pa^opevov, cxrre Sev (r' a/cov€t 

1 Ilairas in modern Greek signifies 
name it drops the final consonant, e.g. 

to an ancient tradition, Homer 
at one time resided. In this 
village Corais represents that 
there lived at that time a parish 
priest, a man of simple character 
and without any education, but 
virtuous and a great admirer of 
learning. Here is the way in 
which he describes him rather 
wittily : 

"My society is confined to 
that of the village priest, 
a man who, among his other 
talents, boasts that in the 
whole of the island there is 
no priest who can read, with 
greater rapidity than he, the 
allotted portions of the psalms. 
During matins at the Christmas 
festival, while he was reading, 
he happened to sneeze with 
such violence that he extin- 
guished the taper. When they 
had relighted it, calculating 
how much time he had lost in 
the interval of darkness, he 
thought it better to skip a whole 
psalm, the longest of them, than 
to incur the reproach of occupying 
more time than usual in read- 
ing them. I do not know whether 
it is from this very rapid reading, 
or from the natural propensity of 
us Chians for derisive nicknames, 
that the parish priest of Bolissoe 
is called Papa l Trechas by the 
inhabitants of Chios, and this 
nickname so pleased its recipient 
that he does not listen to you 

a priest : when prefixed to a priest's 
Uaird 'Itadvprjs, Hava Teupyios. 

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irkkov kdv tov Kakkcrys fi€ to t 


Kav^arat irpibs tovtols /cat 
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Atcrcrtvov 5 OcWo-€<os rj K€<t>akq 9 
ir&s Tcxrov V€apd irai&dpia Jjto 
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€t9 avrbv ayvaxrrov. Aev 
€i^€vpo) irkkov iroiav yAaxrcrav 
Kal €ts iroiav ^Ai#a'av, /car 
avroV, hrpeire va AaAawri t<5v 
*AyyAa»v to, T€Kva. Ei/aou 
fikftatos on ycAps r»)v (5/wxv 
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Ilcwra Tpkya* aAAa n ijOekes 
Ka/jLet, kav iraptav irapovros 
rjKOves avrok€^€t dirb Tb oto/ao, 

now if you call him by his 
proper name. 

He boasts moreover of having 
made sixty-four journeys, and 
fancies that he is a second 
Ulysses, from whom he only 
differs in this one respect, that 
he made them simply to the 
sixty- four villages of the island 
without any of the perils of the 

To give you, my friend, a 
little example of the great ex- 
perience he acquired from his 
journeys : an English traveller 
passed through here a few 
months ago, whose object was 
to discover some token of 
Homer's residence at Bolissos. 
He had with him two little 
children of his. Hardly had 
Papa Trechas heard them talk- 
ing to their father when, beside 
himself with astonishment, he 
asked me : ' What language are 
they speaking V * English,' I 
replied, and then his amazement 
became absolute petrefaction. 
The head of the Bolissian 
Ulysses could not comprehend 
how such young children were 
able to speak in a language 
unknown to him. I do not 
know, to be sure, in what language 
and at what age, according to 
his ideas, English children 
should talk. I am certain that 
you are now laughing at Papa 
Trechas' perplexity: but what 
would you have done if you 
had been actually in his presence 

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and had heard in his own words 
from his own mouth this re- 
mark : ' The little devils ! Such 
mites to speak English ! ' 

Laugh, my friend, as much 
as you like, but take care not 
to despise the reverend Papa 
Trechas for this. Indeed, he is 
truly deserving of veneration, as 
I tell you. With all his sim- 
plicity, you cannot imagine how 
benevolent this worthy priest is, 
and how solicitous he is for the 
good morals of his little flock, 
and how from his very heart he 
consoles his parishioners in their 
afflictions, and exhorts them, 
when they are in prosperity, 
to take thought for those who 
are in adversity. 

His goodness is not the result 
of education, for he has received 
no education : it is not the 
fruit of practice, for in his heart 
he feels nothing to be an effort. 
He is often grieved at his want 
of education, and in order to 
fulfil a duty which his 
parents had not performed 
in his own case, he sent his son 
to the town to learn ancient 
Greek and hear the lectures of 
Professor Selepes. It is im- 
possible to describe what delight 
he experienced when he learnt 
that Homer had lived at Bolissos , 
and that I was engaged in 
editing his works. All he asked 
me was whether Homer was 
a Christian. I told him that 
that was impossible since he 

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lived nearly nine hundred years 
before Christ. 

The inhabitants of the village 
are so few in number that their 
very small church can accommo- 
date three times as many. And 
yet some of the more wealthy 
of the leading inhabitants 
wished to enlarge the building. 
They communicated their idea 
to the parish priest, and he 
advised them first to collect the 
necessary funds, so as to carry 
out the work on a scale pro- 
portionate to them. When the 
reverend priest learnt that the 
money had been collected, he 
said one Sunday at the 'conclu- 
sion of the mass : ' My children, 
God does not reside in stone 
and timber, but in the souls of 
good Christians. With regard 
to the size of the church, you 
see that we are not sufficient to 
fill it. The greater number of 
you do not know how to read 
or write : we shall perform an 
action incomparably more pleas- 
ing to God if we put out to 
interest the money that has 
been collected, so that a teacher 
of reading and writing may be 
paid out of it annually and the 
surplus divided among those 
of our poor brethren whose 
poverty is not the result of 
indolence, and in this way we 
may be freed from the reproach 
that we alone in all the island 
are fond of begging/ What do 
you say to this, my friend ? 

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Does not the humble priest of 
Bolissos appear to you more 
sensible and more pious than 
the emperor Justinian, who cut 
down the pay of the school- 
masters in order to build 
splendid churches ? 

I omit many other wonderful 
instances of this priest's good- 
ness, and content myself with 
one more which I think it 
would be unpardonable not to 
mention. He heard that a 
certain clergyman, who had a 
knowledge of ancient Greek, 
was wandering about the island 
trying to get appointed to some 
church as parish priest What 
does your good friend Papa 
Trechas do ? He runs to him 
to propose that he should take 
the office of parish priest of 
Bolissos . instead of himseK 
Hardly had the poor Bolissians 
heard of this great and un- 
expected misfortune of theirs, 
when men and women ran and 
implored me with tears to pre- 
vent him. I leave you to guess, 
my friend, in "what a dilemma 
this action of the priest placed 
me, the mediator, and especially 
when, asking him why he had 
determined to resign the office 
of parish priest, I received this 
reply : * My son, I am not 
learned : the man whom I wish 
to put in my place is, I am 
certain, more fitted than I am 

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to instruct and direct the con- 
sciences of my worthy villagers*' 
To such a noble reply what answer 
could I return ? I joined my 
lamentations to those of the 
Bolissians and awaited with 
heartfelt sorrow the loss of this 
worthy priest, which we should 
have suffered if the inhabitants 
of Thymiana had not been 
beforehand in taking the learned 
minister for their parish priest, 
and left us our own. Do you 
not consider, my friend, as I do, 
this action of our admirable 
priest truly worthy of Socrates ? 
Such as I describe him to you, 
my friend, is the excessively 
simple-minded and benevolent 
parish priest of Bolissos. It is 
nearly fifteen months since I 
took up my residence in the 
village, and yet I have discerned 
no passion dominating his noble 
soul except the immoderate use 
of snuff. But even this has much 
diminished since he learnt that 
neither Homer nor Eustathius 
were acquainted with this 
powder, and he very nearly gave 
it up altogether after something 
comical, or I should say im- 
proper, had happened to him in 
the church itself, which I am going 
to relate. You are aware that 
my height is not excessively 
great, but the worthy priest, if 
you compare him with me, is a 
pigmy, so that he often gives 

2 A 

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1 The blessed (but not consecrated) 
the congregation at the end of the " 

me the inclination to apply to 
him the comic verse : 
' He is short in stature but all 
of him is good/ 

One Sunday at the end of the 
Mass I went up to him to re- 
ceive, like the rest, the antidoron, 1 
and, as I was obliged to stoop, 
owing to the inequality of our 
heights, there fell from my 
breast the accursed snuff-box, 
and it was discharged like 
another discus into the tray 
holding the antidoron. Hardly 
had the blessed Papa Trechas 
observed it rolling when, ap- 
proaching it automatically, he 
seized it with great avidity and, 
having taken a pinch, put it 
into my hand and after it the 
antidoron. It was without 
doubt improper, but in the 
priest of Bolissos such im- 
propriety is overlooked both in 
consideration of his many good 
qualities, and on account of the 
simplicity of his heart which 
prevented him from understand- 
ing that at such a time it was not 
right to attend to anything but 
the distribution of the anti- 

Papa Trechas is represented 
by Corais as then in the fortieth 
year of his age and inflamed 
with an uncontrollable desire to 
study ancient Greek. When he 
read what was written about 
bread distributed by the priest to 

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himself in the introduction to 
the first Rhapsody, he was not 
at all displeased, but determined 
to remain no longer unlearned, 
for he perceived that want of 
education is an unpardonable 
defect in those who are in holy 
orders. Going then to the 
writer of the introduction, who, 
as I told you before, is supposed 
to be residing at Bolissos, he 
said to him : " Tell me now, 
what am I to do? It is im- 
possible for me to give up the 
priesthood : I can find no other 
remedy for my misfortune ex- 
cept to learn ancient Greek, and 
you, my son, are to be my 
teacher." His request was com- 
plied with, and with the help of 
the editor of the . Rhapsodies of 
Homer the hitherto illiterate 
priest soon made sufficient pro- 
gress in mastering the ancient 
language to be able to understand 
without difficulty the Memora- 
bilia of Xenophon and the 
Enchiridion of Epictetus. He 
afterwards devoted himself to 
the study of the Homilies of 
John Chryso8tom, which he 
endeavoured to imitate in his 
sermons ; and since he had a 
more especial affection for Homer, 
as having once resided at 
Bolissos, he learnt by heart the 
whole of the Iliad and the 
Odyssey. He was very fond too 
of Euripides on account of his 
many wise apophthegms. In 
course of time Papa Trechas 

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TLawa T/xxas €irl rwrovrov 
irpo<o&cv(r€v cis Ta 'EAA^vuca 
yoa/i/tara, anrrc o-vvera^c Kal 
virofivrjfJLaTa €is tov *Ofirfpov 
€^rfXXrjvur€ 8c *al to ovofta 
avrov 3 *aA«ras cavrov B&ova. 
'E&w/xi 8c t^v watoctav (!>s to 
dpurrov Krrjfia TravrosavfyxoVov. 
"Movi; 17 Tratocia," cAcycv, 
a cAcv&pdvowa tov vovv aVo 
t»)v ayvoiav, SioaoTcci tov av- 
dponrov Ta tt/jos tov 6cov #cat 
tovs dvOpdnrovs KadrJKOvra • 
tovtovs ftcv va oroxa&Tai (OS 
a&A^ttvs toi», *at va irpocr<f>e- 
prjrat irpbs avrovs <*>s hnOvptl 
va Trpocr<f>€p<0VTai irpbs avrov 
€K€lvol * tov 8c 6cov va O^l/Tai 
a»S 8r)fxiovpybv Kal irpovorjTqv 
avrov, fw/8c va toA/i£ va tov 
drifxafa o~vy\€toV Scwrtoat/Aovws 
Tas TeAcionpras tov fte Tas 
dvfloawrivas ao-0€V€ias' €is Iva 
Aoyov va BiaKpivy tov Ocov 
<X7TO tov avfyawrov, Kadibs 6 
AiofxrjSrjs totc fxovov Kare&rddrj 
KaAos va Kctft^y t^v htAitpuTiv 
ravrrjv, d<f)Ov 17 'AOrjva ^Acv- 

$€p(iXT€ TOVS 6<f>6a\fJX)VS TOV 

aVd to otcotos." 

'Ioov Kal to TcAcvratov 4v t# 
o'vkkoyyj fiov diroo'Traa'pxL €K 
tcov €pyo)v tov Kooar}, ottco 
dvrkypa\pa c#c t<ov cv t<£ toit<p 
to/i<o twv IlaoaAA^AcDV Btwv 
tov nAovrdpxov Avtoctx^- 
8io>v avrov o-Toxao-fta>v ircol 
t>}s 'EAA^viktJs 7rat8€tas 
Kal yAwo-o-^s* civai 8e d£io- 

advanced*™' 1011 to "^ikiW 

hc verae : . ^, 

tvire as actu^ gtature j^* 

mentaries on j to* * 

turned his nan^he end of ^ 

Greek and called L him to atfl 

(the runner). fliptidoro* if 

education as the mos*° ^J ** 
* < of on «. 

possession for any one. - 

education alone," he usecu - ^ Bl 

" that by freeing the min< 

ignorance, teaches man his 

to God and to his fellow- 

to consider the latter as 

brethren, and to behave towa 

them as he wishes them 

behave towards him, to wor 1 

ship God as his creator am 

protector, and not to dare t« 

dishonour Him by superstitiously 

confounding His perfectionswith 

human weaknesses : in a word, 

to distinguish God from man, 

just as Diomed was only then 

able to make this distinction 

when Minerva had freed his 

eyes from darkness." 

Here is the last extract from 
Corais' works in my collection, 
which I copied from his Casual 
thoughts about Greek education 
and the Greek language in the 
third volume of his Plutarch's 
Parallel Lives. It is an ex- 
cellent 'pattern of a lexicon for 
the use of any one intending to 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



awyvw Ta or to?s 


lkov viro- 

<,*„„.» -: / P05 rov ueAAovTa 

/WOIS Tl/S VOW r / # /\ 

TT)S rH€0€AAr)VlKrjS 

yeypofifim iq 

€tS 6Aas TO>V 


?/ j aAAo 

feima us y . , * , N 

j\ ' / Tas yAaxrcras ovotia airo 

tAamp , ' „ > a * ** 

'itT fi . T0 A taTa Twv avupwwtov ocv 

• -<j>€p€rai 7ra/oa to 'AA^tfcia, 

#cat 7roAAa oXlyoi ctvat 

' «)t *n/v €g€vpovv, Kai oXiy<o- 

> £/oot ocrot t^v dya7row. 

/ 'Ek toutov at €7TLpprjfxaTtKal 

^pcurcts afrrai, ^Ett* aA?/0€ias, 

'Kara aA^ctav, T# aA?/- 

0€ta, Tas OTrolas fierax^p^- 

*' J (oficOa a-vxva cis /k/ftuaxrtv 

• twv otra Xeyofuv. Avral 

"J kirkpacrav aVo tovs €/c#cA^cria- 

; j otikovs (rvyypa<f)€is els rrjv 

: yAwoxrav. Et? airo tovs cx- 

; f 0/oovs t^s <xA?/0€ias, tfcAcov va 

J Ova-tdcrQ Kal rov Herpov <os tov 

X/dmttov, lAcycv • ' 'Ett a A^- 

#etas Kat ofrros /a«t' avrov ^v/ 1 

MaT^voAij^iav. *AAA>7 

<f>pdcris l^ovo-a (r^^jLta o/okoh 

/tocrias, aAA' l<ro8vva/iov<ra 

ToX.Xa.KLS ft€ T(XS 7TpO€lprjfl€VaS. 

Tr)v pATay€LpL^6pL€da KavTore 
elp<oviK(tis • TrapaSetyfiaros yd- 
piv, irpos ovctSijfoFTa cvepyecrias 
dvvirdpKroxjs, rj luyaXryrkpas 
aV 6, Tt cfvai, Xkyop&v, Ma 
T^v dA^tfciav €?vai ave*- 
Biriyqra ocra icaAa // 

\AAiJ0cia, cts t^v dvopa- 
<ttik^v Xap.fidverai woXXaKis 
1 Aowc. 

write one day a complete 
dictionary of modern Greek : 

" 'AA^Ocia (fo^fc). Perhaps 
no other word in all the lan- 
guages of nations is more fre- 
quently pronounced by the 
mouths of men than Truth, 
although there are very few 
who know it, and still fewer 
who like it. 

From this come the adverbial 
expressions err' dXrjdetas (truly), 
Kara dXrjOetav (in accordance 
with the truth), ryj dXrjdeta (in 
truth), which we often employ 
to confirm anything we say. 
These expressions passed into 
our language through the 
ecclesiastical writers. One of 
the enemies of the truth, wish- 
ing to sacrifice Peter as well 
as Christ, said : 'Of a truth 
this fellow also was with Him.' 

Met rrjv dXrjdcLav. (By all 
that is true.) Another phrase 
having the form of an oath, but 
often equivalent to the preced- 
ing. We employ it sometimes 
ironically : for example, we say 
to any one who throws in our 
teeth benefits never conferred 
by him or greater than they 
actually are, 'Really now, no 
words can express all the good 
you have done for me.' 

'AA^0eta (truth) in the 
nominative case is often used 
up 59. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 




iiripprjfjLaTucitis, dvrl rov dXrj- 
0o>s* olov irpos c/wimovra, Akv 

tier a l (TV OCTTtS fl€ €?7T€S 

k.t.A. diroKpivoptOa, 'AAiJ- 
$€ta, *H rotavrq <f>pdcr is 
cfvcu ekkeiirrucrj, IcroSwa/xova-a 
fJL€ to, \AAiJ0€ia c?vat OTt 
€ Ifxa i cya» oVtis <r€ to eiira. 
T^jy avnjv Ivvotav crcofci 6Yav 
(ikovovtcs rt Sirjyrjpa 8«rra£a>- 

fl€V 1T€pl aVTOV, €/30>Ta>/X€V TOV 

StrfyovficvoVy 'AkrjOeia; rjyow, 
'Akrjdeia cfvat o, rt kiyeis; 

\A.Ai}0€iav Acyouvj^'AA^- 
0€iavTO Acyouv. *E;(€iT07rov 
ij <f>pdcn$ avrri els rds 7rapoi- 
fxlas fmX.urra y ?} tovs irapoi- 
/uco&ts koyovs' otov, *AAij- 
Oeiav to Acyovv, e 12s arptaajf 
Kadeh ovra>s e\ei, va iT kay L- 

'Erjpxiuxris. Hapofxoia /ecu 6 
KaAAt/iaxos cis tc\ eiriypdp^ 
piard rov ebre, 1 

c 'AAAa Aeyowiv dkrf$ea y tovs 
€V cpam 
"Opicovs f») SvVciv ovaT* €S 
rryovv els Tiyv Kotnyv 17/xcoi^ 
yAaxro-av, ''AArJ&iav to Ae- 
yoixrt, tov epioros 01 op/cot 8cv 
ep,j3awovv els ravria Oeiov tcov 

Hapotpla. e O kcu/dos 
<f>av€pov€L rrjv dkrjdetav, 
ai/rt r>}s oVotas eAcyav 01 7raA- 
atot, Xpovos dkrjdeias ira- 

T^p. Kat €IS CK61V0VS, (OS €IS 

i7ftas, 0-77/Mu'vd ij irapoipiia r-qv 

aKarapAxryrov tt)s dkrjdeias 

1 KaXXt/-idx. 

adverbially instead of £n% ; for 
instance to any one asking, ' Is it 
not you who told me ? etc./ we 
reply dkrjdeia. This kind of 
expression is elliptical and is 
equivalent to c It is true that it 
was I who told it to you.' It 
retains the same sense when we 
hear anything related and, hav- 
ing doubts about it, ask the 
narrator dX/jOeia; (truth T) that 
is to say, * Is it the truth that 
you are saying ? ' 

9 Akr)dei.av Acyovv (they say 
truly) or dkrjdeiav to Acyovv (it 
is a true sayvag). This phrase 
occurs especially in the case of 
proverbs or proverbial expres- 
sions, for instance, It is a true 
saying 'As any one makes his 
bed so he must lie upon it. 1 

Note. In the same way, 
Callimachus in his Epigrams 
said : 

'But they say truly that 
oaths made in love do not 
penetrate the ears of the im- 
mortals' ; 

or in our ordinary language, ' It 
is a true saying, the oaths of love 
do not enter the ears of the im- 
mortal gods.' 

Proverb. Time reveals the 
truth, instead of which the 
ancients said, Time is father of 
truth. And with them, as with 
us, the proverb represents the 
invincible power of truth. For 
a time it is possible for it to be 
'Ewiyp&fi. #cs'. 

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Svvafiiv. Avvarbv ctVat va 
T\aKttidjj irpbs Kaupbv curb rb 
xf/evSos* aAA* avaAa/x7T€t tcAos 
iravTiov fxk fteydkrjv KaTat- 
(rxvvqv rtov ocroi (nrov8d£ovv va 
rrjv Kpvif/dxri. 

Ta oiroia pLf.ra\€ipi^ovrai 
pkra rrjs Kpv\f/€(tis<> ctVat at 
AotSoptat, at v/3fxi$, at <rvtco- 
<£avTiat, at KaraSpofiaiy Kal 
avrol ot <£dvoi, ocrcuas at irepi- 
<tt<w€ls rovs Ka/xvowt fofjs 
Kal Bavdrov Kvptovs • /cat Ik tov- 
rov eyevvrjdri akkrj 7ra/x>t/ua, 
*H aXrjdeiaelvai fiaktarpia. 

*Av 8kv irurTtvys irepl tovtov 
rrjv toroptav, fn/oc irelO&rai cts 
tyjv KaOrffji€pLvrjv iretpav, toA- 
/irjcr€ va <f>av€fHocrys Ka/x/xtav 
ayvwrrov aA>}0€tav, aV €K€ivas 
ftaAtora, atrat 8\v crvp,<f>€povv 
€ts oAtyovs Ttvas dv0/xo7rovs, 
rp€<l>op.€vovs Kal Ttfxojfxevovs 
dirb Tqv yorrretav, Kat totc 
0cAct$ toctv vet <rrjK(s)6y Kare- 
vdvu> <rov ir\r)0os avfyxiwrtoTCtov, 
ot oTToloi fxayevfievoi dirb ra 
TopviKa dekyrrrpa rov \//€v8ovs, 
prrr ya-OdvOrja-aVy pxyr rjyd- 
Trtfjdv 7tot€ rb k^auriov rrjs 
dkrjdeCas #caAAos # 
4 Ovk ecrriv ovt€ £b>ypd<f>os, p,a 
rovs Stovs, 
Ovt av6/5tavT07rotos, otrrts av 
KaAAo? toiovtov, olov rj d\rj- 

suppressed by means of falsehood, 
but it shines forth at last to the 
great shame of those who strive 
to hide it. 

The means which people em- 
ploy for its concealment are abuse, 
insult, calumny, persecution, 
and murder itself whenever cir- 
cumstances make them masters 
of life and death; and from 
this arose another proverb, Truth 
is a fomenter of quarrels. 

If you do not believe history 
on this point, nor trust every- 
day experience, only venture 
to display any unknown truth, 
especially of those which are 
against the interest of some 
small body of men who obtain 
subsistence and an honoured 
position by means of imposture, 
and then you will see raised 
against you a multitude of con- 
temptible creatures who, laid 
under enchantment by the 
meretricious spell of falsehood, 
have never felt nor ever loved 
the surpassing beauty of truth : 
' There is no painter, no, by the 
nor sculptor, who can form 

such beauty as truth possesses.' 

'Apyds. "Oorts 8ev ipyd- 'Afryrfs (idle). Who does not 

ferat, rj % 8kv dVxoActYat cts work, or does not occupy him- 
1 ^iMffxovos rod KWfUKoO \ctyava. 

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tmtotc rj 6Y €(iir68i6v Tt, rj 6V 
oKvrjptav. Mr)o*T€Kj)sdpy6s, 
Tt (rrcKtis dpy6s; Kal ovofia 
'Apyia, rb oirolov <n//*aiv€i Kal 
rr)v OKvrjpiav, Kal rr)v cforAa>s 
ortprjo'iv rrjs ipyaxrias. 1 

Stjimujxtls. Tvuxrrbv cfvai 

&ri Kal ol iraAaioi €49 rr)v avrrjv 

crqfiaxriav rb p^r€\ai.pi^ovro' 

4 KaT^av* Ofuus o r depybs avrjp, 

6 T€ iroAAa topyws.' 2 

Eftrc Kal Eu/dmtic^s* 

''Apybs yap ov&tls 6eovs €\(i)v 

dvd crTOfta 

Biov SvvatT av £vAAey€iv av«/ 

7TOVOV. s 

Kat t5 €&T€ x^P^ k™* v * 
<rv\\oyurdj) ri kgqrow ol dpyol 
dirb rovs $€Ovs fte rds (rvxvots 
icat /3aTTo\6yovs avrtav tt/wxt- 
cvxas. "Ox* j8c/fcua va Pptgy 
6 ovpavbs <f>ayrfTa Irot/ta cV 
avrovs, KaTa t5 7ra/x>t/u<i>6c9 9 
IIco-c wrJTra va. cr€ <f>dyu>- av 
Kal vovv ttoXvv Bev t\ovo-iv ol 
dpyoC, toctov o/uos -qXiSioi, 
<5ot€ va IXwiQwri rotavra 0av- 
pjara, c*v civai. Ilota Aomtov 
^to 17 7r/ooo~€vxi} tcov; '*12 Zcu 
Kat 0€<n, 86t€ cts tovs epyago- 
fi€vovs Kal Svvaptv Kal yvuxrtv 
ya&dfHDV, 6\i /jlovov 6ta va 
cpydftavTaiy dXXa Kal va in- 
crrevisxriv on xptwrrovv va 
epyaQovrai ot rjfxas. 

self with anything, either from 
something preventing him or 
from laziness. Do not stand 
icKe. FP% do you stand idle? 
And the noun dpyCa which 
signifies both laziness and the 
simple absence of work. 

Note. It is well known that 
the ancients also employed it 
with the same signification : 
'The idle man as well as he 
who has done much die alike.' 

Euripides too said : 
' For no idle man, with the gods 
ever on his lips, 

can pick up a living without 

And he said this perhaps 
without considering what it 
was that idle men sought from 
the gods with their frequent 
prayers full of vain repetitions : 
certainly not that heaven should 
rain food ready for them, ac- 
cording to the proverbial saying, 
'Fall down, cake, that I may 
eat you ' : although idle men 
have not much intelligence, 
they are yet not so silly as to 
expect such miracles. What 
then was their prayer ? c O 
Jupiter, and ye gods, give to 
those that work the strength 
and the capacity of donkeys, not 
only that they may work but 
that they may also believe that it 
is their duty to work for us.' 

1 "OOev ehcu tccd <rw<hvv[xov rod iopr^. 

2 'OfiJjpov 'IXids, I, 320. 'Ek rotirov ylverai <pat>€pbv (hi rb ipybs iffxv 

fuxrhdrj /card Kpaaur dxb tov depy6s. 
8 E&paclSov 'UXtKTpd 80, 81 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 




'Apybs Aeyercu /ecu 6 Upta- 
pAvos, orav 8ia irraurpa ipiro- 
Surdy irpbs Kaipbv dwb rbv 
dp\upka va Upovpyy. Kal 
dpyla r) roiavrrj 7roivrj. Kal 
prjpua perafZarucbv 'Apy[((o, 
rj 'Apyevto, 1 rjyovv Kapva) 

'Apybs €is ra a^v^a, orav 
6 Aoyos r)vai trepl rrjs yrjs, 
o-qpjaivtL KVpitas rb dy€<opyr)Tos • 
olov'Apyrf yrj, 'Apybv \(0pd~ 
<f>iov. Uapafeiypara rrjs <rr)~ 
paxrias ravrrjs dirb rovs irakai- 
ovs va <f>€pu) etvat rreptrrov. 

Ifypaivti (XKoprj Kal rb 
axpqo-TOS, dp€ra\€ipurros, Kal 
aKo\ov6(i)$ pAraios. HapaSeiy- 
pjaros X^P IV ^ 2k€uos dpyov, 
rb O7rolov rj $cv xprpriptvei cts 
TtVoT€, rj 8kv rb p&raytipi- 
(6p*6a, a>s irtpirrov. 

KaTct ravrrjv rrjv crrfpaxriav 
XeycTat Kal 'Apybs Aoyos, o 
pdraios, 6 dvuxfxkrjsy rj ws Xi- 
yop&v Kotvorepov dvax^cAcTos, 
07rotoi etvai p&\urra r<ov dvorj- 
T(i>v ol Aoyot, r)yovv ra>v oaroi 
Xakovv ir€pl irpayp/irtav, r<ov 
07roi(ov Ivvotav dupififj pr) tyov- 
T6S, prjSk Kpio-Lv opOrjv va 
Kapjuxri Sev dvai KaXoi. Kal 
pijpa, s A/DyoAoy<o, rb paraio- 
Aoyai, rj <f>\vapw. 

'Apyos is also what a priest is 
called when, for some fault, he 
has been for a time inhibited by 
the bishop from performing his 
sacred functions. And such 
punishment is called dpyla, 
suspension. There is also the 
transitive verb dpytfa or dpyevia, 
meaning I suspend. 

9 Apyos referring to inanimate 
objects, when it is said of land, 
signifies especially uncultivated, 
as uncultivated land, an untitled 
field. It is superfluous for me 
to adduce examples from the 
ancients of this signification. 

It further means useless, un- 
used, and consequently of no 
use. For instance, a useless 
utensil, which is either not of 
any use or which we do not 
employ, as not being required. 

In this sense we say also 
dpyds \6yos, idle talk, which is 
vam, unprofitable, or, as we more 
commonly say, useless, such as is 
the conversation of unintelligent 
people, that is to say, of those 
who chatter about things re- 
garding which, not having an 
accurate comprehension of them, 
they are unable to form a cor- 
rect judgment. There is also 
the verb ctpyoAoyw, i" talk idly, 
or I talk nonsense. 

1 <rxynuiTUjpjbs rod 'Apyetita dvrl rod 'Apy4<a elvax xarb. rb Tvpavvito 
Kalrvpapvetiw, 1}yovv ehai 'EXXipujcds * fep rpe'iret 6/uas dicbfiri vb. paXOv els 
rb 'EXXipriird, Xe£iK(i, iwetdij iTnar-qpl^eraL els dfj.<piPaWbfievoy ha fjubvov rbroy 
rod %€vo<pQvTOs (AaiceS. iroXir. 8' 3), Ihrov dvrl rod "Apyevofiivtov * AXXot 
fidavwre pov ypd<povciv " Ay pevofie'vwv.' 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 




'Apyos crrjfxaivei teal to 
/3pa8vs twv iraAauov, Kal €\€t 
dvTi$€rovrb Koivbv yprjyopos' 
rj crrjfxacria cyevvrjOrj €K rovrov, 
6Vt 6 OKvrjpbs o, ti cpydfcTai, 
rb ipydgerat . /xc j3pa8vrrjra. 
"Orav 6 BovkvoYoV/s Aey^, 1 '^v 
oAiyy yap iro\kal [yrjes] dpyo- 

T€/3at JilCV €S TO £/9pV Tt ©V /3ov- 

Aovrai arovrai, pycrrai Se Is to 
/3\dirr&r0ai k.t.X.' 8id rov 
dpyor€paio"qfmlv€irb /3pa8v- 
repai, ws do#cos to €^rjyrjcr€ 
Kal 6 Aarivos /A€Ta<£/DaoT»)s 
(tardiores). Els rbv irapaK- 
fid(ovra k\\r)vurpjbv tytivtv rj 
crqpxuria Koivorkpa. 

'Apyd, hrippnqpja, rj alriariKrj 
irk7j$vvTLK7f rov ovSerepov 'Ap- 
y v, hnppTj/xarLKuys \ap./3avo- 
pxvrj, icat (T7jfxaivov<ra rb /3pa~ 
Sctos* otov IIpoTraTa) dpyd. 

Kat €7T€t8l) pi€Ta)(€lpL^6fX€8a 

to o~uv<ow/aov fipaSvs, Sia to 

TcAoS T>}s r)fA€paS, T^V koirkpOV, 

7} to o^€ twv TraAataJv, ofov, 
II/oos to /3pa8v (cAAcmttikws 
tov Mcpos t^s rj/icpas), Aeyo- 
/t€V dicoAov&DS €ts ti)v avn)v 
a*r\pjaxriav, 7rA^0VKTlKWS O/ACOS 
/cat IIoos rdpyd. . . ." 

'Evraufla irparei v' d<f>rp-(iifx€v 
rrjv dvdyvaxriv, 816V1 ISixrcv o 
^Atos icat 8ev Svvafiai 7rAcov va 
StdKpivo) Ta ypdp.fw.ra* dAA* i6ov 
??X € ' * a * ° K(o8a>v 8ta to ycu/x-a, 
oxttc as v7rdy<j)fJL€v va yevpari- 
<r<op.€v Kal aKo\ovO<as cgepxp- 
ficva 7rdAtv cts rb Kardxrrpo)p.a. 

'Apyos also has the meaning 
of the word /3pa8vs (slow) of 
the ancients, and has for its 
opposite the common word 
yprjyopos (quick) : the meaning 
arose from the circumstance 
that whatever a lazy man 
does he does slowly. When 
Thucydides says : c For many 
(ships) in a small space will be 
too slow in doing what they 
wish, and very easily injured, 
etc. ' : by dpyorepai he means 
too slow, as the Latin translator 
has correctly rendered it (tar- 
diores). In the decline of 
Greek the meaning became 
more common. 

'Apyd, adverb or accusative 
plural of the neuter dpyov, used 
adverbially and meaning slowly ; 
as, I walk slowly. 

And since we employ the 
synonym /3pa8vs for the 
close of the day, the evening, 
or the 6\f/€ of the ancients, as 
TTpos rb /3pa8v (sc pJkpos rfjs 
rifxkpas), towards evening, we con- 
sequently say in the same sense, 
but employing the plural, irpds 
rapya. ..." 

We must now leave off the 
reading, for the sun has set and 
I can no longer distinguish the 
letters. But there, the bell 
too is ringing for dinner, so let 
us go and dine and then go up 
on deck again. 


Digitized by VjOOQlC 



AvTTovfxai om iyto 8iv Od 
8vvrjdu> vol Trpd£(o tovtOj Bloti 
€\<a vol ypd\f/<o hruTTokds rivas 
KaT€7T€tyovcras,Tdso7rotas avpiov 
to irpfnt irparei va 6&kro) cis to 

Ta\v8p0fXel0V. El£€V/0€T€ 7TOTC 

<f>6dvofMV cis KepKvpav ; 

Ilpd oXlyov TjKowa rbv 
7rXolap\ov va Xkyrj on 6d 
fjfj&Oa €K€i irepl t<xs 8vo rrjs 

Acv irumvbi o/acos va 4£cA- 
dtoftev €is ttjv £t)pav Kar €K€i~ 
vqv rr)v <5/oav. 

"Ox^ /Scfiaia. 6a dVo^i/Ja- 

CT#U>/A€V VOfllftti TT€pl TTjV k/SBofJ/qV 

rj 6y86rjv &pav rrjs irptotas. 

"Ex^t jcaAws, 8tort ovra) #a 
BvvqOtapAv va Xd/3d>/i€v oXiyov 

TpOyCVpjO, TTplv €^€X.6<t>fJL€V dXXd 
8eV /XOt €t7T€T€ CIS 7T010V ^CVoSo- 

X«tov 0a KaraXva-ittfuv. Eis 
t6v 68?yyov toO BaiocKeo 
ava<f>€povrai 8vo <os Trpiarrjs 

TO^€0)S, TO ^€Vo8oX€tOV TOV 

t Ayiov T€tapyiov #cat to ^cvoSo- 
X€4ov tt}s 'AyyAias. Eis 7roiov 
6K tovtwv va VTrdyiiyfxev ; 

'EirCtS^ 0a fM€LVQ)fl€V €V Kcp- 

Kv/oa fiovov €v rjfJLepovvKrvov Bev 
ircipdfa av /i€Ta/3Qfiev €is to ev 
rj cis to aAAo. 

ToT€ AoMTOV CIS ft€Ta/?<0/A€V 

€ts to irptarov. 
IIoAv icaAa. 

I am sorry that I shall not 
he ahle to do that, for I have 
some urgent letters to write 
which I must post to-morrow 
morning. Do you know when 
we shall arrive at Corfu ? 

I heard the captain say a 
little while ago that we shall 
be there about two in the 

But I do not believe that we 
shall go ashore at that hour. 

Certainly not. We shall dis- 
embark, I fancy, about seven 
or eight o'clock in the morning. 

That is all right, for then we 
shall be able to take a little 
breakfast before we leave : but 
you have not told me at what 
hotel we shall put up. In 
Baedeker's guide-book there are 
two mentioned as first-rate, the 
H6tel St. George and the H6tel 
d'Angleterre. To which of 
them shall we go ? 

Since we only stay in Corfu 
a day and a night it does not 
matter whether we go to the 
one or the other. 

Then let us go to the first. 

Very good. 

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IIoAv (fypovtfia €#cd/ta/i€V vd 
ckdtofiAV els to aT/«wrAoiov 
apKerqv topav 71700 rov airoirXov, 
8«m lav €(3pa8vvojjL€v oklyov 
6a €i\ofi€V Kairoiav SvcrtcoXiav 

VOL €VfKd/JL€V \€fx/3oV. 

Aid rt ; 

Aidri, <5s /*€ €Jr\rfpo<l>6fyrf(r€ 
<j>ikos Tts, (rrffupov /acAAowi v' 
dTroTrAcwraKriv cts 'A&Jvas 8vo 
/3ov\€vral rrjs avrnroXirevcrewSy 
Kal $a yeivrj fteydAi/ cirifeigis 
vttc/o avro)V €KarovraO€s oc c/c 

TtoV <f>C\(OV TO)V 0d TOVS cruvo- 

Scwroxrt fi*XP l T °^ drpxyirXoiov, 
Ets rotavras irepurraxrcis oi 
\€fj,/3ovx<)t orav tStocrC riva 
cnrcvSovra va Trpo<f>0a\ry rb 
drfw7r\otov Kara Tqv wpv tou 
(wro7rAou ytvovrat Opaa-vraroc 
teal diraLTrfriKiararoi, 

"E;(€T€ StKatOV. Ot Ac/lr 

orvvaSeA^ot tcdv dfjLa^rfXdraiy 
(Store d/i^>OT€/oot civcu r^s avn}s 
£u/ai/s), TOtavras €VKaipias Kai- 
po<t>vkaKrov(riv oirtos dpTrd- 
<raxrtv o rt 6vvai/r<u a7ro t<x 
Ovpard twv #ccu dv /cavet? 
*d/A# rb Aa0o$ vd /x^ ctv/a- 
<fxovrj<rQ p*T avrtav irporfyov- 

We did very wisely to come 
on board the steamer in plenty 
of time before she sails, for if 
we had delayed a little longer 
we should have had some diffi- 
culty in finding a boat. 


Because, as a friend informed 
me, two members of parliament 
belonging to the opposition are 
going to sail to-day for Athens, 
and there will be a great demon- 
stration on their account, and 
hundreds of their friends will 
accompany them to the steamer. 
In such circumstances the boat- 
men, when they see any one 
hurrying to catch the steamer 
at the time of sailing, become 
very insolent and exacting. 

You are right. Boatmen, 
like their confreres on land, 
the cabmen (for both have the 
same leaven), watch for such 
opportunities to get as much 
plunder as they can from 
their victims ; and if any one 
commit the error of not mak- 
ing an agreement with them 
beforehand about the fare, 

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/x€vo>$ wcpl rov fiurSoVy totc at 
cwrat-nyo-cts tu>v yivovrai direpi- 

"Ex<«> Trctpav rov Trpdyfxaro^, 
Stort ttoAAcikis r^v hrada dirb 
afia^rfXaras h AovStvy ra 
iraOrjfiara o/xws /xot lyctvav 
jiaOrjfiara^ Kat 8cv €fx/3atvo) 

7rAcOV OVT€ €tS a/AO^aV, OVT€ €ts 

\cfxj3ov irplv fiefSouuOu) ri wptiret, 
va 7r\rjp(o<r(o. 

Kat ly a» to avVo irpdrrb) • cvto- 
tc o/xws orav €}(# Tts va Ka/x^/ 
ft€ avdVo8ov avOpwrov, p* oAa? 
tov Tag irpo<f>vX.d^€iS iraAtv r»)v 
ira6atv€i . . . 'AAAa Tt c?vat 
aim) 17 /?a»j Kat 6 66pv/3os; 
Kan irpeirei va o~vp,/3aivQ Ikci 
l£a> 7rapa t^v nXipxiKa rov 

OvSkv CKraKTov crv/xj8atv€t • 

6 66pvf3oS 7TpO€p\€raL €K TtoV 

Acu/Jovxwv, otTtvcs koyofia- 
\ova-i. /xerafu tcdv Tts 7rp<aros 
va ir\7f<ria(rQ to axaTtov rov 


Kat va eirij5i,fS6xrQ rovs «rt/3aTas 
tov, Sta va irpo<j>0a\r[i va <f>€py 
Kat aAAovs. 

KaTa ra <fxuv6fA€va 6a €XQ)fJL€v 
7roAAovs cVt/JdVas, ot TrAcwrrot 
o/xws avnov c?vat rov Karaxrrpia- 
fiaroSy Siori KaO' a aot c&rcv 
6 irpaKTiop rrjs 'EAAt/vikiJs 
dr/xoTrAotK^s CTatoetas, cts 
^v av^KCt tovto to aT/ioVAotov, 
ctttci aovov cVt/Jarat ZXafiov 
tlo-irrjpia rrjs Tpiarqs Ogtcojs kol 
o\oO€Ka ti}s Scvreoas, Travrcs 6c 
ot aAAot cfvat Ta£ci8id>rai tov 
Karaxrrptoparos. \AAAa ri Trot- 

then their demands know no 

I have some experience in 
this matter, for I have often 
been the prey of the cabmen in 
London ; but my misfortunes 
have been a lesson to me, and 
I never now get into a cab or 
a boat before assuring myself of 
what I have to pay. 

And I do the same ; but 
sometimes when one has to do 
with a regular rascal, with all 
one's precautions, one is still 
victimised. . . . But what is 
that noise and uproar ? Some- 
thing or other must be happen- 
ing outside there, near the 

Nothing extraordinary is 
happening : the uproar pro- 
ceeds from the boatmen who 
are disputing among themselves 
about the one who shall first 
bring his boat up to the 
steamer's ladder and put his 
passengers on board so as to 
have time to convey more. 

Apparently we shall have a 
great many passengers, but 
most of them are deck-pass- 
engers, for, according to what 
was told me by the agent of 
the "Hellenic Steamship Com- 
pany," to which this steamer 
belongs, only seven passengers 
took first -class tickets, and 
twelve second - class, and all 
the rest are deck-passengers. 
What a variety of costume ! 

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juAta IvSvfJMLTtav! 'E&u /3\€7T€i 
Tts oAas Tas <f>v\a$ rrjs 'Ava- 
toA?}s. IIo&v €p\ovrai Travrcs 
o$rot ; 

Ot ttXcmttoi avrwv «c ttjs 
aVcvavrt 'Httci/oov, ovk oAtyot 
8k kolI €k rrjs"Av(o 'AA/Savt'as. 
Ot 8vo o$rot v\prj\ol av8p€S 
<£atvovrat va tlvai B<xrvtot* ot 
KardViv avnov kp\6pAvoi cfvat 
Mav/x>/?ovvtot. 0$rot ot <£>€- 
povrcs KaXdOia irXrjprf vakiK&v 
8kv dfA<f>ifia\\<j) cfvat 'E/^patot 
furawparac 6 8k Ttx^Abs o$ros 
ykptav ft€ ttjv Av/oav, 6 xctpayco- 
yovjitcvos V7r5 TOu/UK/oov^ratStoi;, 
/?c/?ata>$ 0a. cZvai cwrb /cavcv 
ft€/x>s ti}s 'Hirctoov, #cat ureas 
fjL€Tafialv€i €ts 'A&jvas bVcas 
cvpfl iropov £a>?}s. IIoAv tti- 
0avbv va tov ib\ofjL€V ckc? KaTa. 
T9)v IIAaTctav tov 2vvrdy/*aTOS 
Kpovovra tyjv kvpav #cat poovra 
icAca avSocov ^owcov. 

AcV dfA<f)l/3dkk<0 €L^€Vf)€i TToA- 

Aa KAc^Ttica Tpayov8ia 9 
k<u tb~a>s, av rbv <£iAo&i>/m}o~<o/i€V 
KaTt rt, /*as T/5ayov8i}o^y Ttva 
c£ avrwv cvravtfa. 

Ilcpt tovtov va iJo-06 fikfiaios • 
aAAa fi\.€ir<t> €p\ovrai ol fiov- 
Acirrat. Tt 7rA?}0os Ac/x/fcov 
rovs <rvvo8ev€il "OAat ctvat 
orq/iauxrTokicrTOi. No/xtfct tis 
on tvpuTKerai kv BcvcTta. *A- 
KoixraT€ 7rwov fxtXipSiKm /ct- 
0ap<p8ov(rt! To ttocotov ac/ma 
o7T€p krpayov8rq(rav fi€ra roa-ov- 
tov iradovs iJto "17 $ap/£a#cco- 
fjikvirj" tov *2ok(j)fjLov- rj8r) rjp^L- 
<rav va pbuxrt rbv "" Y/xvov €ts 

All the tribes of the East are 
to be seen here. Where do all 
of them come from ? 

Most of them from Epirus 
opposite, and a good many 
from Upper Albania. These 
two tall men seem to be Bos- 
nians : those who come next to 
them are Montenegrins. These 
men carrying baskets fall of 
glass-ware are, I have no doubt, 
Jewish pedlars : this blind old 
man with the lyre, led by the 
hand by the little boy, must 
certainly be from some part of 
Epirus, and perhaps he is going 
to Athens to find a means of 
livelihood. Very likely we 
shall see him there in Constitu- 
tion Square, playing the lyre 
and celebrating in song the 
glories of heroes. 

I have no doubt he knows 
many Klephtic songs, and per- 
haps, if we make him a little 
present, he will sing us some of 
them here. 

You may be quite sure of 
that; but I see that the 
members of parliament are 
coming. What a crowd of 
boats accompanies them ! All 
are hung with flags. One 
fancies that one is in Venice. 
Hear how melodiously they are 
singing to the guitar. The first 
song, which they sang with so 
much feeling, was Hie Poisoned 
Girl, by Solomos : now they have 

i by Google 




tyjv eXevOepiav " rov avrov iroirj- 


*A$ TOV aLKOV<r<l)fJL€V. 

begun to sing the Ode to 
by the same poet. 
Let us listen to it 



Translated by Miss Florence 
MPJierson. 1 

2« yv«t>/3tfa> dwo Tqv noxpi 

Tov <nradtov ttjv rpofiefyq, 
2€ yv(»pC£<a dirb rqv 6\f/i 

iiov /*€ pia fi€Tpa€L Tt\v yrj. 

Well I know thee by the keen 
Of thy terror-striking brand, 
Know thee by the piercing 
That thou dartest o'er the 

'A7r' rot KOKKaka y fZya\p&vr) 
Ta>v 'EAAijvwv Tot Upd, 

Kal Vav irp&ra dv8p€uafi€vrjy 
Xat/x, <5 X a *P € > t&Xevdepid! 

From the sacred ashes rising 
Of the Hellenes great and free, 

Valiant as in olden ages, 
Hail ! all hail, Liberty ! 

'Ekci fjJka-a €KaroLKOvar€s t 
HiKpafJLfxtvr}, ivrpOTrakrj, 

K' €va oto/w. dKaprepovarcs, 
"EAa TraAt, va a-oy'iry. 

Thou amid their tombs abodest 
Bowed with shame and bitter 
Still the rousing voice awaiting 
That should cry : " Come 
forth again !" 

*Apy€i€ vakdy €K€Lvrj ^ 'f^pa, 

Kal fjrav oka trimrqki, 
Tiarl rdxTKiafy. rj (fnficpa, 

Kal to. irAaicove 17 cicAa^ta. 

Late, so late that day in dawn- 
Silence brooded over all, 
Crushed beneath the weight of 
Terror did all hearts appal. 

1 Poetry of Modern Greece, by Miss F. M Thereon. Macmillan & Co. 

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AvaTv\rjsl Haprjyopia 

MoViy CTOV €fJL€W€ VO, A«S 

Hepacrfieva fuyaketa 

Kal Sirfytavrds ra va kAcus. 

Kal aica/orl/oct, Kal aKaprepei 
&i\e\evOepr)v AaAta, 

"Eva cKTVTrac tSAAo x«0 fc 
*A7ro t?)v dir€\7ri<rui, 

Hapless one ! no other solace 
Left thee save in mind to keep 

Memory of thy vanished glories, 
And to tell them o'er and 

Waiting, weary, weary, waiting 

For some freedom-loving cry, 
Thou thy hands together smotest 

In despairing agony ; 

K* ekees' 7tot€, a! irore '/Syavw Saying: When from this lone 


1 o K€<f>aAL air t s eppiais ; 
Kal diroKplvovTO otto Vava> 
Kkd\f/ats, dkvcres, <£a>vais. 


When may I . my head up- 
rear ? 
Answered from the earth ahove 

Clank of fetters, groan and 


Totc €(rrJK0V€s to /3kep,fia 
Mcs Ta KkdvfJLara 6o\6 } 

Upwards then thine eyes were 
Dim with grief and weeping 
sore ; 
Kat els to pov^o crov loraf And thy garment's fold was 


HXrjdos atfia *EAA?/viko. 

Me Ta pov\a alpjartafxeva, 

'Etpo) oTi efiyawes Kpv<f>d, 
Na yvpevys els ra. £eva 

"AAAa X*P ia SwaTa* 

With a stream of Grecian 

In thy blood-stained garments 
Thou in secret oft didst wend 
Through the lands of strangers, 
Some strong arm to be thy 
friend ; 

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VLovayyi tov SpofAO hrrjpes, 

'E£avaA0€S fiovaxrj' 
Acv tlv* evKokais y Ovpats 
'Ectv r) Xp€ta Tats KovpraXy. 


Lonely didst thou take thy 
All alone didst thou return ; 
Doors are not so lightly opened 
When the needy knock and 
yearn : 


*AAAos <rov €KXd\f/€ cts tci Some might weep upon thy 
OTrjOia, bosom, 

* AAA* dvaxraarw Kappid • But would no relief afford ; 

"AAAos <rov ct(x^€ /ifo^&ia, Some who pledged to thee their 

Kal crc ycAcwrc <f>piKrd. Mocked thee with their 

broken word ; 

12 12 

"AAAot, m/Ac! *s rr)v crvfxfopd Some, alas ! thy woe and anguish 


"Oirov €\aipovro ttoAv, With malignant joy espied : 

2vpc vavprjs Tot iraiSid <rov, "Go, and seek thou for thy 

children ! 

2vpc, cAeyav ol a-KXrjpoi. 

$cvyci oVmto) to 7ro6apt, 
Kat okoykrjyopo irar€i y 

*TJ \ / * \ / 

xl rrjv 7T€T/3a, rj to \oprapt. y 
'Hov rr)v 6o£a cou kvOvpszl. 

TcwrcivoTcmj o~ov yepvei 
*H TpurdSXia KtcfxxXr}, 

*2aV TTTW^OV VoV 0vpO§€pV€l 

K' cfvat fidpos tov r) ((orj. 


Go !" the cruel-hearted cried. 


Backward turned thy flying 
Touching as thou fleddest 
Rock or grassy sod, recalling 
To the mind thy glory past 


Crushed and humbled, low and 
Drooped thy head in dire 
Like the poor at doorways beg- 
Feeling life a weariness. 

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/5 , 
Nat* aAAa rtapa dvriirakevti 

Kd$€ t€kvo <rov pit opfirj, 
'IIov ajtaTcwrawra yvpev€i 

*H t^v viKiy, ^ T))v davrj. 

'Air' to. icoicjcaAa ' /3ya\fi€vrj 

Ta>v *EAA??va>v to. Upd, 
Kat Vav irpioTa dv8p€uofi€V7], 

% 17 
MoAts €?§€ t^v opfirjv crov 

(J otysavos ttou yta ts €^- 


Ets rqv yrjv ttjv (irjrpucrjv <rov 
¥ Et/0€<^' dvSta Kal Ka/wrous, 

'EyaAiJvctxrc • Kal €\v0r) 

KaTa^^ovta /ua /?<wj, 

Kat tov 'Prjya cov direKptdrj 

TLokeixoKpaxrq <fxavq. 

"OXoi ol tottoi <rov a-' €Kpd£av 

Xcu/0€T«5vTas ere Oeppd, 
Kal rd oro/MiTa ecfxavd^av 
"Ocra al<r0dv€TO fj KapSid. 

So it was ; but now with war- 
Zeal to arms thy children fly ; 
All with quenchless ardour seek- 
To be victors or to die. 

From the sacred ashes rising 

Of the Hellenes great and free 
Valiant as in olden ages, 

Hail ! all hail, O Liberty ! 

Scarce was seen thy gallant on- 
When the sky, whose beams 
and showers 
On thy mother- soil long 
For thy foes the fruits and 

Grew serene ; and from earth's 
Eose an echoing sound on 
high : 
'Twas thy Rhiga's voice that 
With a rousing battle-cry. 

All thy lands with gladness 
Greeting thee with fervent 
And their mouths outspeak the 
That their inmost bosoms fill 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



And unto the clouds uplifted 

Our Ionian Isles their voice, 
Waved aloft their hands, well- 
How they at thy sight rejoice ; 

Nathless each and all, the while, 
Were with specious art en- 
And upon their foreheads 
Was a freedom false and 

Heartily with joy salutes thee 
That free land of Washing- 
ton, 1 
Mindful of the bonds that 
Her own limbs, not long 

Easing on his ancient castle, 

Tossing wide his tawny mane, 
Roars as if to say : " I greet 
Loud the Lioncel of Spain. 

England's Lion too is roused, 
Straightway turns his gaze 
and scowls 
Towards the distant Russian 

1 The poem was written, it must be remembered, in 1823, and these 
verses accurately describe the manner in which the various nations re- 
garded the Greek Revolution in its earlier years. The verse about Spain 
of course refers to the Constitutionalists of 1820. 

lov iovLOV ra vqo-ia^ 
Kal €<rrjKW(rav€ rot \kpia 

Via va $€i£ovv€ \ a P ( *"> 


M' oXov 'ttov 'vat aXva-wficvo 
To Kadkva TtyyiKa, 


*E^ct • xf/evrpa a EA.€v0€pia. 

Tica/oSta/cd \apo7TOLrj6rj 
Kai tov Bao~iyKT(i>v rj yrj^ 

Kat ra o-fcScpa ivdv/AYJOrj 

'Uov ttjv IScvav Kal avrrj. 

'Att^ tov wvpyov tov ^coi/a^et, 

'2d va Xky 9 crc \aiper^ 
Kat rrjv XV T7 1 V T0V Ttvafet 

T6 Acovraot Tb'Io^ravd. 

'EXa^tao-^ tt}s 'AyyAias 
To drjpio, koI crepvec evOvs 

Kara raKpa tt}s 'Powcrtas 

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Ta /lovyKpurfiara ts opyrjs. 

2 5 


Mia (nrido/SoXr) fiand. 

And with ire and anger 
growls ; 


Shows, as he his strong limbs 

IIws ra fieXrj c?v Sward • What the power of his frame, 

Kcu cts tov Alyalov to kv/aol O'er the waves of the Aegean 

Dart his eyes a glance of 

Hovering in the clouds above 
Scans thee that fierce Eagle's 
Who his wings and claws bas 
With the flesh of Italy ; 

2« 3 £avoiy€i dwb rd vtyrj 

Kcu to 'fiAri rov 'Actov, 

'Uov <f»rcpd /cat 'vvx ta Op*<fxt 

Me Ta oTrAayx 1 '* 1 T0 *> *lTa- 

Kat *s ice Karay vpp£vo% 

TiaTi 7ravTa o*€ /twrct, 

"E/C/Wof, €Kp(s)^€ 6 (TKOXTfUVOS 

Na o-€ /3\d\f/yj dv ^fxiropy. 

"AAAo «ri> Scv o-i>AAoyi«rat 

Ildp€^ TTOV 6d TrpitiTOTrtyS* 

Acv '/uAcfc /cat Scv kovv tea at 
'2 Tais ' fipvcr lals oirov dypoi- 

Keen the glance he bends upon 
For he hates thee to the 
Croaks and croaks the double 
Seeking, if he can, thy scathe. 

But thou reck'st not, thinking 
How thou mayest advance, 
Speakest not and hear'st, un- 
Insults that thine ears assail ; 

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2av tov ppa)(ov, oirov a<f>iv€i 

KdOe aKadapTO vepo 
Ets Ta woSta tov va X^ v l? 
Ev/coAoo-jGvorov d<f)po, 

"Ottov d(f>iv€i dv€fw£d\r), 

Kat ^aAaft, /cat Ppoyri, 

Na tov Seovovv rrjv fieydXrj, 
Trjv alutviav KOpvtfyq. 

Evyc, KcpKvpaioi, «vy€, T/oa- 
yovScfcrc a>s a^Sovcs. 'O 

""Y/AVOS €tS T7JV €\€V0€piav" 

cfvat XafiirpOTora tctovl- 
o-fievos ' Tts ifi&XoTToirjo-ev avrov; 

'O ir€p[<j>r)fws 'ETrraviycrtos 
fwvo-LKoSiSdcrKakos Mavrfaoos, 
ooTts erip.y\Qy\ 81a tovto v7ro 
tov /3aacX€(os rrjs 'EAAaSos 
*O0a>vos ft€ to irapdxrqiwv 
tov dpyvpov crravpovi tov 
2a>Tt)/56s. '0 Mavrfaoos 

t/AcAoTTotiycrc #cat 7roAAa aAAa 
Toirj/xara tov Za/cvv6Yov 71-OM7- 
tov cwrc/o ot;v€X^ s aSovTafc v7ro 
twv aTravra^ov e EAA?Jva>v. 

*Hto Aofc7rbv 6 2oAco/£0? €/< 
Za/cvvoVu/ Ka/terc /tot t^v 
\dpiv vol fxol €iirrjT€ 6\iya Tiva 


Evxa/OMTTWS. '0 8lCLK€Kpl- 

[ievos o$tos iroirjrrjs rfjs 'EA- 
Xaoos tyevvrjdrj kv ZaKvv0<p t<£ 
1798 Kat dvf)K€V €is fJitav Ttov 

€7ri<£aV€OT€/5<DV 0tK0y€V€fc5|/ T^S 

. 29 . 
Like the rock that lets, unheed- 
Foul and turbid waters come 
To its very foot and splash it 
With their lightly-melting 


Suffers heedlessly the storm- 
Hail and rain in torrents 
Still to beat upon its mighty, 
On its everlasting head. 

Well done, Corfiots, well 
done, you sing like nightingales. 
The Ode to Liberty is splendidly 
set to music : who is the com- 
poser ? 

The celebrated Ionian pro- 
fessor of music Mantzaros, who 
on this account was honoured 
by Otho King of Greece with 
the decoration ' of the Silver 
Cross of the Saviour. Mant- 
zaros also set to music many 
other poems of the Zacynthian 
poet, which are constantly sung 
by the Greeks of all lands. 

So then Solomos was from 
Zante? Do me the favour to 
tell me a few particulars of his 

With pleasure. This dis- 
tinguished poet of Greece was 
born in Zante in 1798 and be- 
longed to one of the most 
illustrious families of that 

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vrjtrov *K€ivrp. Mt/cpls cti tt)v 
rjkuciav €<rT(prj(h) rov irarpos 
rov, teal c/uctvc fiera rov 
oocA^ov avrov ArffiTfrplov k\t)- 
povofio? crqfJLavTLKrjs irepiowrias. 
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Tijs fawjs tov dirkdavc 8k rjj 9 
^Ppovapiov 1857 

island. While yet young he 
lost his father, and jointly with 
his brother Demetrius was left 
heir to considerable property. 
At ten years of age he was sent 
by his guardians to Italy, and 
having studied Italian and 
Latin literature there, and also 
law, he returned in 1818 to his 
beautiful native land. From 
an early age he showed a 
great taste for poetry, and his 
first poetical attempts, which 
he made in the Italian lan- 
guage, were greatly admired by 
Italian scholars. While he was 
residing in Zante, Spyridon 
Tricoupis 1 happened to come 
there, who, seeing the great 
poetical talent of the young 
Zakynthian, urged him to 
abandon Italian and to write 
his poems in the language of 
his fatherland. Solomos readily 
accepted this advice, and after- 
wards wrote many poems in the 
Ionian idiom, among which is 
conspicuous the Ode to Liberty, 
which we heard so melodiously 
sung just now. In the year 
1828 Solomos left his native 
land Zante and removed to 
Corfu, where he remained to 
the end of his life. He died on 
the 9th of February 1857. 

1 The father of the able statesman Charilaos Tricoupis. 

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Have his poems been trans- 
lated into many foreign lan- 

Yes, but not all of them. 
The Ode to Liberty had scarcely 
been published when it was at 
once translated into the princi- 
pal languages of Europe — Ital- 
ian, French, English and Ger- 
man. It was Charles Brinsley 
Sheridan who translated it into 
English, but unfortunately his 
translation departs very widely 
from the sense of the original : 
that of Miss M'Pherson is cer- 
tainly in this respect incom- 
parably superior to that of 

Have any other poets made 
their appearance in the Ionian 
Islands ? 

A considerable number : the 
most distinguished of them are 
John Zampelius, Andreas 
Calvos, Julius Typaldus and 
Aristoteles Valaorites ; but the 
Ionian Islands do not boast of 
their poets alone, for in those 
islands there have been many 
learned men who have acquired 
celebrity. Andreas Mustoxydes 
of Corfu as an historian and 
a scholar enjoys a European 
reputation. It was he who 
discovered and published at 
Milan in 1812 the oration of 
Isocrates Ilc/ot avrt&xrco)?. His 
literary works are of the highest 
Brinsley Sheridan. London, 1825. 

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importance, and lie is justly 
regarded as one of the most 
learned of the Greek scholars 
of the present century. The 
notorious 'literary forger Con- 
stantine Simonides, before he 
went to western Europe and 
there succeeded in imposing 
upon not a few scholars, en- 
deavoured to carry out his 
practices in Greece, having 
published there in 1849 his 
famous Symafo, which is a con- 
spicuous monument of monstrous 
mendacity : he accordingly sent 
a copy of his work to Mustoxydes, 
from whom he apparently hoped 
to hear words of praise, but 
this is the reply which the 
distinguished scholar gave him : 

Ke/waJp$, Ttf 27 Mafov 1849. 

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Corfu, 27th May 1849. 

Most learned Sir, 

I have received the 
letter and the present with 
which you have favoured me. 
I return you many thanks for 
the praise you bestowed upon 
me, although it exceeds due 
bounds. I do not know how 
better to requite the preference 
you have shown me than by 
expressing with absolute sin- 
cerity what my opinion is. 

Having read the SymaXs, I 
felt sorry that the prolific ima- 
gination of the author, instead of 

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dressing the work in the graceful 
garb of poetry, had invested 
it with the majestic robe of 
history. The farther any one 
proceeds with the perusal of 
the work, the stronger, even to 
dull-sighted people, becomes the 
evidence of fabrication. One 
must entirely upset all that 
has been handed down to us by 
historians up to the present day, 
one must refuse to follow the 
progress of the human mind 
and the advance of art, in order 
that even a part of what is 
fabled in your book may be 
credulously accepted. And I 
am reluctantly compelled to say 
that at every step there are 
met unmistakable signs either 
that under the name of 
Miletius is concealed one of our 
own time, or that that contem- 
porary of ours has added some 
fables of his own to those of 

While then such is my own 
opinion, and such perforce must 
be that of every other reader, 
how can I contribute any aid to 
spread the reputation of the 
Symaisl I can almost fancy 
that I hear the tremendous 
outcry that would be raised 
against me ; and I have no wish 
to be accused of being either 
absurdly credulous, or accessory 
to the fiction. 

For the honour of our nation 
and out of my regard for you, I 
wish the Symais were buried in 

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oblivion, for it seems to me to 
be a very inauspicious precursor 
of the other unpublished works 
in your possession. 

In order to prove that a 
manuscript is genuine, no 
antiquarian's lens is required, 
nor any scrutiny of the parch- 
ment I confess that, although 
people in Greece have formed a 
different opinion about me, I 
have never considered myself a 
proper judge of such matters ; 
and, if I were weak enough to 
be influenced by the unfounded 
opinion of others, and attributed 
any authority to my judgment 
which in my conscience I feel 
that it does not possess, I might 
not only be justly accused of 
presumption, but be covered 
with ridicule, an indignity to 
which I am unwilling to expose 
my grey hairs. 

Besides, the genuineness of 
a text is not ascertained by 
the nature of the paper, or by 
the shape of the letters, but 
by its style and the subject it 
treats of, and by comparison 
with the examples which an- 
tiquity has preserved for us. 

But if you have the conscious- 
ness that the other manuscripts 
in your possession are not fabri- 
cated counterfeits, publish them, 
and you will reap both profit 
and honour : but, I repeat) I am 
sorry that the Symais has taken 
the lead. 

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Forgive my plain-speaking. 
" Plato is dear to me, but truth 
is dearer still." Have nothing 
to do with hazardous under- 
takings which render a man's 
life still more miserable. Your 
abilities and attainments can 
show you a straighter path and 
one easier to pursue. 

A splendid letter, and worthy 
of the great scholar. In the 
most refined manner he chastised 
the effrontery of the audacious 
impostor. But from where did 
you copy this excellent letter % 

From the first volume of the 
Pandora, 1851, page 263. 

It appears to me unaccount- 
able how the scholars of the 
West fell so easily into the claws 
of the rascally forger, when, a 
long time before, the learned 
critic of Corfu had duly exposed 

But it was not only Mus- 
toxydes who incontestably 
proved the charlatanry of the 
man. In the same volume of 
the Pandora, and also in the 
second volume, the very learned 
A. R. Rangabes produced evi- 
dence as clear as daylight that 
Simonides was a literary forger 
of the first class, but the scholars 
of the West, not giving the re- 
quisite attention to the literary 
productions of the modern 

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Greeks, fell an easy prey to the 
Symian vagabond. But I see 
they have already heaved up the 
anchor and we are under way. 
How beautiful the capital of 
this celebrated island looks ! 
It has a charming situation. 
The view is superb, and one is 
at a loss what first to admire, 
for wherever one turns his 
glance, unrivalled beauties en- 
chant him. It is an earthly 
paradise. See how pretty the 
suburbs of the city look : what 
a variety of trees adorns those 
graceful hills. In no part of 
the world are there such high 
and luxuriant olive-trees. Let 
quibbling critics say what they 
like about Corfu not being the 
lovely Scheria of Homer : if 
this is not it, which is it then 1 
Look at that place all covered 
with vegetation, not far from 
the sea : it was somewhere there 
that the palace was, and the 
ever-blooming gardens of Al- 
cinotis, where 

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'OSwo-cias H. 1 14-132. 

Translation by S. H. Butcher and A. Lang. 

"And there grow tall trees blossoming, pear-trees and pome- 
granates, and apple-trees with bright fruit, and sweet figs, and olives 
in their bloom. The fruit of these trees never perisheth, neither 
faileth, winter or summer, enduring through all the year. Ever- 
more the West Wind blowing brings some fruits to birth and ripens 
others. Pear upon pear waxes old, and apple on apple, yea and 
cluster ripens upon cluster of the grape, and fig upon fig. There 
too hath he a fruitful vineyard planted, whereof the one part is 
being dried by the heat, a sunny plot on level ground, while other 
grapes men are gathering, and yet others they are treading in the 
wine-press. In the foremost row are unripe grapes that cast the 
blossom, and others there be that are growing black to vintaging. 
There too, skirting the furthest line, are all manner of garden beds, 
planted trimly, that are perpetually fresh, and therein are two 
fountains of water, whereof one scatters his streams all about the 
garden, and the other runs over against it beneath the threshold of 
the courtyard, and issues by the lofty house, and thence did the 
townsfolk draw water. These were the splendid gifts of the gods 
in the palace of Alcinous." 

AafJLTTpoTdrrjKaldTrapdfJLiWos A most splendid and un- 

Tr€piypa<l>r) twv <j>vo-lk(ov kol\- rivalled description of the 

Aovtov rrjs &pa(a$ Tavrrjs vrja-ov. natural beauties of this lovely 

'AAA' r) KepKvpa Skv kOavp/urOr) island. But Corfu was admired 

puovov 81a rot 8(opa pk rd oiroia not only for the gifts with which 

arpoiKurtv avrr)v r) <£ixris, dAAa nature had endowed it, but 

#eai 8id rr)v kiripLcXQs K€KaA- also for its carefully cultivated 

\upyr)pJkvr)v yrjv avrrjs. 'O land. Xenophon, in the second 

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chapter of the sixth book of the 
Hellenica, describing the landing 
on the island of the Lacedae- 
monian admiral Mnasippus with 
a powerful force, says : " When 
he disembarked, he made him- 
self master of the land and 
ravaged the extremely well 
cultivated and planted country 
and the magnificent houses and 
wine-cellars built on the estates, 
so that they said that the 
soldiers reached such a pitch of 
daintiness that they refused to 
drink any wine unless it had a 
fine bouquet" 

Then the Empress of Austria 
is right in being so fond of 
Corfu which she frequently 

Not only does she frequently 
visit it, but she has built there a 
splendid palace in a most beauti- 
ful situation. What a pity it did 
not enter our minds to go and 
see it It is called " Achilleion," 
and lies in the midst of superb 
gardens and groves. The 
Empress is devoted to poetry, and 
especially admires the poems of 
the celebrated German poet 
Heine, and on this account she 
sent an order and they ex- 
ecuted for her in Rome a statue 
larger than life-size of her 
adored poet, and she erected it 
on a high and commanding site, 
having directed fifty thousand 
rose-trees to be planted round 
the statue. The Empress re- 

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quested the sculptor at Rome, 
who, I think, is a Dane, to give 
to the statue a faithful likeness 
of the poet's countenance, so 
that the figure in the Achilleion 
does not present that ideal and 
youthful form from which 
Heine received the name of the 
German Apollo, but on the 
contrary it gives the spectator 
the impression that he is looking 
at a man who has lost his sight. 
Heine suffered from immobility 
of one eyelid, and the sculptor, 
not wishing to represent him 
with one eye closed, closed them 

Very clever of him to do so. 
But I see that meanwhile the 
steamer has made considerable 
progress. Look to the left : at 
that spot is the mouth of the river 
Calamas, called by the ancients 
the Thyamis, which by the 
treaty of Berlin (1880) con- 
stitutes the northern boundary 
of Greece. 

It is a pity that the provisions 
of that treaty were not carried 
out, for then without doubt 
there would have been by this 
time constructed a line of rail 
from that point to Athens, and 
in this way communication 
would have been greatly facili- 
tated, but it was otherwise 
decreed by those who rule the 
destinies of nations. 

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This promontory on our right 
is, I suppose, Leukimme. 

Beyond doubt It was there, 
as Thucydides says, that the 
Corcyreans, after the brilliant 
victory they gained over the 
Corinthians in the first naval 
engagement, set up their trophy 
and "killed the other prisoners 
they had taken and kept in 
bonds the Corinthians." 

But in the second sea-fight 
which took place on the eve of 
the Peloponnesian war, exactly 
at the spot we are now sailing 
over, the Corcyreans would have 
suffered severely if the Athenian 
triremes had not come to their 

There is no doubt about that, 
for by the arrival of the 
Athenians the victory remained 
undecided, and the combatants 
on both sides claimed to be 
conquerors and erected trophies, 
the Corcyreans on one of these 
little islands called Sybota, and 
the Corinthians on the mainland 

These accursed trophies which 
the Greeks so often raised after 
their sanguinary battles with 
each other brought incurable 
evil on the nation. If the 
Greeks had kept on good terms 
among themselves and had not 
been torn by constant internal 
strife and civil wars, who know 

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if to-day they would not have 
been the most powerful nation 
of the world ? But let us leave 
these painful reflections and turn 
our gaze to the beautiful view 
that is presented by the 
magnificent and famous moun- 
tains of Epirus which great 
poets have celebrated and so 
many travellers have admired. 
These mountains with their 
lofty peaks, which appear like 
frozen waves of the ocean rising 
up one after the other to the 
clouds, were for ages the in- 
accessible retreats of heroic men 
who, not submitting to bend 
the neck under the yoke of 
harsh tyrants, took refuge in 
them and preferred to suffer 
numberless privations and dis- 
comforts to being in slavery 
under foreign masters. On 
these and the other mountains 
of Greece was preserved the 
vital spark of the national 
liberty of the Greeks until that 
all - hallowed moment arrived 
when it blazed forth and pro- 
duced that great conflagration 
of the national uprising of 1821, 
from the ashes of which arose, 
like the fabulous Phoenix, 
young and vigorous, liberated 
Greece. After the capture of 
Constantinople by the Turks, 
at which the last emperor of 
the Greeks fell heroically fight- 
ing, every one thought that 
the Greek nation was entirely 
destroyed, and that it was for 

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the future to be numbered with 
the celebrated and most ancient, 
but now vanished, nations of 
the earth ; and that just as the 
Aegyptians and the Assyrians 
and many other nations of 
antiquity had passed away, so 
too the Greeks had passed away. 
But fortunately the Greek 
nation was not dead nor had 
it been completely enslaved. 
Many Greek islands and several 
portions of the mainland of 
Greece and of the Peloponnesus 
still remained subject to Vene- 
tian and other princes of western 
Europe who anyhow were 
Christians. As fellow -soldiers 
with these, the Greeks often 
fought against the Turks. In 
the celebrated naval battle of Le- 
panto a great number of Greeks 
took part in the conflict of the 
Christians with the Turks. 
When at last the Turks, getting 
the upper hand, drove out the 
Venetian and the other Christian 
princes from the Greek countries, 
many brave Greeks took refuge 
in the mountains, where they 
were able to breathe the sweet 
air of liberty. 

Was it from that time then 
that the Armatoles and Klephts 
began to make their appearance, 
whose songs about their heroes 
became so celebrated throughout 
all Europe ? 

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The Armatoles came upon 
the scene in the beginning 
of the 16th century, in the 
time of Suleiman the Magni- 
ficent, and the Klephts directly 
after the Turks invaded Greece. 
When Greece was under the 
Franks, the inhabitants of the 
countries extending from Olym- 
pus to Taenaron, from their 
constant practice in arms owing 
to the frequent wars which 
occurred in those times, were 
extremely warlike. Such men 
then it was not easy for the 
last and most formidable con- 
querors of Greece, the Turks, to 
subdue, for these indomitable 
champions of liberty, despising 
the comforts of life in cities, 
preferred the hardships and 
privations of the mountains for 
the sake of their independence. 
In this way then the Armatoles 
and Klephts came into existence. 
The Turks used to employ the 
former as guards of the passes 
(Dervens) on the understanding 
that they should enjoy complete 
freedom; and thus were formed 
the so -called Armatoliks, of 
which, on the eve of the Greek 
revolution, there were seven- 
teen, three in the part of Mace- 
donia on this side of the Vardar, 
ten in Thessaly and eastern 
Greece, and four in Aetolia, 
Acarnania and Epirus. The chief 
of each Armatolik had the title 
of Captain and his lieutenant 
was called Protopallicar, and 

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those under him Pallicars. But 
since the Turkish governors at 
different places used often to 
form plots against the Armatoles, 
on such occasions these used to 
unite with the Klephts of the 
mountains and in conjunction 
with them made war on the 
common enemy of the faith ; and 
on this account it sometimes 
happens that the name Armatole 
is confused with that of Klepht 
When the Mahometan Albanians 
captured by means of treachery 
the passes which the brave 
Armatole Sterghio was guarding, 
he immediately took refuge in 
the mountains and became a 
Klepht The following Kleph- 
tic song shows how these noble 
heroes of liberty despised and 
hated the Turks. j 

"Though the Dervens have 
fallen to the Turks and the 
Albanians have taken them, 
Sterghio lives and he cares for 
no pashas. 

As long as it snows upon the 
hills, and the plains bloom with 
flowers, and the heights have 
cool streams, we will not bend 
the knee to Turks. 
Let us go and encamp where 
the wolves have their lairs, 
on the peaks of the mountains, 
in the caves, on the heights, on 
the knolls. Slaves live in towns 

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K* kfxels yta \wpav ^X /^ 
'prjfuais ki dypia Aay/ca8ta. 

Uapa fie TovpKOVs, pe Oepia 
KaXXirepa vd £ovp,e." 

Ovro) \otirbv \v § ol ras 
7roAcis /cat ras Kiofxas oiKovvres 
"EAAijvcsiJyovSouAciov fjpap, 
ot €ts ra o/DTy Kara<f>evyovres 
8i€rrjpovv ra urrkppjara rrjs 
Wvucrjs kXtvOtplas. IIoAAot 

vkoi €K TWV TToketoV <XKOVOVT€S 

ra dv8paya0rjpara twv KA€</>- 
t<ov KartXipiravov irarkpa /cat 
prjripa <f>iXr)v /cat 2</>eiryov els 
ra o/a?y (TTtpovfievoi iraxriav ruiv 
cn/cta/caw a7roAav(rca>v X^P IV 
rrjs kXevOepiaSy a>s ylverai 
orjAov €K rov cgrjs tapcuov rpa~ 
yovStov. Ncapds "E XXrjv irapa- 
KaAet tt)v prjrepa rov vd rbv 
d<fyrj(rQ vd virdyrj els rd oprq vd 

and are subservient to Turks, 
while we have for a town soli- 
tudes and desert valleys. 
Better to live with wild beasts 
than with Turks." 

So then while the Greeks 
who lived in towns and villages 
led a life of slavery, those- who 
took refuge in the mountains 
preserved the germ of national 
liberty. Many of the young 
men in the towns, hearing of 
the gallant deeds of the Klephts, 
left a father and a beloved 
mother and fled to the moun- 
tains, depriving themselves of 
all the comforts of a home for 
the sake of liberty, as is evident 
from the following beautiful 
song. A young Greek begs 
his mother to allow him to go to 
the mountains and become a 

" MdVva, a-ov A«t> 8kv 'piropto rovs TovpKOVS vd 8ovXev<o, 
A«v iJ/A7ro/oa>, 8cv 8vvapuai, ep&XXiaxre r) KapStd pov, 
0a wdpd) rb rov<f>€KL pov vd Vaco vd yctvco /cAec/>T7;s, 
Na, KaroiKrja-d) 's rd ftovvd Kal 's rrjs 'if/rjXais paxovXais, 
Naxo) rovs Xoyyovs o~wr/ooc/>ta, pe rd Oepid KovfikvTa, 
Naxw rbv ovpavb o"/c€7r^, rovs /Spdxovs yta Kpe/3 fiaTc, 
Nax<o /*€ ra KX€<f>T07TovXa KaOrjpepivb 'Xrjpkpi. 
0a c/>vya>, /Aavva, Kal pr)v /cAats, pov' 86s pov rr)v €v\rj (rov 
J&vX'fyrov fA€, pjavvovXd pov, TovpKovs 7roAAous vd cr<£a£a>, 
Kat <f>VT€\f/€ rptavra<l>vXXid Kal pavpo Kapvo(f>vXXi, 
Kat 7T0Tif€ ra faxapt Ka ^ nori^e ra p6\rxo, 
K't <xro V avOi^ovv, pudvva pov, Kal 'flydvovve AovAouSta, 
e vlos o-ov 8ev airkQavz pov TroXtpdti rovs TovpKOVS. 
K't av tXOy 'p,kpa 0Xi/3eprj, 'p,kpa (fMppaKiopevrjy 
Kat papaOovv rd 8vb pa£l Kal tt&tovv rd AovAovSta, 
Tore k eyu) o"KOTW^/ca, rd pad pa vd <f>0p€O"ris. 

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A<d8c#ca xpovia irkpaxrav /cat 8€Kairkvr€ firjvts 

'II' avOifav Ta Tptavrd<l>vX.X,a #c't dvotyav ra fnrovfmk)VKia • 

Kat fjuav avyr) avot^tdYt/oj, TrptoTOfiayia 8/000XIT77, 

'Uov /ccAai'Sowrav Ta 7rouA.ta /c't 6 ov/oav5s ycAowrc, 

Mc ftias dxrrpd<f)T€i /cat fipovry /cat ytvcTat o-tcordSC , 

Tb Kapvo<f)v\\i coTcVa^c, T/Dtavrac/>vAAta Saicpvgei) 

Ml /Aids gcpddrjKav to. 8vb k hr&rav Tot AovA.ov8ta • 

Maft /i avra <ru>pidxm)K€v 17 86A.#a tov ftawovAa." 

m.€rd<f)pacri,$ tov avmrkpto fo-fuxros cis t^v dpyaiav 
'EAAi;vt/tt)v wo #tA.tWov 'Itoavvov. 

** M^T€/5 €/il) TpufalkriTy b}fl6<f>pOCTlV OV/C€Tt ToV/D/COlS 

AovAevctv 8vvapu • rkrpvraC fioi tckap kv8ov, 
T<p pa Xa/3o)v kv \€pcrlv kplbv rd\a Trvp/36kov oVAov, 
Z(ixra/A€vo$ t' aop X.7jurrys ijycftovewra), 
Kat opktav oIkt^tu) kv ay/cccrtv v^t/ca/o^vcov, 
"Ev0a 8pv€orri 6* 6/iiA^<ra) /cat Orjpto-cv vAtjs, 
Kat x^' 2f w x^ a * mv *&' cvo^ra) cVt irkrpySy 
A^tcrnov 8' a// 7raio*t pjerkoxrofuxi rjfiara irdvra. 
Maft/u8tov, ft?) /cAatc* dTrkpxofuu' €VX €0 > / i 5 T€ / [> > 
IIActcrTovs oW/Acvcaw ft€ KaraKrap^v' 6£k'C xaA./c<£* 
r*v o avA^/ pooerjv T€ otavtfov r)ov wveovra 
Xctpeo-t crj/crt ^vrewrov 18' kv8vK&as aTiraAAc, 
'Ap.<f>OT€p' dp&tvovcra <f>vTOTp6<f>(f> vSarc irqyfjs. 
*0<f>p ovV BdWti ravra /cat dv0o<f>op€l irapa 5a)/xa, 
Ytbs cros, f"/T€/>, £a>ct /cat fmpvarai fydpois* 
*Hv 8c 7tot' a/A/u iriKpov /cat /xo/xrt/xov ?}/>tap t/o/Tat, 
'0£v 8' e/c€tro puoLpavdy 18' dv$€a X €v # ^P a C €, » 
BA^/ucvov 2b*0t to#' via, /cat ci/xyxara irkvOipua. Icrcrat. 
A<u8c/c' e/3rj(rav krrj /cat t/xis €7rt 8a>8e/ca /njves, 
T6<f>pa 8' l^aAAc /S085 Kat iJ8v e7rv€t€ 8iav^os # 
E?ra 7TOT' eta/Dos w/ot/, or' copvtrro <fxtxr<f>6pos rj<os, 
X^a>v 8c ttoAos t' iycAa, 6pvi0<ov r I0v* a€t8cv, 
M A<t>v(i) vircpO' rfrrpa\j/€. /cat €kti^T€V lv vc<^€€<rcrt 
Actvov, <ri>v 8* €Ka\v\p€ irvKvbs yvo<f>os atav a7ra<rav. 

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'E<rTOvax^<r€ podrj #ccu 8&Kpv* €rjK€ BiavOos' 
*Afi<f>0) 8* €^€fJLapdv$7j IS* avOea \€vev 2/oafc. 
2vv 6° apa rots fxqTrjp feiXrj \afjbal rjpt,7T€v airvovs. " 1 

Translation of (he modern Greek Version, by Edward H. N.oel 

" * I tell thee, mother, I cannot go 

To be a Turkish slave. 
I cannot and I will not. I'd 

Be rather in my grave. 
My heart is sick and weary grown, 

111 take my gun in hand, 
And go and dwell upon the hills 

And be a bold brigand ; 

The woods I'll have for company, 

The rocks my roof shall spread. 
With fox and wolf I'll hold discourse, 

A stone shall be my bed. 
On mountain top, with valiant Klephts, 

All day I'll make my lair, 
Mother, I'll fly — yet weep not thou, 

Yield not to dark despair. 

But bless me, mother dear, that I 

Full many a Turk may slay, 
And plant a rose, and plant a dark 

Carnation on that day ; 
And water them with sugar sweet, 

With musk too water them, 
And when the blossoms, mother mine, 

Come forth from branch and stem, 

Be sure thy son he is not dead 

But, like a warrior brave, 
He fights, and sends his Moslem foes 

Before him to the grave. 
But if should come a sad, sad day — 

That darkest day of all — 
1 3»t\oXoYMcd Udpepya QCKlirirov 'Iw&vvov, <re\. 509. 

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When both the plants together fade, 
And all the blossoms fall, 

Then, mother dear, I'm stricken down — 

My span of life is run — 
And thou, put mourning garments on, 

And weep for thy lost son ! ' 
Twelve years passed on, and fifteen months — 

The rose still blossomed fair — 
The crimson dark carnation shed 

Its fragrance on the air. 

But lo, one morn, one morn in spring — 

It was the first of May — 
The birds were singing in the bowers, 

The sky was bright and gay, 
When suddenly the lightning flashed, 

The thunder muttered loud, 
And darkness spread o'er hill and dale, 

And wrapped them in a shroud. 

Then from the dark carnation's breast 

A sigh of sorrow flows, 
And fast and thickly trickle tears 

Adown the drooping rose. 
And all at once they shrivel up, 

And all their blossoms shed, 
And as the last leaf flutters down, 

Falls the poor mother dead ! " 

'fl/oatoraTov rpay ovSiov <u A very beautiful song; and the 

8c (rvvofevovo-ai avrb 8vo /*€Ta- two translations which accom- 

<f)paxrus €7TfcTvx€0-raT<u not pany it are very successful and 

d£io\oy<x>raTai. "Exctc Kavkv most excellent. Have you any 

dXXo ; other ? 

*Ex<*> 7roAAa aAAa, vplbs rb I have many others, but for 

Tapbv o/xo)? as dvayvw<r(op€v ra the present let us read the two 

c£fjs 8vo. 'E#c tov irpiarov k£ following. From the first of 

avTwv fiavOdvofiev on ol KAc^- these we learn that the Klephte 

Tat 8kv Kareylvovro v d/wrafa>o-i did not occupy themselves with 

irpofSara kcu a?yas, aAA' €t\ov carrying off sheep and goats, but 

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V\j/7]\6T€pOV KaX Yjp(j)iK(aT€pOV 
<TK07rbv 7T/0OS OV dv€Tp€<j>OVTO €K 

veapas ^Ai/aas. 'I8ov irtas 6 
Tr€p[<fyrjfios Navvos cwcAcyc 
kcu €oY6Wkc tovs veapovs 

a, E/?y?}#c€ 6 Navvos's Ta /Jovva, 

'xf/rjXd 's rd Kopfo/Sovvia, 
Kai fui£(av€ KA.€<£ro7rouAa, 

irai8id teal iraWiKapia. 
Ta fxafyd^tj rd crvva^ 

TaKa/jL€ rpels \iXid8es, 
K\ okrjfxepls rd 8t8a\v€, 

ki oXrjfiepls tovs Aeyci* 
''Akoucttc TraWiKaptd /iov, 

Kal <rc?s 7rcu8ia 'Si/ca /AOV, 
KAcc^Tats 8cv OeXto yid T/oayia, 

KAc^rais yta rot Kpidpia* 
Mov* 0cAa) KAcc^Tais yta o~7ra0i, 

KXe<jyraLS yid to toik/kki, 
Na koVovv x^/x^S k'i 6p(f>avd 

els tcov TovpKcov rd oriTta, 
'EoaJ vd #capow 3 £ayopd\ 

K €K€L \(i)pcd vd KaiV€. >J> 

EtS TO €^S CO/3atOTaTOV 

Tpayou&ov 7T€pcypd<f>ovTa(, /*€Ta 
ttoAAtJs ttomjti/oJs \dpiros at 
TcAcvratat irapayyeXiai rov 
yir)p(uov KA€<£tov Arjfwv cts Ta 
IIaAAtKa/3ta rov 

u< ^Atos l^ao-i'Acvc, k'i 6 

ArjfMOS diarafci* 
4 2v/ot€, 7rat8td /xov, 's to vc/oo, 

i/'ayxt vd <£dV aTroif/e, 
Kat o*t> AafJurpaKri fi avc^ic, 

KaOur c8(5 Kovrd p,ov 
Nd rdpfxard /aov, Kfwpeo-' Ta, 

had a higher and more heroic 
aim to which their education 
was directed from early youth. 
Here is the way in which the 
famous Nannos collec